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Topic: Salinity

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In the News (Thu 23 May 19)

  Salinity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water.
Prior to 1978, salinity or halinity was expressed as ‰ usually based on the electrical conductivity ratio of the sample to "Copenhagen water", an artificial sea water manufactured to serve as a world "standard".
Salinity is an ecological factor of considerable import, influencing the types of organisms that live in a body of water.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Salinity   (833 words)

 Salinity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Salinity is the total content of dissolved inorganic salts in seawater.
Diagrammatic representation of a salinity pycnocline (A), and a corresponding graphical representation (B) The slight salinity fluctuations that occur in the open ocean are of little consequence to marine plants, although they are important in helping oceanographers identify the source of a water mass.
Salinity fluctuations in coastal waters may be important, however, especially in areas with seasonal runoff, such as estuaries.
hypnea.botany.uwc.ac.za /marbot/Physprop/salinity.htm   (291 words)

 Salinity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Salinity is a measure of the quantity of dissolved salts in water.
Salinity is measured in terms of the electrical conductivity of a salt solution.
Salinity is lower in areas underlain by igneous formations and higher in areas underlain by sedimentary formations.
www.gpc.edu /~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/Salinity.html   (1274 words)

Salinity is the total of all the salts dissolved in the water, measured in parts per thousand (ppt).
Ocean salinity is approximately 35 ppt; thus in the Bay the salinity usually ranges from 0 to 35 ppt.
The salinity reading taken in isolation is not an important factor, but over time, if monitored from the same location, its range can tell us a lot about the character of a site and the stress and environmental variations that organisms living there must endure.
www.qacps.k12.md.us /cms/sci/TESTSAL.HTM   (694 words)

 Ship Mates: Salinity
Salinity is a measure of dissolved salts in sea water.
Salinity affects seawater density and thus influences ocean water layering.
In general, the higher ocean salinities occur in the centers of ocean basins, where trade winds evaporate water and rain is rare.
www.bigelow.org /shipmates/salinity.html   (276 words)

 The Basics of Salinity and Sodicity Effects on Soil Physical Properties   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Highly saline and sodic water qualities can cause problems for irrigation, depending on the type and amount of salts present, the soil type being irrigated, the specific plant species and growth stage, and the amount of water able to pass through the root zone.
As irrigation water with low salinity is applied to the soil by irrigation or rainfall, this water flows into the spaces between clay particles (micropores).
The combination of salinity and sodicity of soils is measured by the swelling factor, which is the amount a soil is likely to swell with different combinations of salinity and sodicity.
waterquality.montana.edu /docs/methane/basics_highlight.shtml   (2554 words)

 Salinity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The salinity of normal ocean water is about 35 parts per thousand, total dissolved solids.
Salinity varies slightly from place to place around the world, and also varies somewhat with the seasons (affected by temperature and precipitation).
The chemicals that dominate saline lakes tend to be Na, Mg, Ca, CO, and Cl.
gpc.edu /~pgore/Earth&Space/salinity.html   (1053 words)

 Salinity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Salinity is caused by a rise in underground water-tables, which brings naturally occurring salt to the surface in a concentrated form.
Dryland salinity is caused by the removal of deep-rooted plants, perennial trees, shrubs and grasses and their replacement with annual crops and pastures that do not use as much water.
An increase in salinity levels can be identified by vegetation damage, inhibited growth or dieback; bare or eroded soil; an increase in the growth of salt-tolerant plants; waterlogging on the ground's surface; higher levels of salt in surface or groundwater; or roads cracking or breaking up.
www.nrm.gov.au /publications/salinity   (1039 words)

 Salinity in NSW   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Salinity is a threat to the health and productivity of many catchments, and to the rural and urban communities that live in them.
In some places, salinity is a natural phenomenon but in others, increasing salinity caused by rising watertables is often the result of particular land use practices, such as over-clearing, urban development, river regulation, irrigation or the cultivation of crops.
Dryland salinity is the build up of salt in the soil surface in non-irrigated areas, usually as a result of a rising watertable.
www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au /care/salinity   (862 words)

