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Topic: Salinity in Australia

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In the News (Mon 24 Jun 19)

  Killer salinity rings Australia's desert heart - Boston.com
While Australia's central deserts are now seen as benign and are starting to yield fruit, salination is turning once productive farmland into lifeless dirt tracts and threatening the country's A$30 billion ($22 billion) agriculture export industry, one of the biggest in the world.
Most of Australia's 400,000 farmers and family members are still coming to grips with the fight against salinity, which is most widespread in agricultural areas between the vast outback deserts and the coast.
A growing love affair with Australia's deserts is pushing the CSIRO and others to develop a potentially lucrative native food industry, new medicines from desert plants, salt-tolerant wheat and genetically engineered tomatoes, as well as sustainable harvesting of kangaroos and native plants.
www.boston.com /news/world/australia/articles/2006/07/18/killer_salinity_rings_australias_desert_heart   (983 words)

 Department of Agriculture, Western Australia : Salinity - an introduction
Dryland salinity (on non-irrigated land) occurs when the concentration of soluble salts near the soil surface is sufficient to reduce plant growth.
The fundamental cause of salinity is the replacement of perennial, deep rooted native vegetation with the annual crops and pastures used in agriculture.
Western Australia was estimated to have nearly 2 million hectares of secondary salinity in the South-West zone (9.4% of cleared land) in 1994.
www.agric.wa.gov.au /pls/portal30/docs/FOLDER/IKMP/LWE/SALIN/salinity_intro.htm   (1867 words)

 Dryland Salinity - Area of Land Affected by Dryland Salinity
Salinity in the Ranges is confined predominantly to lower rainfall areas (less than 700 millimetres per year) in the Eastern Hills and on valley floors.
The discharge of saline water is a particularly significant issue as the Mount Lofty Ranges is a major water catchment for Adelaide and the Lower Lakes.
A large increase in salinity was noticed in the 1970s, coinciding with a significant decline in the area sown with lucerne.
www.environment.sa.gov.au /reporting/land/salinity/affected.html   (1168 words)

 Salinity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Salinity is caused by a rise in underground water-tables, which brings naturally occurring salt to the surface in a concentrated form.
Dryland salinity is caused by the removal of deep-rooted plants, perennial trees, shrubs and grasses and their replacement with annual crops and pastures that do not use as much water.
An increase in salinity levels can be identified by vegetation damage, inhibited growth or dieback; bare or eroded soil; an increase in the growth of salt-tolerant plants; waterlogging on the ground's surface; higher levels of salt in surface or groundwater; or roads cracking or breaking up.
www.nrm.gov.au /publications/salinity/index.html   (1039 words)

 SEA News
The appropriate salinity investment depends on the responsiveness of groundwater to establishment of perennial vegetation, and this responsiveness depends on the gradient and the permeability or conductivity of the material through which water flows (gravel, sand, clay).
In contrast to the salinity impacts in relatively small, concentrated areas referred to in Table 3, Table 4 refers to more dispersed effects of salinity and shallow water tables, including impacts on agricultural land, on remnant areas of native vegetation on farms, and on flood risk.
(The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra).
www.crcsalinity.com.au /newsletter/sea/articles/SEA_1901.html   (8176 words)

 Land Resources - Dryland Salinity
While the extent of dryland salinity has temporarily stabilised (most likely due to a series of dry years) in the long term the extent of dryland salinity is predicted to increase by 60% in 50 years' time, unless significant on-ground action such as drainage is undertaken.
Dryland salinity is a problem that can not be fully solved; this must be recognised and proactive actions taken to at least slow the rate of dryland salinity and reduce the environmental, economic and social consequences.
Salinity is directly contributing towards species extinctions and a decline in ecosystem health, and is a critical issue for biodiversity in Australia.
www.environment.sa.gov.au /reporting/land/salinity.html   (2845 words)

 Salinity in Australia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Soil salinity is a major environmental issue in Australia.
It is a problem in most states, but especially in the south-west of Western Australia.
Where the land is not yet affected by salinity, it is sometimes possible for farmers to reduce the speed at which land becomes saline by re-establishing perennial plants, including perennial pastures, shrubs and trees.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Salinity_in_Australia   (313 words)

 Natural Heritage - The Journal of the Natural Heritage Trust (Number 14) - National Salinity Feature - Western Australia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Western Australia has the largest area of dryland salinity in Australia and the highest risk of increased salinity in the next 50 years.
Salinity is a fact of life here and there's plenty of it to see,' he said.
Sitting on a rising water table, the town of Katanning south west Western Australia, with its population of 5,000, is one of the worst affected by salinity in the country.
www.nht.gov.au /publications/journal/nht14/salinity-wa.html   (1056 words)

Dry Land Salinity is caused by the massive clearing of trees and understory plants, many parts of Australia are now or becoming affected.
The cause of the rising salt, is the rising water tables as the ground gets saturated and leaches salt water onto the surface of the land, when the land dry's out, the soil is white with salt.
We should never have cleared so much native bushland in all states, we should have added agriculture to the dry heart of the continent, the damage has been done to the driest continent on earth, the mistakes require rectification as we have changed the entire weather pattern for good.
www.homestead.com /world_environment/Dry_land_salinity.html   (425 words)

