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Topic: Saponification

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In the News (Thu 18 Jul 19)

  The Cold Process for Soap Making
Saponification is a chemical process which converts a fat into a soap by reaction with an alkali (lye).
The amounts of the fats, along with their saponification values, are inserted into a mathematical formula that will give the total amount of lye needed to saponify a batch of soap.
Once the saponification process has begun to take place, at trace (the point at which a line begins to form when stirring the mixture) the soap is poured into molds and allowed to solidify.
www.soapmakersupplies.com /soapmaking/HowTo_ColdProcess.html   (1178 words)

 Development of analysis of tocopherols and tocotrienols in rye.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Saponification procedures are most widely used when analyzing tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in foods.
Experimental design was used to study the effects of various factors in the saponification procedure on T and T3 contents in rye flour.
Saponification temperature (60-100 C) was insignificant on the yields.
www.aaccnet.org /meetings/2001/Abstracts/a01ma360.htm   (253 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In the said saponification process, particularly rosin acids have the problem that, if saponification has not taken place completely or nearly completely, unsaponified rosin acid begins to precipitate on the cooling surfaces of the cooling heat exchanger, thus blocking it and causing it to lose its heat-exchanging ability.
The completeness of the saponification reaction is also affected by using a relatively long, thermally insulated pipe 12 after the disperser 4, which creates additional dwell time benefiting the reaction.
This is because, if the saponification reaction is not complete, material will begin to precipitate on the cooler, reducing its cooling effect and naturally raising the temperature of the cooling liquid flowing out of the cooler.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=03/18739.030306&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (1630 words)

 Soapmaking 101
A soap recipe is selected that calls for the precise measurement of oils and lye as well as the "combination temperature," the exact temperature at which the oils are combined with the lye to produce saponification.
Saponification is the term we use to refer to the chemical process whereby fats/oils (acids) combine with lye (an alkali) to produce a neutral salt - soap.
Most commercial soap made via saponification (remember some commercial soaps are actually detergents - not soap at all) is made at a very high temperature.
www.suite101.com /lesson.cfm/17779/1066/2?l=3   (475 words)

 Chevreul : his work on chemistry of fats and dying
From the beginning of this period, the first contributions were exclusively devoted to the study of soap and saponification.
Thus, during saponification, the alkali displaced the anhydride which combined with water to form glycerol, and the acid part of the fat combined with the alkali to form soap.
After saponification, cetine gives "cetic acid" which he recognized as merely a mixture of margaric acid and oleic acids.
www.cyberlipid.org /chevreul/work0003.htm   (2132 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Saponification is the conversion of the fatty acid to into a soap by treating it with an alkali.
The saponification number is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify one gram of the ester.
Even though similar chemicals may be used in the saponification process clearly the present invention does not require the organic extraction step nor the saponification step to provide an improved plant material.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=00/07458.000217&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (5297 words)

 Chemistry 102 - Experiment 8
The saponification is complete if a wax-like solid begins to form that on further cooling becomes hard and somewhat brittle.
Saponification should be complete by 30-45 min (but it may take only 15-20 min).
The saponification reaction is complete when a wax-like solid begins to form, that upon further cooling becomes hard and somewhat brittle (like soap).
www.miracosta.cc.ca.us /home/dlr/102exp8.htm   (1599 words)

 Saponification Number   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Saponification value of a fat or oil is defined as the number of milligrams of KOH needed to saponify 1g of fat.
It basically involves the heating of fat in alkali leading to the formation of glycerol and potassium of the fatty acids.The saponification value is an indication of the sized or nature of the fatty acid chanins esterified to glycerol.
These values are given as a range and therefore a number of determinations of your unknown should be carried out to determine the range to enable you to identify your oil (only if it is pure).
www.pentech.ac.za /clients/biosci/saponifi.htm   (291 words)

 soap making FAQ from Tea Tree Soap Co. - handcrafters of fine herbal&vegetable based soaps
Saponification is the chemical reaction created by combining oils or fats with an alkali and water.
Aside from the heat used to melt the solid fats to their liquid state, the heat produced by combining the precisely weighed oils or fats, alkali and water is sufficient to initiate the chemical reaction.
Saponification is complete after the soap mixture has been poured into molds, cut into bars, and allowed to cure for several weeks.
www.teatreesoap.com /makingsoap.html   (666 words)

 Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
Other determinations done prior to saponification included the determination of the saponification value of the oil blend; its titre value; percent impurities and moisture content.  These are standard procedures in oil processing and have been detailed elsewhere (Swern, 1964).
C and 134.3g of bleached oil blend (the amount of oil blend that completely saponified 28.5g of the potassium hydroxide; as determined by the saponification value of the oil blend) was gradually charged into the pot.
Efficient designs in the unit operations of the soap making process, as well as in the saponification reaction stage, to bring about a reasonable substitution of locally derived potassium hydroxide alkali, for imported ones, should be pursued.
www.bioline.org.br /request?ja02016   (1213 words)

 BRIDGEPOINT TECHNICAL DATABASE: Terminology - Reverse Saponification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Reverse saponification is caused by combining an incompatible chemical with a detergent, the result of which is a breakdown of the detergent, forming an oily residue which is quite difficult to dissolve.
Ionization takes place when an acid, base or salt (soap), is dissolved in water and results in the solution taking on either a predominantly positive or negative electrical charge which effects the molecule overall.
If Reverse Saponification does take place, it usually results with a oily or waxy type substance left on the fiber.
www.bridgepoint.com /technical_help/reversesaponification.html   (340 words)

 Spectroscopic Analysis of Aspirin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The first step in the preparation of our sample is a saponification reaction.
Saponification is the reaction of an ester with sodium hydroxide to produce an alcohol and the sodium salt of the carboxylic acid of the ester.
A 50.0 mL of 0.15 M cobalt II nitrate is diluted to 250 mL with water.
www.pitt.edu /~n3lsk/0114/specaspproc.html   (926 words)

 [No title]
If saponification were the only means for removing fat and oil we would be left choosing between an alkali so mild that it does not work and one so harsh that it turns the skin to soap.
The problem is that you are unlikely to find tri-oleine, tri-palmitine, or tri-stearine in the grocery store; fats and oils generally contain a variety of fatty acids, chiefly oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids but including a dozen or so other less abundant acids as well.
The saponification values are generally discounted by 5% or so; simply multiply each saponification value by a factor of 0.95.
cavemanchemistry.com /cavebook/chsoap2.html   (2232 words)

 ToyoTex Trading - Frequently Asked Questions
PVA with Saponification degree of 88 mol% is the best for solubility in water and absorbability of moisture but adhesiveness and oil solubility of partial saponification are better that those of complete saponification.
Generally, PVA with polymerization degree of 1,700 and complete saponification is used to blend with starch as sizing agent for cotton yarn or cotton polyester blended yarn.
PVA with polymerization degree of 1,700 and complete saponification is recommendable, but in case of using high concentration of the sizing solution to squeeze under high pressure, PVA with partial saponification may be recommended.
www.toyotextrading.com /faqs.html   (2650 words)

 LAB: Saponification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In the process of making soap, animal fat, which is a triglyceride, is hydrolyzed by the action of a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide, and heat.
Sodium hydroxide is very caustic, and can cause severe burns to the skin, especially when hot.
This is an investigative lab of the SAPONIFICATION process.
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Hall/1410/lab-C-06.html   (388 words)

 Lye to Fat Ratio Table
This table is for those of you who want to get a bit more scientific in soap making, or just want to check and see if the person who created the recipe you're planning on using knew what they were doing.
Each fat has its own saponification value, or "SAP Value." And because of this, each fat requires a different amount of lye to convert the fat to soap.
As the same oil from different sources will have a slightly different saponification value, we recommend you keep your soap a bit fat heavy to ensure you don't end up with lye in your finished product.
waltonfeed.com /old/soap/soaptabl.html   (691 words)

