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Topic: Sanctions


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In the News (Sat 20 Jul 19)

  
  Sanctions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Trade sanctions - economic sanctions applied for non-political reasons, typically as part of a trade dispute, or for purely economic reasons, and typically involving tariffs or similar measures, rather than bans.
In a legal context, sanctions are penalties imposed by the courts.
In Dragonlance, Sanction is the name of a city situated in the continent of Ansalon.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sanction   (202 words)

  
 Sanctions, by Kimberly Ann Elliott and Gary Clyde Hufbauer: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics ...
Sanctions often have taken the form of a naval blockade intended to weaken the enemy during wartime.
Judging the effectiveness of sanctions requires sorting out the various goals sought, analyzing whether the type and scope of the sanction chosen was appropriate to the occasion, and determining the economic and political impact on the target country.
For multilateral sanctions, increasing economic interdependence is a double-edged sword.
www.econlib.org /library/Enc/Sanctions.html   (2582 words)

  
 Learn more about Sanctions in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The most severe sanction is the involuntary dismissal, with prejudice, of the complaining party's cause of action, or of the responding party's answer.
This has the effect of deciding the entire action against the sanctioned party without recourse, except to the degree that an appeal or trial de novo may be allowed because of reversible error.
Sanctions can also be coercive measures adopted by a group of nations in an effort to influence another nation into following international law or submitting to judgment.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /s/sa/sanctions.html   (251 words)

  
 Economic Sanctions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Sanctions tend to work best when international political consensus exists as to the wisdom of employing sanctions and non-targeted countries, who must bear an economic cost as a result of the sanctions, are compensated.
Sanctions should focus to the extent possible on those responsible for the offending behavior or on penalizing countries in the realm that stimulated sanctions in the first place.
Sanctions tend to be a blunt instrument that often produce unintended and undesirable consequences.
www.brookings.edu /views/testimony/haass/19980909.htm   (2102 words)

  
 Sanctions: Diplomatic Tool, or Warfare by Other Means?
Sanctions and threats of sanctions have been credited with curbing human-rights violations, ousting belligerent leaders, and limiting the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Moreover, sanctions are likely to have greater effect on their target if the target government is faced with domestic opposition; otherwise, sanctions may simply encourage greater political cohesion around the targeted leadership.
In doing so, they suggest that sanctions "fall into a gray area between humanitarian law and the rules of warfare." Thus, they recommend applying the rules of just war as well as specific criteria to the use of sanctions, if they are to serve a legitimate purpose in international affairs.
www.beyondintractability.org /m/sanctions.jsp   (3844 words)

  
 Use and Effect of Unilateral Trade Sanctions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
As a rule, unilateral sanctions tend to be little more than statements or expressions of opposition except in those instances in which the tie between the United States and the target is so extensive that the latter cannot adjust to an American cut-off.
Sanctions tend to work best when international political consensus exists and non-targeted countries who must bear an economic cost as a result of the sanctions are compensated.
Sanctions should be targeted as narrowly as possible on the entities involved in the activity that we oppose.
www.brook.edu /views/testimony/haass/19990527.htm   (1465 words)

  
 Reason: The Politics of Dead Children: Have sanctions against Iraq murdered millions?
The idea that sanctions in Iraq have killed half a million children (or 1 million, or 1.5 million, depending on the hysteria of the source) took root in 1995 and 1996, on the basis of two transparently flawed studies, one inexplicable doubling of the studies’ statistics, and a non-denial on 60 Minutes.
In the hands of sanctions opponents and foreign policy critics, it was portrayed as a confession of fact, even though neither Albright nor the U.S. government has ever admitted to such a ghastly number (nor had anybody aside from CESR and Lesley Stahl ever suggested such a thing until May 1996).
Sanctions critics almost always leave out one other salient fact: The vast majority of the horror stats they quote apply to the period before March 1997, when the oil-for-food program delivered its first boatload of supplies (nearly six years after the U.N. first proposed the idea to a reluctant Iraqi government).
www.reason.com /0203/fe.mw.the.shtml   (2662 words)

