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Topic: SN2 reaction

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  SN2 reaction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2 reaction is a type of nucleophilic substitution, where a nucleophile attacks an electrophilic center and bonds to it, expelling another group called a leaving group.
In cases where both mechanisms are possible (for example at a secondary carbon centre), the mechanism depends on solvent, temperature, concentration of the nucleophile or on the leaving group.
2 reactions are generally favoured in primary alkyl halides or secondary alkyl halides with an aprotic solvent.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/SN2_reaction   (528 words)

 The SN2 reaction
2 reaction is a single-step displacement of a leaving group by a nucleophile.
During the transition state, the bond to the nucleophile forms at the same time that the bond to the leaving group breaks.
Therefore the nucleophile is required to approach from the back, and configuration at carbon is inverted.
www.bluffton.edu /~bergerd/classes/CEM221/sn-e/SN2-1.html   (51 words)

 Elimination reaction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.
Either the unsaturation of the molecule increases (as in most organic elimination reactions) or the valence of an atom in the molecule decreases by two, a process known as reductive elimination.
An important class of elimination reactions are those involving alkyl halides, or alkanes in general, with good leaving groups, reacting with a Lewis base to form an alkene in the reverse of an addition reaction.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Elimination_reaction   (901 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The 2 indicates that the reaction is bimolecular - two species are involved in the slow step of the reaction.
A transition state is formed in which the bond between the nuclophile and carbon atom is being formed at the same time the bond between the carbon atom and the leaving group is being broken.
Reactions in which bond forming and bond breaking occur at the same time are called concerted reactions.
people.uis.edu /gtram1/organic/alkylHalides/sn2.htm   (299 words)

 Summary of SN1 and SN2 reactions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
1 reaction takes place in a sequence of steps, involving first the rate determining cleavage of the bond between carbon and the leaving group to form a carbocation, followed next with attack by a nucleophile.
The E1 reaction takes place in a sequence of steps, involving first the rate determining cleavage of the bond between carbon and a leaving group to generate a carbocation, followed next with abstraction of an adjacent hydrogen by a base to yield a double bond.
The E2 reaction takes place in a single, concerted step, in which a base abstracts a hydrogen while a double bond is being formed as the leaving group leaves with its electron pair.
www.odu.edu /sci/jadamski/n11ll.htm   (539 words)

 Alkyl Halide Reactivity
As described in the previous section, a majority of the reactions thus far described appear to proceed by a common single-step mechanism.
2 reaction in which the high and constant concentration of solvent water does not show up in the rate equation, there is good evidence this is not the case.
If we hope to understand why one or the other mode of reaction is preferred in a given case, we must study elimination reactions with the same care as we studied substitution.
www.cem.msu.edu /~reusch/VirtualText/alhalrx2.htm   (1186 words)

In the second transition state the bond between the nucleophile and the reaction center is partially formed; the charge on the carbon atom is diminishing from +1 towards 0, while the charge on the hydroxide ion is changing from -1 towards 0.
The suggestion for reaction 2 is that the leaving group blocks access to the front side of the molecule, forcing the nucleophile to approach the substrate from the back side, leading to predominant inversion of configuration.
In reaction 4, the carboxylate anion is thought to act like an internal nucleophile, assisting the departure of the leaving group by coordinating to the back side of the C-Br bond and blocking access of the nucleophile to that side of the molecule.
www.usm.maine.edu /~newton/Chy251_253/Lectures/Sn1/Sn1.html   (2061 words)

 Chapter 4 : SN2 mechanism
This pathway is a concerted process (single step) as shown by the following reaction coordinate diagrams, where there is simultaneous attack of the nucleophile and displacement of the leaving group.
In an SN2 there is simultaneous formation of the carbon-nucleophile bond and breaking of the carbon-leaving group bond, hence the reaction proceeds via a TS in which the central C is partially bonded to five groups.
When the nucleophile attacks in an SN2 it is on the opposite side to the position of the leaving group.
library.tedankara.k12.tr /carey/ch4-3-3.html   (303 words)

