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Topic: Satellite temperature measurements

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In the News (Tue 18 Jun 19)

  Satellite temperature measurements - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Satellites have been sensing the temperature of the troposphere since 1979; the usable balloon (radiosonde) record begins in 1958.
The intensity is proportional to the temperature of broad vertical layers of the atmosphere, as demonstrated by theory and direct comparisons with atmospheric temperatures from radiosonde (balloon) profiles.
The satellites also measure the lower stratospheric temperature [20] and show a decline in stratospheric temperatures, interspersed by warmings related to volcanic eruptions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Satellite_temperature_measurements   (1399 words)

 Instrumental temperature record - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The instrumental temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans since the invention of thermometers.
Secondary evidence for temperature changes can be obtained by observing things that are predicted to be affected by temperature changes, such as variations in the snow cover and ice extent [6], sea level rise, precipitation [7], cloud cover [8], El Niño and extreme weather events [9].
For example, satellite data shows a 10% decrease of snow cover since the late 1960s [10], and the Northern Hemisphere spring and summer sea-ice extent has decreased by about 10% to 15% since the 1950s and there has been a widespread retreat of mountain glaciers in non-polar regions throughout the 20th century.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Historical_temperature_record   (705 words)

 Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis
Analyses of temperature trends since 1958 for the lowest 8 km of the atmosphere and at the surface are in good agreement, as shown in Figure 4a, with a warming of about 0.1°C per decade.
In the stratosphere, as shown in Figure 4b, both satellites and balloons show substantial cooling, punctuated by sharp warming episodes of one to two years long that are due to volcanic eruptions.
As Figure 5 indicates, the rate and duration of warming of the Northern Hemisphere in the 20th century appears to have been unprecedented during the millennium, and it cannot simply be considered as a recovery from the “Little Ice Age” of the 15th to 19th centuries.
www.grida.no /climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/012.htm   (1921 words)

 World Climate Report » Assault From Above   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The satellite-based temperature measurements of the earth’s atmosphere are not collected from a single altitude, but instead represent the weighted average temperature of a rather large atmospheric layer.
Their procedure was to use the satellite temperature measurements of the stratosphere as an indicator of how much cooling had worked its way into the history of the tropospheric temperatures.
It turns out that the recognition that the stratospheric temperatures were contaminating the satellite measurements of the middle and upper troposphere was made long ago by the co-founders of the original satellite-based temperature history, University of Alabama-Huntsville scientists John Christy and Roy Spencer.
www.worldclimatereport.com /index.php/2004/05/04/assault-from-above   (1161 words)

 Monitoring and Calibrating Sea Surface Temperature
Comparison of low resolution blended satellite and ship data bases averaged over the broadest time and space scales, high resolution satellite data, and in-situ measurements in the Caribbean showed that high resolution data was within around 0.2 degrees of the real value but underestimated it increasingly as temperature rose.
Where TSat is the satellite derived value, Tmeas is the measured value, R is the correlation coefficient, P is the probability of the correlation emerging by chance, and n is the number of comparisons.
Satellite derived sea surface temperatures represent offshore, open-ocean conditions, and will not be the same as values in the reef habitat wherever restricted circulation and coastal freshwater inputs are found.
globalcoral.org /monitoring_and_calibrating_sea_s.htm   (3574 words)

 The Marshall Institute - A Guide to Global Warming - Questions and Answers on Climate Change
The precision of the satellite temperature measurements is confirmed by the fact that they are in excellent agreement with temperatures measured independently by a worldwide network of radiosonde instruments carried aloft by balloons.
The contrast in temperature trends between the surface and satellite measurements of the lower atmosphere is puzzling because the computer models say the CO -produced warming trend in the lower atmosphere should be larger than at the surface, but it is not.
Measurements for the ocean, which covers three-quarters of the area of the globe, are sparse.
www.marshall.org /article.php?id=67   (7325 words)

 NASA: 1998 Earth Temperature Trends   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
These emissions, measured with the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) instruments aboard TIROS-N weather satellites, are proportional to the temperature of the atmosphere, and have allowed scientists to build a 20-year record of the temperature of the Earth as measured from space.
The global satellite temperature measurements are obtained from nine different satellites, and provide a record of the temperature in two regions of the Earth's atmosphere: the lower troposphere (the lowest 5 miles of the atmosphere) and the lower stratosphere (covering an altitude range of about 9-12 miles).
Surface temperature measurements for 1998 show this to be the warmest year this century.
www.sepp.org /reality/NASA98temp.html   (754 words)

 Contrary Thermometers
That's the riddle posed to climatologists by satellite and radiosonde data which show that while the Earth's surface has been warming over the past decades, the lowest layer of the atmosphere shows a weaker warming trend.
The measurements are surprising, because computer simulations of the world's climate predict that the two lowest layers of the atmosphere -- which together form the "troposphere" -- should be warming faster than the Earth's surface.
Temperature measurements at the Earth's surface indicate a warming trend, whereas satellite measurements show both warming and cooling -- depending on where you look.
science.nasa.gov /headlines/y2000/ast21jul_1m.htm   (1429 words)