  
 A User's Guide to Economic Sanctions--free trade, unilateral and economic trade sanctions
Economic sanctions may be employed to deter military aggression or to force an aggressor to withdraw its armed forces from a disputed territory.
Sanctions against countries that seek to acquire weapons in violation of international regimes controlling the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile technology are far more likely to be effective if applied multilaterally and targeted against the offending country's leaders and armed forces.
These sanctions typically are secondary boycotts mandating (1) procurement restrictions that prohibit the state or locality from buying goods and services from any firm doing business in a target country and (2) divestiture requirements to prevent the state or locality from investing public funds in any firm doing business in a target country.
www.usaengage.org /archives/studies/users.html   (7591 words)

  
 Haiti Sanctions and Environment Case
Sanctions on Haiti seemed to fail outright: Haiti's environment was effected deleteriously; due to a lack of staple goods, Haiti's poor suffered; and Rauol Cedras's control over Haiti was strengthened, rather than weakened.
Sanctions were in place from 1990 to 1994, when Aristide was reinstated as President of Haiti.(2) The proceeding is a time line of O.A.S., U.N., and U.S. actions taken against Cedras's regime.
As sanction theory goes, the more suffering those opposed to the regime in power have to endure, the more likely they are to attempt coups against that regime.
www.american.edu /projects/mandala/TED/haiti.htm   (3335 words)

  
 Sanctions as Siege Warfare
Between 1945 and 1990 sanctions were imposed worldwide in 104 instances; in two-thirds of these, the United States was either a key player or the sanctions were unilateral actions by the United States with no participation from other countries.
This ought to raise serious ethical concerns, since sanctions (like their low-tech predecessor, siege warfare) historically have caused the most extreme and direct suffering to those who are the weakest, the most vulnerable and the least political.
Sanctions, like siege warfare, have generally been perceived by civilian populations as the hostile and damaging act of a foreign power.
www.thenation.com /doc/19990322/gordon/3   (872 words)

  
 Sanctions Against Iraq - Global Policy Forum - UN Security Council   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The sanctions remained in place thereafter, despite a harsh impact on innocent Iraqi civilians and an evident lack of pressure on Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein.
Though all members of the Security Council agreed in principle that sanctions had to end, many Council members were concerned that a resolution would indirectly justify the war and acknowledge the US occupation.
From the earliest days of the sanctions, critics pointed to many serious flaws, including the humanitarian suffering of innocent civilians, the lack of clear criteria for lifting, and the failure of the sanctions to put direct pressure on Iraq's leaders.
www.globalpolicy.org /security/sanction/indexone.htm   (703 words)

  
 FRONTLINE/WORLD . Iraq - Truth and Lies in Baghdad . The Debate Over U.N. Sanctions | PBS
Still, a heated debate continues over the impact of the sanctions and over whether the United Nations and in particular the United States are responsible or whether Saddam himself has blocked humanitarian aid to further his own propaganda war.
That is why the sanctions regime has always specifically exempted food and medicine." On this Web page, you'll find links to more information on the Iraq Oil-for-Food program, the U.S. policy on the enforcement of the sanctions and the alleged role oil smuggling has played in getting around the economic impact of the sanctions.
According to Sudetic, "The devastating aspect of the sanctions is not that they restrict what Iraq can import; it is that they keep the country from accessing its cash." Although Iraq earned billions in revenue under the Oil-for-Food program in 2000, only about 33 percentwas spent on food and 2 percent on medical supplies.
www.pbs.org /frontlineworld/stories/iraq/sanctions.html   (1520 words)

  
 Myths and Realities Regarding Iraq and Sanctions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Sanctions target the weakest and most vulnerable members of the Iraqi society-the poor, elderly, newborn, sick, and young.
Sanctions are an insidious form of warfare, and have claimed hundreds of thousands of innocent lives.
Sanctions are simply not the same in the north and south.
www.stopusa.be /scripts/texte.php?section=BDBA&langue=3&id=10827   (3248 words)