 Soil Salinity - General
Salinity is the presence of salt in the land surface, in soil or rocks, or dissolved in water in rivers or groundwater.
The costs associated with salinity are potentially enormous and are borne not only by the rural community, but also ultimately by the whole country and its environment.
The impacts of dryland salinity on soil have adversely affected agriculture in Australia.
members.optushome.com.au /wingchan1/ian/salinity/main.html   (650 words)

 Planet Ark : FEATURE - Killer Salinity Rings Australia's Desert Heart
The amount of saline land could rise to 6 million hectares (15 million acres) in 50 years, but that would be the upper limit, says Kevin Goss, chief executive officer for the Cooperative Research Centre for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity.
Most of Australia's 400,000 farmers and family members are still coming to grips with the fight against salinity, which is most widespread in agricultural areas between the vast outback deserts and the coast.
A growing love affair with Australia's deserts is pushing the CSIRO and others to develop a potentially lucrative bush tucker (native food) industry, new medicines from desert plants, salt-tolerant wheat and genetically engineered tomatoes, as well as sustainable harvesting of kangaroos and native plants.
www.planetark.org /dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/37246/story.htm   (1098 words)

 Salinity in Australia
This means that while Australia's salinity problem is already significant, it is expected to increase as a result of past and present practices.
A recent report on the Implications of Salinity for Biodiversity Conservation and Management, highlights the need for urgent action by governments, industry and the community to prevent further outbreaks of salinity by retaining vegetation cover and, where possible, to protect areas of biodiversity significance from salinity impacts.
The Department of the Environment and Water Resources, together with the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, is providing national leadership on salinity and water quality management through the National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality, which was endorsed by the Council of Australian Governments on 3 November 2000.
www.environment.gov.au /land/pressures/salinity/index.html   (507 words)

 COMMONWEALTH-NSW AGREEMENT ON SALINITY AND WATER QUALITY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Salinity is Australia’s greatest environmental problem and is being attacked in a co-ordinated manner under the National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality.
Salinity and declining water quality pose a major threat to the sustainability of the state’s agricultural production, the biological diversity of its land and rivers and the viability of infrastructure and regional communities.
Salinity and water quality is Australia’s most pressing environmental challenge and will be a top priority for the Federal Government for years to come under the $1.4 billion National Action Plan, and the second phase of the Natural Heritage Trust.
www.pm.gov.au /news/media_releases/2002/media_release1667.htm   (400 words)

 Tackling Salinity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Salinity threatens the natural diversity of our south-west agricultural region and is challenging the way we use agricultural land.
Salinity programs of the Department of Conservation and Land Management range from researching and developing new industries, such as oil mallees, that integrate environmental and economic benefits; to implementing plant and animal recovery programs.
Policy Documents and Reports: The problem of salinity is Australia wide, crossing all state and local government boundaries.
www.calm.wa.gov.au /projects/salinity/index.html   (244 words)

 CRC Salinity :: View topic - Salinity — too big to trivialise   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
They defined salinity hazard in a way that, without studious attention to detail in the reports, gave the impression of unrealistically large areas facing salinity, and in at least one state the areas were exaggerated, even relative to that unfortunate definition.
It is true that salinity levels in the river have been falling, and consequently true that claims of a salinity crisis in the river are overblown.
The establishment and the Salinity CRC has to get serious about the contra evidence on salinity causes and engage with independent scientists and farmers who are questioning the science, otherwise the public scientists are not fulfilling their public duty of care.
forum.crcsalinity.com /forum/viewtopic.php?t=59   (7121 words)

 Soil salination - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Soil salination is the accumulation of free salts to such an extent that it leads to degradation of soils and vegetation.
The ions responsible for salination are: Na, Ca, Mg and Cl Over eons, and as the world’s soils became established, the soil salt levels declined to a very livable minimum.
In some areas (for example in Australia), salinity is an inherent situation (enormous amounts of salts are stored in the soils).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Salinization   (757 words)

 Issues: Salinity Frequently Asked Questions - CSIRO Land and Water
Dryland salinity is the movement of salt to the land surface with groundwater, occuring on land that is not used for irrigation, and it causes the most widespread damage.
Salinity in soil, groundwater and river systems is now a serious problem in many parts of Australia, and the problem is increasing.
In Western Australia, salt is stored in a large arc sweeping south and east along the semi-arid and arid landscapes of the southern part of the state.
www.clw.csiro.au /issues/salinity/faq.html   (1350 words)

 Waterwatch SA - Saltwatch
Salinity is an important environmental issue for South Australia.
In South Australia, there is a conversion table that is used by Waterwatch programs, which is based upon a conversion factor of 0.56.
Salinity levels were poor to moderate in the North Para and Bremer rivers, particularly for drinking and irrigation purposes.
www.sa.waterwatch.org.au /sw_salinity.htm   (689 words)

