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Topic: Salmonella

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In the News (Sat 21 Apr 18)

  Salmonella - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever and foodborne illness.
Numbers of salmonella may be so low in clinical samples that stools are routinely also subjected to "enrichment culture" where a small volume of stool is incubated in a selective broth medium, such as selenite broth or Rappaport Vassiliadis soya peptone broth overnight.
Other salmonellae are frequent causes of foodborne illness, and can especially be caught from poultry and raw eggs and more generally from food that has been cooked or frozen, and not eaten straight away.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Salmonella   (823 words)

 Salmonella   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Salmonellae are pathogenic because of their capacity to i) invade intestinal mucosa and ii) produce toxins.
The genus is composed of Gram-negative bacilli that are facultative and flagellated (motile).
Salmonellae possess 3 major antigens; the "H" or flagellar antigen (phase 1 and 2), the "O" or somatic antigen (part of the LPS moiety) and the "Vi" or capsular antigen (referred to as "K" in other Enterobacteriaceae).
www.cehs.siu.edu /fix/medmicro/salmo.htm   (670 words)

 Salmonella enterica - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Salmonella enterica is a flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella.
Salmonella Typhi is a serovar of Salmonella enterica (formerly known as Salmonella choleraesuis) and the cause of the disease typhoid fever.
The organism can be transmitted by the fecal-oral route—it is excreted by humans in feces and may be transmitted by contaminated water, food, or by person-to-person contact (with inadequate attention to personal hygiene).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Salmonella_enterica   (305 words)

 FDA/CFSAN Bad Bug Book - Salmonella spp.
A report of an outbreak of Salmonella Serotype Typhimurium infection associated with the consumption of raw ground beef may be found in MMWR 44(49):1995 Dec 15.
The report on the outbreak of Salmonella from commercially prepared ice cream is found in MMWR 43(40):1994 Oct 14.
Summaries of Salmonella outbreaks associated with Grade A eggs are reported in MMWR 37(32):1988 Aug 19 and MMWR 39(50):1990 Dec 21.
vm.cfsan.fda.gov /~mow/chap1.html   (1195 words)

Salmonella bacteria cause much of the food poisoning in the world, including an estimated four million cases of salmonellosis in the United States each year.
Salmonella is a general name for a group of about 2,000 closely related bacteria that cause illness by reproducing in the digestive tract.
Salmonella also may be found in raw milk or in milk that is contaminated after pasteurization.
www.idph.state.il.us /public/hb/hbsam.htm   (991 words)

 Medmicro Chapter 21
Salmonellae are ubiquitous human and animal pathogens, and salmonellosis, a disease that affects an estimated 2 million Americans each year, is common throughout the world.
Salmonellae are Gram-negative, flagellated, facultatively anaerobic bacilli possessing three major antigens: H or flagellar antigen; O or somatic antigen; and Vi antigen (possessed by only a few serovars).
Salmonellae lacking the complete sequence of O-sugar repeat units are called rough because of the rough appearance of the colonies; they are usually avirulent or less virulent than the smooth strains which possess a full complement of O-sugar repeat units.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch021.htm   (2897 words)

 Salmonella: Symptoms, Risks, Outbreaks and Resources
Salmonella is one of the most common enteric (intestinal) infections in the U.S. In some states (e.g.
Salmonella is a type of bacteria that causes typhoid fever and many other infections of intestinal origin.
This strain was called Salmonella choleraesuis, the designation that is still used to describe the genus and species of this common human pathogen.
www.about-salmonella.com   (263 words)

 Salmonella Symptoms and Risks: Foodborne Salmonella
Salmonella infections usually resolve in five to seven days, and many times require no treatment, unless the patient becomes severely dehydrated or the infection spreads from the intestines.
Some Salmonella bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics, however, and this has occurred possibly as a result of the use of antibiotics to promote the growth of feed animals.
Typically, nontyphoidal Salmonella produces a self-limiting febrile gastrointestinal illness that is indistinguishable from that caused by other bacterial enteric pathogens.
www.about-salmonella.com /page3.htm   (698 words)

