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Topic: Saturation (chemistry)

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  Organic Chemistry - MSN Encarta
Organic Chemistry, branch of chemistry in which carbon compounds and their reactions are studied.
Organic chemistry has had a profound effect on modern life: It has improved natural materials and it has synthesized natural and artificial materials that have, in turn, improved health, increased comfort, and added to the convenience of nearly every product manufactured today.
The advent of organic chemistry is often associated with the discovery in 1828 by the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler that the inorganic, or mineral, substance called ammonium cyanate could be converted in the laboratory to urea, an organic substance found in the urine of many animals.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761555199/Organic_Chemistry.html   (894 words)

 Satruration Index for Swimming Pools
The Saturation Index sometime called the Langlier Index or Water Balance Index, is the driving force for determining if a pool is balanced.
Local water supplies have an influence on the water chemistry.
To Calculate the Saturation Index, test for pH, temperature, calcium hardness and total alkalinity.
www.mypool.com /Help_files/Chemistry/Saturation_Index.htm   (201 words)

  Chemistry Basics - Residential Pool & Spa Water Chemistry
The Langelier Saturation Index for calculating saturation is used to determine if the pool water is under-saturated or over-saturated.
It is the nature of water to dissolve the things with which it comes into contact, until it becomes saturated.
First, the pool operator must test all parameters of the water chemistry with the appropriate test kits and then obtain the correct “factors” from Table 1.
www.poolcomfort.com /chemistry_basics   (1827 words)

  Chemistry Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In short, chemistry studies molecules, crystals, and metals and is concerned with the composition and statistical properties of such structures, as well as their transformations and interactions to become materials encountered in everyday life.
According to modern chemistry, the physical properties of materials are generally determined by their structure at the molecular or atomic scale, which is itself defined by interatomic electromagnetic forces, and laws of quantum mechanics and thermodynamics.
Inorganic chemistry is the study of the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds.
www.hallencyclopedia.com /topic/Chemistry.html   (4215 words)

In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance.
Similarly, in soil chemistry soil moisture saturation means that all voids are filled with water and thus all surfaces wetted, and nitrogen saturation means that an ecosystem, e.g.
In organic chemistry, saturation refers to an organic compound having the maximum amount of hydrogens possible: i.e., no double bonds or when every carbon atom in a hydrocarbon chain is attached to two hydrogen atoms.
www.ibpassociation.org /encyclopedia/Chemistry/Saturation.php   (360 words)

For example, in exploration and development of petroleum or water resources (or environmental cleanups), the properties of interest are the porosity, saturation, chemistry and mobility.
For an environmental spill of the same oil (for example, from a pipeline break), the determining technical factors are the same as the petroleum reservoir: porosity, saturation, fluid type, and mobility.
The chemistry and physics have not changed, but the requirements for interpretation are now considerably tightened, and potential litigation requirements may put added cost into assuring the quality of the measurements and the interpretation.
www.mines.edu /~golhoeft/research/petro.html   (1077 words)

 CHEM C3000 Chemistry Kit - The Ultimate Chemistry Set From Thames & Kosmos
The CHEM C3000 chemistry kit from Thames and Kosmos is the
Advanced topics such as chemical equations, atomic structures and the periodic table — concepts that are critical to continued study of chemistry — are presented in a clear, tangible way.
CHEM C3000 is an excellent way to build a strong foundation in chemistry and prepare for high-school level, and even college level chemistry.
www.naturesodyssey.com /chem-c3000-advanced-chemistry-p-3115.html   (530 words)

 Welcome to the NIST WebBook
The NIST Chemistry WebBook provides access to data compiled and distributed by NIST under the Standard Reference Data Program.
You can search for data on specific compounds in the Chemistry WebBook based on name, chemical formula, CAS registry number, molecular weight, chemical structure, or selected ion energetics and spectral properties.
However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database.
webbook.nist.gov   (204 words)

 saturation - OneLook Dictionary Search
Saturation : Visionary, for the Study of Vision [home, info]
Phrases that include saturation: zone of saturation, saturation diving, saturation pressure, degree of saturation, hue saturation brightness, more...
Words similar to saturation: chroma, impregnation, intensity, permeation, pervasion, suffusion, vividness, more...
www.onelook.com /cgi-bin/cgiwrap/bware/dofind.cgi?word=saturation   (421 words)