 Accuracy In Media - AIM Briefing
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's surface air temperature record, which is a composite of temperature measurements taken at ground level stations in populated areas of the world, shows that the overall global temperature has increased 0.35° F per decade since the mid-1970s.
NASA's satellite record, which uses microwave-sounding units to include the temperature measurements of remote deserts, oceans and rain forests, shows no temperature change in the lower troposphere since 1979.
The treatise gives three possible explanations for the discrepancy: the surface air record is inaccurate, the satellite record is inaccurate or both records are accurate, and their differing trends are the result of some unknown atmospheric process or processes.
www.aim.org /publications/briefings/2000/12july2000.html   (804 words)

 Accurate "Thermometers" In Space: The State Of Climate Measurement Science
Over the past century, global measurements of the temperature at the Earth's surface have indicated a warming trend of between 0.3 and 0.6 degrees C. But many - especially the early - computer-based global climate models (GCM's) predict that the rate should be even higher if it is due to the man-made "Greenhouse Effect".
The largest fluctuations in the satellite temperature data are not from any man-made activity, but from natural phenomena such as large volcanic eruptions from Mt. Pinatubo, and from El Niño.
The result is that the satellite temperature measurements are accurate to within three one-hundredths of a degree Centigrade (0.03 C) when compared to ground-launched balloons taking measurements of the same region of the atmosphere at the same time.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/1997-10/NSFC-AIST-061097.php   (1042 words)

 Livermore researchers discover uncertainties in satellite data hamper detection of global warming
LIVERMORE, Calif. -- Using a new analysis of satellite temperature measurements, scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have determined that uncertainties in satellite data are a significant factor in studies attempting to detect human effects on climate.
This analysis is complicated by such factors as the gradual decay and drift of satellite orbits (which affect the time of day at which MSU instruments measure atmospheric temperatures) and by problems related to the calibration of MSUs.
The positive detection of model tropospheric temperature 'fingerprints' in the Santa Rosa satellite data is consistent with earlier research that has found human-induced signals in such climate variables as surface temperature, ocean heat content, tropopause height and Northern Hemisphere sea ice cover.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2003-05/uoc--lrd050103.php   (744 words)

 A heated controversy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
By contrast, the result that environmentalists recite most fondly is that measurements taken at the earth’s surface show that temperatures have risen by 0.3-0.6°C since the late-19th century—a big rise compared with previous long-run changes in the climate.
Unlike satellites, which are able to record temperatures across the globe, measurements taken at the surface are unevenly distributed.
Temperature trends on land need to be corrected for the effect of urbanisation—as cities spread outwards they warm surrounding areas, giving the false impression of natural warming.
www.sepp.org /controv/heated.html   (1473 words)

 Middle Atmosphere Climatologies Newsletter 20
Comparisons of zonal mean temperature climatologies in the lower stratosphere show relatively large differences among analyses over (1) polar regions in winter and spring, and (2) near the tropical tropopause.
Included in these figures are estimates of monthly temperatures derived for the same 1992-1997 time period from radiosonde measurements at a group of eight near-equatorial stations (within 5° of the equator).
Lidar temperature measurements from the 1990’s are contemporaneous with the global analyses, and offer the most direct comparisons.
www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca /SPARC/News20/20_Randel.html   (3262 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change (2000)
An overall increase in global-mean atmospheric temperatures is predicted to occur in response to human-induced increases in atmospheric concentrations of heat-trapping ''greenhouse gases" (IPCC, 1996).
The satellite measurements appear to be substantiated by independent trend estimates for this period based on radiosonde data.
It is also conceivable that temperatures at the earth's surface and aloft have not tracked each other perfectly because they have responded differently to natural and/or human-induced climate forcing during this particular 20-year period.
www.nap.edu /books/0309068916/html/7.html   (755 words)

 Let future generations worry about it
As to the fact that the last nine out of ten years have been the warmest is not supported by satellite temperature measurements.
Satellite measurements show no warming since 1979 when the program was started, most likely because satellite temperature measurements are not biased by the urban heat island effect.
The mean temperature of the earth’s surface would be approximately minus 20 degrees centigrade.
www.bitterroot.com /grizzly/ryan.htm   (931 words)

 The Sun is Warm - Access to Energy - Pro-Science, Pro-Technology, Pro-Freedom
During recent months, satellite temperature measurements of the lower troposphere have risen from those prevalent in early 1998.
The 18-year trend line (even after recent improvements for satellite drift and other minor corrections) is still slightly negative - or, within statistical significance, essentially unchanged because the recent rise so far covers a short ime interval.
The hypothesis that human activity is significantly changing the temperature and weather of the Earth is not supported by the experimental data and is, in fact, rejected by it.
www.accesstoenergy.com /view/ate/s41p791.htm   (617 words)

