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Topic: S programming language

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  programming language. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is addressed to the hardware of the computer and is written in binary notation (see numeration), which uses only the digits 1 and 0.
PL/1 [Programming Language 1], developed in the late 1960s by the IBM Corp., and ADA [for Ada Augusta, countess of Lovelace, biographer of Charles Babbage], developed in 1981 by the U.S. Dept. of Defense, are designed for both business and scientific use.
With some languages, such as C or Pascal, the program is turned into a separate machine language program by a compiler, which functions much as an assembler does.
www.bartleby.com /65/pr/progrlan.html   (1032 words)

 Programming language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Programming languages, like human languages, are defined through the use of syntactic and semantic rules, to determine structure and meaning respectively.
Programming languages are used to facilitate communication about the task of organizing and manipulating information, and to express algorithms precisely.
Programming language syntax is usually defined using a combination of regular expressions (for lexical structure) and Backus-Naur Form (for grammatical structure).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Programming_language   (4083 words)

 What is programming language? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary
Each language has a unique set of keywords (words that it understands) and a special syntax for organizing program instructions.
High-level programming languages, while simple compared to human languages, are more complex than the languages the computer actually understands, called machine languages.
Assembly languages are similar to machine languages, but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers.
www.webopedia.com /TERM/p/programming_language.html   (725 words)

 What is a Good First Programming Language?
The designers of these languages are domain experts in the field of programming, and thus, are not able to fully appreciate the problems faced by a novice programmer.
As an example, at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (the author's undergraduate school), the introductory programming language used to be Pascal until the mid-1990s.
The C programming language has had an interesting history, and has come to be known as the language of "hackers." The use of C in an introductory course has attracted a lot of controversy and there are compelling arguments both for and against it [7].
www.acm.org /crossroads/xrds10-4/firstlang.html   (3878 words)

 The Encyclopedia of Computer Languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
A custom-designed programming language would leave control over the definition of the tests in the hands of the engineers, avoiding communication problems that might arise with computer programmers inexperienced in checkout techniques15.
The program participants unanimously agreed that a top-down, structured methodology was the proper design approach for the Space Shuttle onboard software; however, the use of a high-order language and the selection of an operating system approach were subjects of significant controversy.
The NASA had contracted for the development of HAL/S, a high-order language tailored specifically for aerospace avionics applications, but the capability of it, or any other high-order language, to produce code with size, efficiency, and speed comparable to those of an assembly language program was questioned.
hopl.murdoch.edu.au /showlanguage.prx?exp=583&language=HAL/S   (3092 words)

 Programming Language and Compiler Research Groups
Programming logics and the Martin-Löf theory of types; functional programming languages, their use and implementation; process calculi such as CCS; developing tools and methodologies for deriving correct as well as efficient programs.
Facile is a high-level, higher-order programming language for systems that require a combination of complex data manipulation and concurrent and distributed computing.
Haskell language and implementation; state, input/output, and concurrency; semantics based program manipulation; applications of category theory and type theory; parallel functional programming; functional languages for massive parallelism; using functional languages for hardware specification, synthesis and analysis; large applications of functional languages.
www-2.cs.cmu.edu /afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/mleone/web/language/projects.html   (1438 words)

 John Chambers - Publications
Programming with Data: A Guide to the S Language, John M. Chambers, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998.
Evolution of the S Language, John M. Chambers, 20th Symposium on the Interface, 1996.
S as a Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics, J.
cm.bell-labs.com /cm/ms/departments/sia/jmc/pub.html   (805 words)

 MF Bliki: UmlAsProgrammingLanguage
The promise of this is that UML is a higher level language and thus more productive than current programming languages.
Most people I know don't program for a living in the language they consider to be the most productive.
Proponents of UML as a programming language often seem to fall victim to the PlatformIndependentMalapropism.
www.martinfowler.com /bliki/UmlAsProgrammingLanguage.html   (214 words)

 Haskell - HaskellWiki
Haskell is a general purpose, purely functional programming language.
Haskell, for the third year running, was used by the winning team in the ICFP Programming Contest.
Its purpose is to give some ideas about interaction of Haskell programs converted into Javascript with a web browser on the lowest possible level, without application frameworks and support libraries (just because these haven't been developed).
www.haskell.org   (543 words)