 :: Omowunmi A. Sadik ::
In Bioanalytical Chemistry, we are working at the interface between Analytical Chemistry and Molecular Bioelectronics.
Cytotoxic effect of the estrogens is being directly related to their structural and conformational characteristics including chain length, number and position of hydroxyl groups and degree of saturation.
Andreescu S., Sadik O. A., McGee N., Effect of natural and synthetic estrogens on A549 lung cancer cells: correlation of chemical structures with cytotoxic effects, Chemical Research in Toxicology, 18 (3): 466-474 MAR 2005.
chemistry.binghamton.edu /SADIK/sadik.htm   (1233 words)

SATURATION Of an irradiated element for a specified isotope, the steady state reached when the disintegration rate of the nuclide formed is equal to its production rate.
SATURATION ACTIVITY For a specified isotope, the value of the activity of an irradiated element, when a state of saturation is reached.
SATURATION CORRECTION Also known as saturation factor, the factor applied to an induced activity that transforms the activity into a hypothetical activity in an irradiation of infinite duration, that is, into a saturation activity.
www.radiochemistry.org /nomenclature/s.htm   (2347 words)

 A Comparison Of Scale Potential Indices With Treatment Results In Ozonated Cooling Systems, CORROSION/94
This index describes the ratio of the observed water chemistry to the water chemistry at equilibrium, for the reactants involved.
Differences in the Theoretical to Actual chemistry were compared to the cleanliness of the cooling systems with respect to heat transfer surface scale, scale formation in valves and non heat transfer surfaces, and precipitate buildup in the tower fill and basin.
Analysis of the water chemistry data from a number of recirculating cooling systems treated solely with ozone show that calcium carbonate (calcite) scale forms most readily on heat transfer surfaces in systems operating in a calcite saturation ratio in the range of about 20 to 150.
www.frenchcreeksoftware.com /nace94.htm   (1771 words)

 Lipid Summary
The degree of saturation, also known as degree of hydrogenation, refers to the number of hydrogen atoms that are associated with the chemical bond between two carbon atoms.
They are said to be saturated when all the double bonds have been fully hydrogenated, in other words when they have been "filled up" with hydrogen atoms.
Saturated fatty acids are those that contain no double bonds in their carbon chains.
www.bookrags.com /Lipid   (5022 words)

 The Langlier Saturation Index
Remember, this is not a water softener, the calcium ions are not removed from the water (as is the case with a The calcium ions are actually left in the water but they are precipitated into a solid particle which passes through the plumbing system without leaving a scale behind.
The Langlier's Saturation Index is a calculated number used to predict the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) stability of a water.
A negative saturation index value will tend to be corrosive (the higher the negative value, the more corrosive potential of the water).
www.healthyhomemall.com /langlier-saturation.asp   (880 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Liquid ammonia in a state in which adding heat at constant pressure causes the liquid to vaporize at constant temperature, and in which removing heat at constant pressure causes the temperature of the liquid to drop immediately.
] An adiabatic process in which the air is maintained at saturation by the evaporation or condensation of water substance, the latent heat being supplied by or to the air respectively; the ascent of cloudy air, for example, is often assumed to be such a process.
The additional amount of water vapor needed to produce saturation at the current temperature and pressure, expressed in grams per cubic meter.
www.accessscience.com /Dictionary/S/S5/DictS5.html   (1825 words)

 Chemistry Quiz Answers
The higher a chemical's ambient saturation concentration, the greater is its ability to displace air, and the higher will be the concentration of the chemical's vapor in the air above the liquid.
Since toluene's ambient saturation concentration is well above its lower explosive limit at this temperature, there is a clear danger of fire or explosion in the factory.
This was done because pure formaldehyde is so rare that emergency responders are very unlikely ever to encounter it, and to eliminate the risk of users unknowingly modeling the pure chemical when it is the solution which has been spilled.
archive.orr.noaa.gov /cameo/dr_aloha/chemquiz/answers.html   (880 words)

 Poolandspa.com - Info/Tips - Swimming Pool Water Chemistry - Balanced Water
The chemistry of bromine is similar in many respects to the chemistry of chlorine; however, bromine cannot be used for shock treating.
Because calcium ions combine with carbonate ions to form the calcium carbonate needed for water saturation, it is important that the calcium level be closely monitored.
Again, all of the factors for water saturation must be considered in determining the proper level to maintain.
www.poolandspa.com /page783.htm   (5126 words)

 saturation - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Restricting layers, flow paths, and correlation between duration of soil saturation and soil morphological features along a hillslope with an altered soil water regime in western Victoria.
Metal saturation and finning problem can be avoided: controlling metal saturation is a function of knowing refractory porosity, permeability.
Short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping vs autogenic drainage on oxygen saturation and sputum recovery in patients with cystic fibrosis.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-satura1.html   (665 words)

 saturation - Definitions from Dictionary.com
Chemistry The state of a compound or solution that is fully saturated.
the process of totally saturating something with a substance; "the impregnation of wood with preservative"; "the saturation of cotton with ether" [syn: impregnation]
Saturation measures the degree to which a color differs from a gray of the same darkness or lightness.
dictionary.reference.com /browse/saturation   (469 words)