 Disease Listing, Salmonella enteritidis, Generall Information | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases
Salmonella enteritidis silently infects the ovaries of healthy appearing hens and contaminates the eggs before the shells are formed.
Most types of Salmonella live in the intestinal tracts of animals and birds and are transmitted to humans by contaminated foods of animal origin.
The reason for this is that Salmonella enteritidis silently infects the ovaries of healthy appearing hens and contaminates the eggs before the shells are formed.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/salment_g.htm   (1074 words)

 Salmonella   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Salmonella bacteria are shed in the stools of people who are infected.
People who are infected with salmonella - but who are not ill - are called "carriers." Even though carriers do not have symptoms of infection, their bacteria can still be passed on and cause illness in others.
Foods that often have salmonella bacteria (poultry, eggs) should be cooked so all parts reach 165° F is reached.
www.co.benton.or.us /health/CH/CD/salmonella.htm   (1349 words)

 Salmonella Infections
A salmonella infection is a foodborne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted on kitchen surfaces and in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs.
Hand washing is a powerful way to guard against salmonella infections, so it's essential to teach children to wash their hands, particularly after trips to the bathroom and before handling food in any way.
Salmonella also can be spread through cross-contamination, so when you're preparing meals, try to keep uncooked meats away from cooked and ready-to-eat foods.
kidshealth.org /parent/infections/stomach/salmonellosis.html   (815 words)

 CBC News Indepth: Food Safety
Salmonella normally live in the intestinal tracts of animals and birds.
Salmonella bacteria are present in a lot of the meat, poultry and eggs that you buy.
Salmonella can be found in the feces of some pets, especially those with diarrhea.
www.cbc.ca /news/background/foodsafety/salmonella.html   (870 words)

 Nebraska HHS System: Salmonella Epidemiology Fact Sheet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Salmonella infections usually resolve in five (5) to seven (7) days and often do not require treatment unless the patient becomes severely dehydrated or the infection spreads from the intestines.
Salmonella is usually transmitted to humans by eating foods contaminated with animal feces.
Salmonella may also be found in the feces of some pets, especially those with diarrhea, and people can become infected if they do not wash their hands after contact with these feces.
www.hhs.state.ne.us /epi/salmonella.htm   (877 words)

Bacteria of the three Salmonella species are sometime Gram-negative inhabitants of the intestinal tract of humans and animals.
Salmonella infections are divided roughly into the non-typhoid type infections, and enteric or typhoid fever type infections.
If ordinary Salmonella infection (as opposed to Salmonella typhi, the typhoid fever type) occurs in a child care setting, stool cultures and exclusion of children without symptoms is not necessary.
www.drhull.com /EncyMaster/S/salmonella.html   (580 words)

 Salmonella - MicrobeWiki
Salmonella typhi CT18 has a large circular chromosome consisting of 4.8 Mb and two plasmids, pHCM1 and pHCM2, that are 218 kb and 106 kb respectively.
Salmonella bacteria are rod-shaped motile bacteria that possess flagella.
Salmonella bacteria are very common on raw egg shells, in poultry, and red meat; it is also a natural part of the bacterial flora of reptiles and amphibians.
microbewiki.kenyon.edu /mediawiki-1.6.6/index.php/Salmonella   (662 words)

 Untitled Document
Salmonella typhi and paratyphi (as well as Shigella) are strictly human pathogens and domestic animals play no role in the epidemiology of these infections (although non-human primates may be infected and serve as a source for their handlers).
(Salmonella enterica) are ubiquitously present in the environment and reside in the GI tracts of animals.
Salmonella typhimurium from undercooked meats or fecal contamination of a variety of foods.
www.vetmed.wisc.edu /pbs/zoonoses/GIk9fel/salmonella.html   (778 words)