  
 SANCTIONS
The wording of the sanctions resolutions (particularly once all food was exempted) does not suggest that Iraq should have any difficulty in importing food and medicine, apart from the obvious difficulty that its funds are frozen and it has no money to pay for supplies.
The sanctions alone would not amount to siege warfare, but the blockade forcibly preventing goods from entering or leaving Iraq and the prohibition on Iraqis using their own funds held abroad provide the element of force required to bring the blockade/sanctions regime within the concept of siege warfare.
The blockade/sanctions regime is a deliberate, positive course of conduct which is known by the UN to be a “but-for” cause of civilian death and suffering.
www.zmag.org /CrisesCurEvts/Iraq/sanctions.htm   (7467 words)

  
 IRAQI SANCTIONS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The bombing left the infrastructure shattered and the sanctions remained in place, affecting the lives of millions of Iraqi civilians that, before the Gulf War, had known the highest health and medical standards in the region.
Sanctions are supposed to target the Iraqi regime, but instead, affect the very young, the very old, and the poor.
Sanctions have made survival the focus of the common people of Iraq, leaving them no time or resources for the popular uprising that the US government hopes the sanctions will inspire.
www.ratm.com /new2/iraq.html   (615 words)

  
 Kroc Institute : Research : The Sanctions Project
The Sanctions and Security Project is an integral part of the Kroc Institute/Fourth Freedom Forum joint effort to explore non-military means of enforcing international norms.
The project began in the midst of a dramatic increase in the number of multilateral sanctions cases in the early 1990s.
The Iraq case involves all of the issues examined elsewhere in the sanctions research project, especially effectiveness and humanitarian impact, and is of such magnitude and complexity as to deserve special attention.
www.nd.edu /~krocinst/research/econsanc.html   (431 words)

  
 CTPS Issues: Unilateral Sanctions
From Cuba to Iran to Burma, sanctions have failed to achieve the goal of changing the behavior or the nature of target regimes.
Sanctions have managed only to deprive American companies of investment opportunities and market share and to punish domestic consumers, while hurting the poor and most vulnerable in the target countries.
Sanctions have utterly failed to change the nature or basic behavior of governments in Cuba, Burma, Iran, Nigeria, Yugoslavia, and a number of other target countries.
www.freetrade.org /issues/sanctions.html   (369 words)

  
 Middle East Report Online: Smart Sanctions: Rebuilding Consensus or Maintaining Conflict? by Marc Lynch
Faced with declining international support for and compliance with the current sanctions, the United States and the United Kingdom are pushing a major package of sanctions "reforms." The US-UK proposal would allow some civilian goods into Iraq, while tightening embargoes on others and retaining the UN's financial control over the Iraqi economy.
As Secretary of State Colin Powell remarked on March 8, "smart sanctions are meant to rescue the sanctions, not to abandon them." Should Powell's initiative fail, the hawks will be well-positioned to push their alternatives.
The "smart sanctions" proposal would open up trade in civilian goods, allowing such contracts to be approved directly by the UN Secretariat instead of being reviewed by the controversial UN Sanctions Committee.
www.merip.org /mero/mero062801.html   (1737 words)

  
 World Energy Sanctions
ILSA provided for the imposition of sanctions on companies, irrespective of their corporate "nationality," that invest more than $20 million annually (in August 1997, this was lowered from $40 million) in the Iranian oil and gas sectors.
In 1999, the sanctions on Libya were modified to allow shipments of donated clothing, food and medicine for humanitarian reasons (trade in informational materials such as books and movies was also allowed).
The original sanctions were largely authorized under the Anti-Terrorism and Arms Export Control Act of 1989, which consolidated many of the previously enacted counterterrorism sanctions in legislation.
www.eia.doe.gov /emeu/cabs/sanction.html   (4084 words)

  
 Sanctions
The United States maintains economic and trade sanctions and embargoes against targeted foreign countries, groups, organizations, and individuals.
For example, a number of the named individuals and entities are known to move from country to country and may end up in locations where they would be least expected.
Sanctions and embargoes are used for a variety of purposes, including:
www.itds.treas.gov /sanctions.html   (449 words)