Soap saponification process is done in a specially designed heavy-duty vessel.
This vessel is specially designed to keep all the points in mind for better convenience in operation and better saponification process.
In this process oils are heated in vessel by the steam of boiler and proper quantity of caustic soda (NAOH) is added for full saponification.
www.jagdishexports.com /english/soap_soap_machinery.html   (98 words)

 FDA > CDRH > CFR Title 21 Database Search
C, a color of M or paler, and a saponification number less than 280.
C, a color of M or paler, and having a saponification number less than 280.
C, a color of K or paler, a saponification number less than 280, and a maximum ultraviolet absorbance of 0.14 at 296 m[micro] (using a 1-centimeter cell and 200 milligrams of the rosin ester per liter of solvent consisting of ethyl alcohol made alkaline by addition of 0.1 percent of potassium hydroxide).
www.accessdata.fda.gov /scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=178.3870   (1715 words)

 [No title]
In the saponification process the ester linkage is broken to form glycerol and soap.
Test the reaction mixture to determine if the saponification process is complete by carefully placing a few drops of the reaction mixture in a 6-inch test tube.
When the saponification process is complete, turn the bunsen burner off, add 25 mL of deionized water to the beaker and place the beaker on the bench top to cool for about 5-6 minutes.
www.chem.latech.edu /~deddy/chem122m/L06U00Soap122.htm   (833 words)

 Soap Making
Semi Boiled Saponification for the production of medium quality soap is made by a simple mixing and heating process in a Crutcher (soap mixer) and is used for making small (1 to 5 tonnes) batches of laundry or household soap.
Continuous Saponification is suitable for the production of all grades of soap up to the highest quality levels.
In the process, raw materials are accurately metered via a special pump to the saponification reactor.
www.britsoap.co.uk /soap-making.htm   (673 words)

 MMS - Fixed Oil
Our Ultra Refined Almond Butter is derived from sweet Almonds (Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis), specifically from the Mediterranean area, and is obtained by the cold pressing of selected fruits followed by a full refining process.
Hemp seed butter is a mixture of the natural waxes found in hemp seed oil, these fractions along with hydrogenated hemp seed oil make the butter.
This oil is also known as vegetable tallow, it adds firmness to your bar soaps and gives a pale straw color too.
www.thesage.com /catalog/FixedOil.html?mmsID=f35b4004a38168f7a9f6f0a5ec24ca32   (5761 words)

 Soapmaking: free soap recipes & directions.
The answer is the number of ounces (or grams) lye (sodium hydroxide) required to saponify that much fat.
These numbers are based on the "average saponification value" of particular oils.
For instance, the saponification value of macadameia ranges from.193 to.198, depending on the source of the oil and how it's refined.
members.aol.com /oelaineo/sapchart.html   (1010 words)

 History of fatty acid technology
The analysis of fatty acid-containing compounds requires previously their hydrolysis or saponification, the separation of the non-acidic constituents (when necessary) and the liberation of the acids from the mixture of soap.
A small amount of water must be present to affect rapid and complete saponification of glyceride oils.
After saponification, approximately half of the alcohol is removed under vacuum, the residue being diluted with water and the unsaponifiable matter (hydrocarbons, tocopherols, sterols, etc) extracted by shaking with an organic solvent, diethyl ether or petroleum ether.
www.cyberlipid.org /fattyt/fatt0008.htm   (3390 words)

 Soapmaking Supplies | Pine Meadows Soap Making Supplies, Lotion Making Supplies & Candle Making Supplies
It's clear, colorless, and has a slight oily feel that is easily absorbed by the skin.
Cocoa butter has beneficial moisturizing qualities but is not easily absorbed by the skin, so you should use it with other oils that are easily absorbed like olive, sunflower, apricot kernel, etc. Limit use to about 15% of your total fats and oils.
If used in excess palm kernel oil can be drying to the skin so keep your percentages between 10 and 30% and enjoy this oils moisturizing properties.
www.pinemeadows.net /soap.php   (2392 words)

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