An audit identified that salinity currently affects an estimated 48 000 hectares of land in Queensland.
Salinity hazard maps identify areas where there is potential for salinity to occur if the landscape is not well managed.
These publications deal with current salinity monitoring, the previous two years of salinity field work, and obstacles in moving from hazard mapping to risk assessment.
www.nrw.qld.gov.au /salinity   (170 words)

Dryland salinity is fundamentally a groundwater problem, although it produces effects at or above the land surface and in the underlying shallow root zone.
are in the South-West of Western Australia, the Murray-Darling Basin, and the Upper South-East and the Yorke and Eyre Peninsulas in South Australia.
Although damage to infrastructure due to dryland salinity is acknowledged as a major concern, Councils and public works departments find it difficult to separate out the proportion of their repair costs due to dryland salinity as compared to ‘normal’ maintenance costs.
www.eng.newcastle.edu.au /~ncwe/ncwePosPaper/ppSalinity.htm   (4418 words)

 Planet Ark - Australia Government launches salinity programme
A 1997 investigation of roads in Western Australia found that 230 km were already affected by salinity and waterlogging in that state alone, he said.
Research in the first phase of the programme indicated that salinity could spread and affect six times the area of land that was currently affected within the next 20-30 years, he said.
With 25 percent of Australia's agricultural production coming from the Murray-Darling Basin, which stretches from southern Queensland to the mouth of the Murray River in South Australia, salinity on this scale would have a devastating effect on Australia's regional and export economy, he said.
www.planetark.com /avantgo/dailynewsstory.cfm?newsid=1366   (491 words)

 World's best artillery in the war against salinity - Senator Troeth   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Australia's fight against salinity has been stepped-up thanks to a world-first 'toolkit', launched by Parliamentary Secretary for Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Senator Judith Troeth in Melbourne today.
Managing Dryland Salinity in Australia is the result of ten years extensive research by National Dryland Salinity Program (NDSP), and is the most comprehensive package of dryland salinity information ever compiled.
Senator Troeth said the NDSP had significantly added to Australia's understanding of dryland salinity and had involved primary producers, local and catchment-based community groups, and policy-makers at all levels of government.
www.psmaff.gov.au /releases/04/04045t.html   (415 words)

 Issues: Salinity - CSIRO Land and Water
Australia's rivers and landscapes are under threat to rising salinity, particularly in Western Australia, South Australia and in the Murray-Darling Basin.
On the rural front, some 2.5 million hectares of land are already affected by salinity, and there is the potential for this to increase to 15 million hectares.
The area damaged by salinity to date represents about 4.5 percent of present cultivated land, and estimated current costs include $130 million annually in lost agricultural production; $100 million annually in damage to infrastructure; and at least $40 million in loss of environmental assets.
www.clw.csiro.au /issues/salinity   (555 words)

 Cooperative Research Centre for Plant Based Management of Dryland Salinity
Dryland salinity is one of the most prominent and intractable problems facing farm managers in the extensive non-irrigated farming systems of southern Australia.
Although dryland salinity occurs in the tropics, some of the issues are a little different there.
Finally we discuss the various possible approaches to salinity policy, focusing to some extent on prospects for RandD to develop new management options for farmers that are more economically attractive than the existing options.
www.crcsalinity.com.au /aboutus/salinity.php   (472 words)

 Soil salinity-Key text
There are two kinds of soil salinity: dryland salinity (occurring on land not subject to irrigation) and irrigated land salinity.
In Western Australia, the main source is believed to be the ocean – salt is carried inland by the prevailing winds and deposited on the land in rainfall and dust.
This method is thought to have underestimated the extent of salinisation, partly because the definition and recognition of salinisation varies between farmers.
www.science.org.au /nova/032/032key.htm   (1066 words)

 Research || National Salinity Project || SciComEd Pty Ltd   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Below are a list of links to websites on salinity in Australia.The links are a mixture of organisations who do research into salinity, those that concentrate on promoting and organising the application of the research, to documents on government sites which sponsor salinity research.
Ecos: Reinventing agriculture (CSIRO publication) by S Davidson Ecos no.111 Apr-Jun 2002 pp.18-25 Dryland salinity is a dramatic consequence of the rapid conversion of native bush to agricultural land in southern Australia during the last 200 years.
Land and Water Australia: are designing agricultural systems which ensure economic production and ecosystem and landscape function, by matching these systems to the unique biophysical characteristics of the Australian environment.
www.scicomed.com.au /salinity/research.html   (793 words)

 Salinity Soils Agriculture Science
Rhododendrons are extremely sensitive to salinity, so keep those deicing...
- Is a collaborative research and development effort that is investigating the causes of, and solutions to, the problem of dryland salinity in Australia.
Shows areas of Australia most affected and measures to reduce salinity.
www.iaswww.com /ODP/Science/Agriculture/Soils/Salinity   (229 words)

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