 Chapter 8 : SN2 mechanism
Relative rate of reaction data for an SN2 reaction with iodide is also given.
Use the lower row of space filling models (which are great for seeing steric effects) to rotate the molecules to look at the electrophilic C center from the side opposite to the leaving group (which is where the nucleophile attacks from) to see how much of it the electrophilic center you can see.
A typical example is the reaction of NaI with primary alkyl halides or tosylates.
www.mhhe.com /physsci/chemistry/carey5e/Ch08/ch8-4.html   (481 words)

 151chpt3(nutshell).html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
1 reaction is characterized by a first order rate law that is is based only on the concentration of the alkyl halide.
1 reaction is observed mostly with tertiary and secondary alkyl halides.
It is the major reaction of tertiary and secondary alkyl halides in the presence of a strong Bronsted base.
www.chem.duke.edu /~croy/151chpt9(nutshell).html   (358 words)

 Nucleophilic Substitution
These reactions are known as Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions, substitution reactions because one atom or group has been substituted for another, and nucleophilic because the substituting atom or group has supplied the electrons for the new bond.
Remember that in the reactions of carboxylic acid derivatives there was first an addition to a the carbonyl group in which the carbon-oxygen pi bond was broken.
As the reaction process goes forward, the energy increases until a significant bonding begins to occur between the nucleophile and the carbon.
chemistry2.csudh.edu /rpendarvis/SN2.html   (1647 words)

 Chapter 8 : SN2 mechanism
In an SN2 there is simultaneous formation of the carbon-nucleophilebond and breaking of the carbon-leaving group bond, hence the reactionproceeds via a TS in which the central C is partially bonded to five groups.
When the nucleophile attacks in an SN2 it is on the oppositeside to the position of the leaving group.
A typical example is the reaction of NaI with primary alkyl halidesor tosylates.
library.tedankara.k12.tr /carey/ch8-4.html   (448 words)

 SN2 Reaction Mechanism - EMOC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Transition State: The transition state of the SN2 reaction is a trigonal bipyramid with partial bonds from the carbon atom to both the leaving group and the nucleophile.
Inversion of Configuration: The carbon is tetrahedral at the beginning and end of the reaction, but "umbrellas" in the middle so that the three hydrogen atoms which were pointing to the nucleophile end up pointing to the leaving group.
The left side of the reaction energy diagram, where the energy is the lowest, represents chloride ion and methylbromide prior to the reaction beginning.
www.cem.msu.edu /~parrill/sn2.html   (423 words)

 Nucleophilic Substitution & Elimination
When the nucleophile is also the solvent, the reaction is called "solvolysis." Solvents like water and alcohols are particularly useful here, because they provide both a nucleophilic pair of electrons on the oxygen atom of the OH group and a fairly polar solvent which helps to stabilize the strongly polar transition state.
2 reactions, i.e., tertiary and secondary alkyl halides.
1 reaction is not sensitive to the concentration or strenght of the nucleophile we can avoid the strong bases which promote elimination.
chemistry2.csudh.edu /rpendarvis/SN1Elim.html   (2034 words)

 Reaction Mechanism: The step by step process of the bond formation and bond breaking that occurs in a reaction
Reaction Mechanism: The step by step process of the bond formation and bond breaking that occurs in a reaction.
The geometry about the C atom at which reaction occurs is trigonal bipyramidal in the TS.
A similar effect is observed if the groups attached at the primary or secondary C of the substrate C-L bond are very bulky at the point of the reaction.
www.ipfw.edu /chem/261/261Fall03/261nt02m.htm   (429 words)

 SN2 Reactions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
If this reaction is the slowest step (i.e., the "rate-determining step") in a series of steps leading to an overall transformation, or if it is the only step in the reaction, then that reaction will exhibit "bimolecular" or "second-order" kinetics.
That is, these reactions have "rate laws" that show the direct dependence of the reaction rate on the concentrations of both the alkyl halide and the nucleophile:
2 reaction is that it proceeds with complete inversion of configuration at the carbon atom bearing the leaving group.
www.personal.psu.edu /faculty/t/h/the1/sn2.htm   (613 words)