  
 CNN.com - U.S. hits Syria with sanctions - May 11, 2004
The sanctions also sever banking relations with the Commercial Bank of Syria, freeze assets of Syrians and Syrian entities suspected of involvement terrorism or WMD development, Reuters reported.
The sanctions fall under the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act, passed by Congress in November and signed by Bush in December to punish the Damascus government.
Not among the sanctions was an expected curb on future investments by U.S. energy companies, who constitute the only major American corporate presence in Syria, Reuters reported.
edition.cnn.com /2004/WORLD/meast/05/11/us.syria   (440 words)

  
 Kroc Institute : The Sanctions Project - Publications
Sanctions and the Search for Security: Challenges to UN Action (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 2002).
David Cortright and George A. Lopez with Jaleh Dashti-Gibson, and Julia Wagler, The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies for the 1990s (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000).
Sanctions, Inspection, and Containment: Viable Policy Options in Iraq, by David Cortright, Alistair Millar and George A. Lopez, Kroc Institute/Fourth Freedom Forum Policy Brief F3 (May 2002).
www.nd.edu /~krocinst/research/econsanc-pub.html   (1408 words)

  
 Sanctions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Resolution 661 (1990) of 6 August 1990 imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, including a full trade embargo barring all imports from and exports to Iraq, excepting only medical supplies, foodstuffs, and other items of humanitarian need, as determined by the Security Council sanctions committee, which was also established by Resolution 661.
The sanctions committee was chaired at the beginning of 2004 by the Ambassador of Romania, with the delegations of the Philippines and Pakistan providing vice chairmen.
The sanctions committee subsequently adopted on 8 August 1996 the Procedures for the implementation of Resolution 986.
www.un.org /News/ossg/iraq.htm   (1258 words)

  
 Sidestepping Sanctions
With no Americans on the payroll, the subsidiaries are free to ignore U.S. sanctions against the "axis of evil" and other countries identified by the Bush administration as the primary sponsors of terrorism.
But the point, critics say, is not whether sanctions work, but why major corporations are being allowed to sidestep the law.
Sanctions enjoy broad, bipartisan support -- the most recent version of the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act passed Congress by a vote of 409-6 -- and conservative Republicans have been among the most vocal champions of cutting off trade to countries that sponsor terrorist organizations.
www.motherjones.com /news/outfront/2003/07/ma_452_01.html   (1220 words)

  
 Cool War (Harpers.org)
But only those sanctions imposed on Iraq have been comprehensive, meaning that virtually every aspect of the country's imports and exports is controlled, which is particularly damaging to a country recovering from war.
Often forgotten is the fact that sanctions were imposed before the war-in August of 1990-in direct response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
A few months later, the United States began aggressively and publicly pushing a proposal for “smart sanctions,” sometimes known as “targeted sanctions.” The idea behind smart sanctions is to “contour” sanctions so that they affect the military and the political leadership instead of the citizenry.
www.harpers.org /CoolWar.html?pg=1   (4568 words)

  
 "We Think the Price Is Worth It"
The summer of 2001 saw a revival of long-discredited claims that sanctions are not to blame for Iraq's suffering, but that Saddam Hussein bears sole responsibility--an argument put forward in a State Department report (8/99) issued shortly after the UNICEF report on the deaths of children.
While Rubin was given space for his misrepresentation of the effects of sanctions, critics of the sanctions were virtually shut out of the debate.
Mentioning that chlorine is embargoed under the sanctions, it speculates that "Iraq could try convincing the United Nations or individual countries to exempt water treatment supplies from sanctions for humanitarian reasons," something that the United States disallowed for many years.
www.fair.org /index.php?page=1084   (1747 words)

  
 U.S. Government Export Portal: European Union (EU) Trade Sanctions Against the United States
On March 1, 2004, the EU began to impose retaliatory trade sanctions on a number of U.S. products, as a result of the WTO ruling that the FSC/ETI provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code constitute a prohibited export subsidy and are in violation of WTO rules.
Although the EU is authorized to retaliate on $4.043 billion of U.S. exports, it has chosen to phase in the sanctions.
The sanctions will remain in place until they are lifted by the EU or the WTO finds that a U.S. legislative measure has removed the illegal export subsidy.
www.export.gov /eu_tsatus.html   (1648 words)

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