 Salmonella - DrGreene.com
Salmonella bacteria are a major cause of food poisoning and infection from poultry, reptiles, and pets.
Salmonella organisms can cause a wide variety of illnesses, including typhoid fever, meningitis, and osteomyelitis (infection of the bone).
Salmonella is best prevented by proper food handling and cooking, maintaining sanitary water supplies, and good hand washing.
www.drgreene.com /21_1178.html   (643 words)

 Salmonella Outbreak Shows Increased Resistance to Antibiotics
Salmonella enterica is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea, stomach pains, and fever.
Although the outbreak wasn't large, it was brought on by a strain of salmonella called DT104 that affects "less than one percent of all human salmonella infections." This was the first case of DT104 discovered in Denmark.
The pigs suspected of carrying this strain of salmonella were not fed any fluoroquinolones, but the compounds may have been used at the farms previously.
www.webmd.com /content/article/19/1728_50050   (1145 words)

 Salmonella information
There is a great deal of confusion over the naming of Salmonella strains (even the people who work on Salmonella are confused!) but in essence, the strains which we will deal with here are generally different serovars of Salmonella enterica.
As their name suggests Salmonella enterica are involved in causing diseases of the intestines (enteric means pertaining to the intestine).
Of course, not all of the Salmonella pass through the intestinal wall, and many of them are expelled from the intestine in the diarrhea.
www.salmonella.org /info.html   (873 words)

 Salmonella and Reptiles: Veterinary Guidelines
For Salmonella bacteria to spread from reptiles to humans, the bacteria must be ingested.
Unfortunately, Salmonella bacteria cannot be eliminated from the intestinal tract of reptiles.
Attempt to raise or identify reptiles that do not carry Salmonella bacteria have also been unsuccessful; therefore, bacterial culture of stool samples in an attempt to identify reptiles that are not carrying Salmonella bacteria is not recommended.
www.arav.org /SalmonellaOwner.htm   (772 words)

 Bacteriology 102 - General Aspects and Nomenclature of Salmonella
Salmonella is responsible for a major portion of the cases of gastroenteritis each year in the United States.
However, the "handle" for any isolated strain of Salmonella is a further subdivision, the serovar – also known as serotype – a designation which reflects the testable antigenic makeup of the organism, involving the identification of the cell wall ("O") and flagellar ("H") antigens.
In testing for the various H antigens possible in a culture of a Salmonella isolate, the antigens of the majority sub-population are initially detected by the use of individual, specific antibodies.
www.splammo.net /bact102/102xsal.html   (1968 words)

Strains of Salmonella present in companion birds are generally not considered to be of any danger to a healthy human being.
The frequently found Salmonella strains are sensitive to many commonly available antibiotics, but strains from free ranging birds have varying degrees of resistance.
Most strains of Salmonella are motile, or capable of moving spontaneously, and grow on common media.
www.avianbiotech.com /diseases/salmonella.htm   (859 words)

 eMedicine - Salmonellosis : Article by Michael Zapor, MD, PhD
After ingestion, infection with salmonellae is characterized by attachment of the bacteria by fimbriae or pili to cells lining the intestinal lumen.
Virulence factors of salmonellae are complex and encoded both on the organism's chromosome and on large (34-120 kd) plasmids.
Pulmonary: Salmonella pneumonia or empyema is rare in the absence of comorbid illnesses such as underlying lung disease, malignancy, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, or alcohol abuse.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic2058.htm   (3237 words)

 WHO | Drug-resistant Salmonella
Even worse, some variants of Salmonella have developed multidrug-resistance as an integral part of the genetic material of the organism, and are therefore likely to retain their drug-resistant genes even when antimicrobial drugs are no longer used, a situation where other resistant strains would typically lose their resistance.
The emergence of MDR Salmonella strains with resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins is a serious development, which results in severe limitation of the possibilities for effective treatment of human infections.
The emergence of Salmonella strains that are resistant to commonly used antimicrobials should be particularly noted by clinicians, microbiologists and those responsible for the control of communicable diseases, as well as the food producers including the food industry.
www.who.int /mediacentre/factsheets/fs139/en   (2043 words)

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