 Steve's place - Reaction Mechanisms
Understanding reaction mechanisms is useful for biologist because it allows you to understand how reactions occur, and therefore optimise the yield of a chemical in an biotechnological industrial process, understand catalysis by metals and by enzymes, and design inhibitors of enzymes, such as drugs and pesticides.
The reaction mechanisms of carbonyl compounds are important in biology: the formation of imines in particular is widely found, for example in the isomerisation of the compound retinal, which is responsible for detecting light in the rod cells of the mammalian retina.
The reaction starts with a simple nucleophilic attack - lone pairs on nitrogen attack carbonyl group, with upshot that electrons are removed from the NH bond in the amine group and form a new bond to the carbon.
www.steve.gb.com /science/reaction_mechanisms.html   (2374 words)

Choose one of your reactions and estimate its equilibrium constant.
Write the balanced equation for the acid/base reaction between 4-acetamidophenol and carbonate, and estimate the equilibrium constant.
Unreacted 4-acetamidophenol is removed from the crude reaction mixture by extraction with aqueous sodium hydroxide.
www.muhlenberg.edu /depts/chemistry/chem201woh/pexam3f03.htm   (1182 words)

 Organic Reactions
The equilibrium constant for this reaction is sensitive to the substituents on the C=O double bond.
In either case, the reaction is carried by a reagent that donates a pair of electrons to a carbon atom to form a new covalent bond.
In the course of this reaction, one nucleophile (the OH ion) is substituted for another (the Br ion).
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/3organic/organic.html   (3490 words)

2 reaction in which the nucleophile (a reactant) is negatively charged, solvation of the nucleophile by a polar solvent would tend to greatly slow the reaction rate (stabilization of the reactants increases the activation energy).
The latter is obtained from ethanol by reaction with sodium metal.
First, the energy difference is relatively small even between the alkenes (2.7 kcal/mol) and second because the reaction is at least somewhat exothermic (as a successful concerted reaction must be), so the TS doesn't have extensive alkene character.
research.cm.utexas.edu /nbauld/teach/ch8/elim.html   (1602 words)

 SN2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
2 reaction, the nucleophile attacks the carbon with the leaving group from the backside.
As the reaction proceeds, the bond to the leaving group is broken and a new bond between the carbon and the nucleophile forms simultaneously.
The stereochemistry around the carbon is inverted in the course of the reaction.
web.centre.edu /muzyka/organic/jmol10/sn2/sn2Jmol.htm   (78 words)

 The Sn2 Reaction
In this reaction the nucleophile attacks the reactant from the backside of the leaving group, while simultaneously displacing the leaving group.
During the transitional state the carbon is partially bonded to both the nucleophile and the leaving group.
It is called bimolecular because the rate of the reaction depends upon two species: the substrate and the nucleophile.
facultystaff.vwc.edu /~jeaster/courseinfo/Tutorials/reactions/Sn2.htm   (318 words)

1 reaction is restricted to tertiary reactants (and for secondary reactants in protic solvents with poor nucleophiles) and only occurs under acidic or neutral conditions.
Reactions of alkyl halides with nucleophiles can lead to substitutions, as we have seen, or to β-eliminations, which lead to alkene formation (dehydrohalogenation).
The E2 reaction (Elimination 2nd order) is favored when secondary or tertiary alkyl halides are reacted with strong bases such as hydroxide or alkoxides {RO The E2 reaction involves a bimolecular transition state in a single step reaction.
www.humboldt.edu /~rap1/C328.Su04/C328Notes/C328nLec12.htm   (1062 words)

 CHE606 SN2 Reaction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
As we have learned in an introductory organic course, the transition state structure assumes nearly planar configuration with the central carbon and hydrogens.
Eventually the reaction leads to the formation of chloromethane and cyanide ion separates.
The forward reaction barrier is about 50 kcal/mol, and the reverse reation barrier is about 15 kcal/mol.
phoenix.liunet.edu /~nmatsuna/che606/sn2.html   (143 words)

 Temperature Dependence of Rate
The Reaction Coordinate is the 'distance' along the path of the reaction, and is plotted along the horizontal axis.
A typical organic reaction mechanism is the SN reaction, as seen in the replacement of the Br leaving group with the OH nucleophile.
The activation energy is different for the forward and reverse reactions, and the difference is the reaction exoergicity, as we said before.
itl.chem.ufl.edu /2041_f00/lectures/lec_m.html   (1243 words)

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