 AMS '99: Scientists Present 1998 Temperature Trends   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
At the same time, the temperature of the lower stratosphere has declined at a rate of -0.6 degrees C per decade.
Climate models suggest that the deep layer measured by the satellite and weather balloons should be warming about 30% faster than the surface (+0.23 deg.
None of the satellite or weather balloon estimates are near this value.
spacescience.com /newhome/headlines/essd13jan99_1.htm   (849 words)

 Earth's Temperature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Their data show temperature variations in the lower troposphere, a region from the surface to about 5 miles into the atmosphere.
"The temperatures we measure from space are actually on a very slight downward trend since 1979 in the lower troposphere.
But the space-based measurements show a more complex vertical structure, with cooling in the lower portion of this deep layer and warming in the upper portion.
www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov /MSU/hl_temp_ud.html   (656 words)

 Luboš Motl's reference frame: Global mean temperature 1978-2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Fu argued that one must add a positive contribution to the present temperature of the troposphere in order to agree with the global warming theory, and such an extra contribution may be justified by the cooling of the stratosphere that may be "artificially" lowering our data from the troposphere.
Roy Spencer from Alabama who is - together with John Christy - the most experienced guy in the satellite temperature measurements claimed that the paper by Fu was rubbish and that it did not appreciate some exact methods and insights that the Alabama guys made decades ago.
Balloon measurements of the tropical belt began in 1960 and show that the lower to mid troposphere actually warmed faster than the surface in "a pattern consistent with model projections of the vertical structure of tropospheric warming associated with increasing concentrations of well-mixed atmospheric greenhouse gases.
motls.blogspot.com /2005/01/global-mean-temperature-1978-2004.html   (2534 words)

 Satellite Observations of the Earth/Atmosphere/Ocean/Biosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Wentz and Schabel (1998) report that corrections to satellite-based temperature measurements are needed to account for the slow decrease in altitude that satellites normally experience due to drag.
As the satellite falls toward earth, its field of view changes and produces a reading representative of a more limited area.
The corrected temperature calculated by Wentz and Schabel (1998) for the period analyzed by Spencer and Christy is +0.07 K per decade, which is much more consistent with the observed rise in global surface temperature of 0.13 K per decade (Houghton, 1996) over this 17-year period.
www.iitap.iastate.edu /gcp/satellite/trend.html   (270 words)

 ScienceDaily: Livermore Researchers Discover Uncertainties In Satellite Data Hamper Detection Of Global Warming
Stratosphere Temperature Data Support Scientists' Proof For Global Warming (November 29, 2004) -- A new interpretation for temperature data from satellites, published earlier this year, raised controversy when its authors claimed it eliminated doubt that, on average, the lower atmosphere is...
Instrumental temperature record -- The instrumental temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans since the invention of...
Temperature record -- The temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans through various spans of time.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2003/05/030502075057.htm   (2075 words)

 Global Warming Is 'Real,' Report Finds   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The panel estimated the increase in temperatures over the past century at between 0.7 and 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit--a 30 percent increase from earlier projections that reflects record-shattering high temperatures in the late 1990s.
The NRC panel's chief task was to attempt to reconcile the differences between the observed temperature changes on land and in the troposphere, the layer of the atmosphere that extends six
Also, the 20-year satellite record is too short to be reliable in analyzing long-term trends, the report said.
home.earthlink.net /~mjohnsen/Environment/real_warm.html   (700 words)

 NASA Satelite Temperature Measurements Fuel Global Warming Debate [Free Republic]
Comparing data on temperature and sea level published in the peer-reviewed literature, Singer found that the ongoing sea level trend showed a drop between 1925 and 1940, when temperatures were rising (recovering from the ``Little Ice Age'').
The impact of the heat-island effect on land-based temperature stations, specifically the research on land-based stations in California by meteorologist James Goodridge, which show a wide disparity between temperature readings in large-population counties (large increase over time), medium-population counties (small increase), and small-population counties (no increase at all).
John Christy and Roy Spencer regarding the cause of the divergent trends in surface temperature data and upper troposphere temperature data measured by the MSU.
www.freerepublic.com /forum/a3b2a1b842aea.htm   (5250 words)

 Ozone lost in waves
Waves of energy in the atmosphere are aiding the destruction of Arctic ozone, researchers conclude from satellite temperature measurements.
Newman's team used temperature measurements made by NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite to investigate the link between planetary-wave activity and ozone depletion.
Ozone depletion varies with temperature because it relies on the formation of polar stratospheric clouds, which are composed of ice particles.
www.mindswap.org /2002/nature/010927-8.xml   (453 words)

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