 Programming language concepts
Computer Science 302 deals with programming languages generally, considered as formal, executable notations for expressing algorithms: their syntactic structures, the ``virtual machines'' or models of computation that they implicitly rely on, the data values and structures that they support, and the semantics of the various constructions from which programs are built.
The textbooks for the course are Essentials of programming languages, second edition, by Daniel P. Friedman, Mitchell Wand, and Christopher T. Haynes (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2000), ISBN 0-262-06217-8, and Concepts in programming languages, by John Mitchell (Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2003), ISBN 0-521-78098-5.
All of the Scheme code presented in Essentials of programming languages is available on line, along with several customization files to adapt various Scheme implementations to the dialect used in the book.
www.math.grin.edu /~stone/courses/languages   (1114 words)

 Programming Language Categories
There is a certain set of programming fields/categories that I believe are currently distinct enough to have an independent programming language to represent them.
The most basic need of for scripting languages is one which is simple to use because it will be used by those with a minimum of programming knowledge or in situations where cranking out code which does the job is all the matters.
And these languages while not as widely used today are in many ways so distinct from others that it is important to keep there legacy alive in the hopes that they may positively influence more common languages.
www.cs.oberlin.edu /~jwalker/languageCategories.html   (660 words)

 Amazon.com: Programming with Data: A Guide to the S Language: Books: John M. Chambers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Here is a thorough and authoritative guide to the latest version of the S language and to its programming environment, the premier software platform for computing with data.
Programming with Data describes a new and greatly extended version of S, and is written by the chief designer of the language.
S specializes in computing with data: any application with interesting requirements for organizing, analyzing, or presenting data is a candidate.
www.amazon.com /Programming-Data-Guide-S-Language/dp/0387985034   (1357 words)

 S (programming language) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
S is a statistical programming language developed primarily by John Chambers and (in earlier versions) Rick Becker and Allan Wilks of Bell Laboratories.
The aim of the language, as expressed by John Chambers, is "to turn ideas into software, quickly and faithfully".
There are two implementations of S; a free implementation, the R programming language, and a commercial implementation, Insightful's S-PLUS.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/S_programming_language   (162 words)

 Java Programming Language
The Java Programming Language is a general-purpose, concurrent, strongly typed, class-based object-oriented language.
This leads to a "declarative" programming style where the programmer says what should be done and tools emit the code to do it.
Evaluating assertions at runtime to confirm their validity is one of the most powerful tools for improving code quality, as it quickly uncovers the programmer's misconceptions concerning a program's behavior.
java.sun.com /j2se/1.5.0/docs/guide/language/index.html   (457 words)

 What is programming language? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary
Lying above high-level languages are languages called fourth-generation languages (usually abbreviated 4GL).
The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer the program is to run on, what sort of program it is, and the expertise of the programmer.
This page explains some peculiarities of the C programming language in the form of a 'Top 10' list.
www.webopedia.com /TERM/P/programming_language.html   (695 words)

 R (programming language) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The R programming language, sometimes described as GNU S, is a programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics.
R is considered by its developers to be an implementation of the S programming language, with semantics derived from Scheme.
Statistical programming with R is a three part series (part 1, part 2, part 3), by David Mertz and Brad Huntting, introducing both the functional programming style of R, and explaining how to express object-oriented programs.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/R_programming_language   (598 words)

 The S Language | Insightful
The only language created specifically for data visualization and exploration, statistical modeling and programming with data, S provides a rich, object-oriented environment designed for interactive data discovery and statistical data mining.
Insightful’s statisticians and developers have used the S language to create the most comprehensive library of statistical functions.
The underlying programming language allows you to do your analysis the way you want, without being constrained by predefined functions and a "fl box" environment.
www.insightful.com /products/s/default.asp   (181 words)

 Which programming language should I use?
Comparison of mathematical programs for data analysis, Stefan Steinhaus, tech report, 2000.
MATLAB as an econometric programming environment, Francisco Cribari-Neto and Mark J. Jensen.
R, an open-source version of S. Click here for a list of pros and cons for rewriting BNT in R. Click here for a new project to implement a graphical models library in R.
www.cs.ubc.ca /~murphyk/Software/which_language.html   (487 words)

 Fortress (programming language) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fortress is a draft specification for a new programming language currently developed by Sun Microsystems as part of a DARPA-funded supercomputing initiative.
One of the language designers is Guy L. Steele, Jr.
The language is not designed to be similar to Fortran.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fortress_programming_language   (255 words)