 Potential Biological Response to Salinity -Appendix G
Increasing salinity has led to concern over the perpetuation of socially and economically important values of the sea, particularly the sport fishery, and concern for the salinity effects of various energy and water development projects (USDI and RAC 1974).
Finally, there is some evidence that the salinity exposure of the parent fish and that to which the eggs are first exposed result in adjustments in the eggs that persist throughout the lives of fish hatched from those eggs (Kinne 1962).
In one experiment, survival was 90% at a salinity of 35 0/00, dropped to 8% at 45 0/00 and was 0% at all higher salinities.
www.sci.sdsu.edu /salton/BiolResponsetoSalinityAppG.html   (5599 words)

 Salinity Intrusion in the Red River Delta
Details of salinity concentration distributions along the estuaries are studied using a numerical model of the transport and dispersion of salinity.
In this study, the salinity intrusion length is defined as the length from the river mouth along the river channel to a point where the salinity concentration is l ppt (part per thousand).
To study the effect of tide on the salinity intrusion, the numerical model had been used to generate the data at a number of points along the estuaries where the measurement data of salinity are not available.
coombs.anu.edu.au /~vern/env_dev/papers/pap08.html   (2160 words)

 Salinity 2006 mtg
The salinity field of the global oceans is attracting increasing attention, due to its influence on ocean-atmosphere exchanges, its role as an indicator of the water cycle and its potential for improved climate forecasting.
New sources of salinity data are now available (The Argo Project profiling float array: http://www.argo.ucsd.edu/) and others are on the horizon (The Aquarius satellite mission to be launched in March 2009 will measure sea surface salinity: http://aquarius.gsfc.nasa.gov).
The goal of the workshop is to produce a “white paper” articulating the significance of salinity measurements to the advancement of understanding, and ultimately predicting, climate; outlining the necessary measurements; and describing additional activities to enable the full utilization of these measurements.
www.usclivar.org /Organization/Salinity_WG/Salinity2006.html   (984 words)

 Side Bar
For example, at 20ºC the refractive index of pure water is 1.333, while the refractive index of seawater (salinity = 35 ppt) is 1.339.
As light shines through the sample, it is bent according to the salinity of the water, and casts a shadow on the scale that is visible through the eyepiece.
Read salinity in parts per thousand (ppt, the right side of the scale) at the intersection of the light and dark fields in the eyepiece.
www.lumcon.edu /education/studentdatabase/salinity.asp   (453 words)

 Salinity at opensource encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Salinity refers to the concept of saltiness of a body of water.
These waters are all grouped as homoiohaline because their salinity is derived from the ocean (thalassic) and essentially invariant, in contrast to poikilohaline environments in which the salinity variation is biologically significant (Dahl, 1956).
Highly saline water is referred to as brine.
www.wiki.tatet.com /Salinity.html   (416 words)

From the top of the ocean all the way to the depths of the ocean, salinity is between ~33-37 ppt or psu (average salinity of the ocean is 35 ppt).
Salinity of the top layer of the ocean is closely linked with precipitation and evaporation.
However, when the highly saline waters of the ocean meet fresh water, an estuary is formed.
www.windows.ucar.edu /tour/link=/earth/Water/salinity.html&edu=high   (671 words)

 Salinity in Australia
This means that while Australia's salinity problem is already significant, it is expected to increase as a result of past and present practices.
A recent report on the Implications of Salinity for Biodiversity Conservation and Management, highlights the need for urgent action by governments, industry and the community to prevent further outbreaks of salinity by retaining vegetation cover and, where possible, to protect areas of biodiversity significance from salinity impacts.
The Department of the Environment and Heritage, together with the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, is providing national leadership on salinity and water quality management through the National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality, which was endorsed by the Council of Australian Governments on 3 November 2000.
www.deh.gov.au /land/pressures/salinity   (506 words)

 A Q U A R I U S   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Salinity was formerly expressed in terms of parts per thousand (ppt) or by weight (parts per thousand or 0/00).
That is, a salinity of 35 ppt meant 35 pounds of salt per 1,000 pounds of seawater.
In general, salinity reflects the total amount of dissolved solids in ocean water in parts per thousand by weight after all carbonate has been converted to oxide, the bromide and iodide to chloride, and all the organic matter oxidized.
www.bigelow.org /aquarius/education-salinity.html   (342 words)

 Salinity and Sodicity in North Dakota Soils
Salinity and sodicity are often seen as bare ground with whitish crust that has a scabby appearance.
Saline soils are defined as having an electrical conductivity (EC) greater than 4 deciSiemens/meter (dS/m) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of less than 13 in their saturation extract.
Salinity in the field is usually characterized by broad transitions that run gradually from high to low salinity.
www.ext.nodak.edu /extpubs/plantsci/soilfert/eb57-1.htm   (2730 words)

 Ocean Water: Salinity
Salinity is expressed by the amount of salt found in 1,000 grams of water.
Therefore, if we have 1 gram of salt and 1,000 grams of water, the salinity is 1 part per thousand, or 1 ppt.
Most marine creatures keep the salinity inside their bodies at about the same concentration as the water outside their bodies because water likes a balance.
www.onr.navy.mil /focus/ocean/water/salinity1.htm   (426 words)

Dryland salinity is fundamentally a groundwater problem, although it produces effects at or above the land surface and in the underlying shallow root zone.
Although damage to infrastructure due to dryland salinity is acknowledged as a major concern, Councils and public works departments find it difficult to separate out the proportion of their repair costs due to dryland salinity as compared to ‘normal’ maintenance costs.
Dryland salinity is fundamentally a groundwater problem that produces effects at or above the land surface and in the underlying shallow root zone.
www.eng.newcastle.edu.au /~ncwe/ncwePosPaper/ppSalinity.htm   (4418 words)

 NSW SoE 1995 - Land - CASE STUDY: The Yass Salinity Abatement Demonstration Program (YSADP)
It is now generally accepted that the cause of dryland salinity is a net annual reduction in plant water use in response to the broad scale clearing of deep-rooted perennial vegetation and its replacement with shallow-rooted annual crops and pasture species.
Consequently, the saline water table rises, vegetation dies, and the land is left exposed and vulnerable to erosion.
Around 14,000 hectares (0.17%) of the state is affected by saline seepage (the most serious type of dryland salinity), mainly in the Eastern and Central Divisions, and this area is increasing at a general rate of 2% per annum.
www.epa.nsw.gov.au /soe/95/12_2s1.htm   (621 words)

 Salinity and Water Quality of Great Salt Lake
The salinity of Great Salt Lake is determined by the amount of inflow (and its salt content) and the amount of evaporation.
The USGS measures salinity periodically at Saltair Boat Harbor and at Promontory (Gilbert Bay) and at Saline (Gunnison Bay).
Measurements of salinity at the Saline Boat Harbor on Gunnison Bay for water years 1996 to present show a smaller variation than in Gilbert Bay and lack a downward trend.
ut.water.usgs.gov /salinity   (429 words)

 Aqueduct Magazine Cubed - Assault on Salinity
Long-term indoor water conservation measures—ultra-low-flush toilets and low-flow showerheads—reduce water use, resulting in an increase in the salinity concentration of residential wastewater.
The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act, which was signed by President Nixon in 1974, authorized several measures to prevent salt from reaching the river, such as getting farmers to switch from flood irrigation to using sprinklers and lining canals to prevent salts leaching from the soil.
The May 31 Salinity Summit, organized by the Salinity Management Coalition of Southern California, is the second session in two years to deal with the high costs of salty water impacting the world's 11th largest economy.
www.mwdh2o.com /Aqueduct/july2001/salinity2.htm   (566 words)

 Managing Salinity in Florida Citrus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Therefore, for citrus irrigated with saline water it is essential that irrigations be frequent (daily) to minimize salinity stress.
The critical salinity level (where plants are adversely affected) varies with the buffering capacity of the soil (soil type, organic matter), climatic conditions, and the soil moisture status.
Saline irrigation water that wets the foliage (partially or fully) can result in severe damage to the leaves in the skirt of the trees.
edis.ifas.ufl.edu /AE171   (3843 words)

 DoE: Salinity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This highly saline water can eventually appear on or near the ground surface, causing 'dryland salinity', damaging soil structure and natural plants, and becoming unsuitable for drinking or irrigation.
Rising levels of salinity in surface and groundwater are among the biggest environmental challenges facing Western Australia.
The Program aims to protect and restore key water resources, and ensure salinity levels are kept to a level that permits a safe and sustainable supply of water for the benefit of present and future generations.
portal.environment.wa.gov.au /portal/page?_pageid=55,68510&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL   (419 words)

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