 Wireless Developer Network - The Java Programming Language Tutorial
The language is governed by the Java Language Specification document available from Sun Microsystems.
The C++ programming language allows variables and functions to be declared outside of classes.
An object-oriented programming language provides the developer with the capability to model things in the real world as, you guessed it, objects.
www.wirelessdevnet.com /channels/java/training/javalanguage.html   (698 words)

 [No title]
DSP32 Assembly Language - A high-level assembly language for the DSP32
FAP - Assembly language for Sperry-Rand 1103 and 1103A.
GMAP - GCOS Macro Assembler Program - Macro assembler for the GCOS-8
oop.rosweb.ru /Other   (6597 words)

 IBM Software - WebSphere Development Studio for iSeries - ILE RPG - V5R4
To promote consistency across the ILE languages, ILE RPG has support for integers, floating point, variable length fields, unicode, parameters passed by value, return values, null terminated strings, pointers and pointer arithmetic, long names and dynamic storage management.
Results are the same, and what you expect, whatever language you are using.
This environment variable must be set before any RPG program calls a Java method in a job.
www-306.ibm.com /software/awdtools/wds400/about/ile_rpg.html   (2369 words)

 Category Programming Language
The convention is to append 'Language' for the WikiName and to expand single letters according to the WikiAlphabet.
BrainfuckLanguage (a teaching language) (I think this BrainfuckLanguage is not actually a joke, it was made to be 256 bytes compiler, but maybe it was a joke as well, I don't know)
And discussions of LanguageAsInterface, LanguageUsability, EnglishLikeFeatures and such focus on the intersection between HumanBeings and the languages they use to communicate with each other and with compilers and interpreters.
c2.com /cgi/wiki?CategoryProgrammingLanguage   (233 words)

 Python Programming Language -- Official Website
Python® is a dynamic object-oriented programming language that can be used for many kinds of software development.
It offers strong support for integration with other languages and tools, comes with extensive standard libraries, and can be learned in a few days.
Many Python programmers report substantial productivity gains and feel the language encourages the development of higher quality, more maintainable code.
www.python.org   (262 words)

 Providence Geeks » Blog Archive » Flapjax, a Reactive Programming Language for the Web, to Be Unveiled on ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Flapjax, a Reactive Programming Language for the Web, to Be Unveiled on the 11th at Geek Dinner
The next Providence Geeks Dinner on Wednesday, October 11th at Brown’s CIT will feature the first public demonstration of Flapjax, a new programming language for building contemporary Web applications developed by a team Brown CS researchers.
It is an event-driven, reactive language, ideal for writing browser-based client applications.
www.providencegeeks.org /2006/10/05/flapjax-a-reactive-programming-language-for-the-web-to-be-unveiled-on-the-11th-at-geek-dinner   (283 words)

 D Programming Language - D Programming Language
Its focus is on combining the power and high performance of C and C++ with the programmer productivity of modern languages like Ruby and Python.
It is not governed by a corporate agenda or any overarching theory of programming.
The needs and contributions of the D programming community form the direction it goes.
d-programming-language.org   (219 words)

When the language is released by Rand in 1957, it is called MATH-MATIC.
Heading the team is John Backus, who goes on to contribute to the development of ALGOL and the well-known syntax-specification system known as BNF.
Smalltalk-80: The Language and Its Implementation by Goldberg et al is published.
www.byte.com /art/9509/sec7/art19.htm   (1292 words)

 Programming Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
After designing the correct language, the solution to the original problem is usually clear, concise, and correct.
You start with the Forth language and then extend and modify the Forth language until the language is, essentially, your application.
Those interactive languages (such as Lisp, Forth, Smalltalk, etc.) that let you create new defining words, control structures, and so on encourage this style of development, where the application domain being solved drives how the language is mutated.
c2.com /cgi/wiki?ProgrammingLanguage   (220 words)

 S Programming Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The award-winning S programming language is at the core of S-PLUS.
The only language created specifically for exploratory data analysis and statistical modeling, the S programming language allows you to create statistical applications up to five times faster than with other languages.
Explore data and create custom charts with this library of graphical functions in the S language.
binarysemantics.com /softwareproduct/SoftwareProduct_StatsFeatures.htm   (927 words)

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