 Analyst Summer 2002 - Computer Modeling of Water Chemistry
The Langelier Saturation Index, for example, is by definition the base ten logarithm of the calcite saturation ratio.
Saturation level calculations performed using a computerized ion pairing (ion association) method eliminate most of the assumptions inherent in simplified indices (Ferguson, 1991).
The ion association saturation level indices provide a common denominator for comparing results, inhibitor limitations, and failure points where control was lost.
www.awt.org /members/publications/analyst/2002/summer/computer_modeling.htm   (4314 words)

 Computerized Ion Association Model Profiles Complete Range of Cooling System Parameters, IWC-91
Table 2 summarizes the impact of TDS upon Langelier Saturation Index when calculated using total analytical values for calcium and alkalinity, and when calculated using the free calcium and carbonate concentrations calculated using an ion association model.
As outlined in Table 4, a limit of 150 ppm would correspond roughly to a saturation level of 1.4 at 70 F and 1.1 at 90 °F. At the upper end of the cooling water pH range (9.0), silica solubility increases to 117 ppm (70 °F) and 140 ppm (90 °F).
The author's experience is that a slight degree of saturation is acceptable in most systems, and that a silica saturation level of 1.1 to 1.2 at the cold well temperature is a conservative limit.
www.frenchcreeksoftware.com /iwc91.htm   (3379 words)

 Basic Water Chemistry - aquariumsite:FRESHWATER
A broad understanding of water chemistry is mandatory for establishing a proper environment for the species we keep.
The acidity of water is an overall effect of all dissolved ions on the electro-negativity of water.
Saturation -which is a kind of equilibrium state- is reached if the amount of oxygen diffusing into the water directly from the atmosphere is equal to the amount diffusing out of the water into the atmosphere.
www.aquariumsite.com /freshwater/chemistry.php   (3172 words)

 Inorganic Chemistry Supplement   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Nine major areas are listed and topics within those areas are suggested for a one-semester or two-quarter second level course that is expected to build upon introductory courses that cover elementary principles of chemical bonding and structure, thermodynamics, kinetics, and descriptive chemistry of the elements.
Bioinorganic chemistry: model system approaches, regulation and transport of ions, metalloproteins, iron-sulfur proteins, vitamin B12 and other cobalamins, and metalloenzymes.
The laboratory associated with the inorganic chemistry core should demonstrate principles and techniques used by inorganic chemists.
www.chemistry.org /portal/a/c/s/1/acsdisplay.html?DOC=education\cpt\ts_inochem.html   (474 words)

 American Chemical Society Publications: Green Chemistry
Paul Anastas and the ACS Green Chemistry Institute have been named to the Scientific American 50 for leadership in advancing science and technology.
The American Chemical Society believes that it is better to prevent the entry of hazardous chemical substances into the environment than to address their known and unknown consequences at a later date.
Together, the ACS and the Green Chemistry Institute pursue opportunities to reaffirm and extend the importance of green chemistry as a means to prevent pollution and achieve sustainability.
pubs.acs.org /promo/greenchemistry/index.html   (303 words)

 Graduate School of NOCS - Graduate School of NOC PhD Project Description
saturation state measurements will be used as input to model simulations of current and future ocean saturation states.
By allowing more accurate determinations of the degree of saturation of seawater with respect to calcium carbonate, your work will lead to major improvements in our understanding of calcium carbonate cycling in the oceans, which will in turn lead to advances in models of the ocean carbon cycle.
Pilson MEQ (1998) An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea.
www.soes.soton.ac.uk /graduate/admissions/projects/?link=details.php&id=343   (539 words)

 Evaporation and Saturation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Regards, ProfHoff 662 ===================================================== At saturation (by definition) the rates at which evaporation and condensation occur are equal -- or you can think of it in terms of molecules -- the rate at which molecules leave the surface and return to the surface are equal.
As saturation is approached, there is more and more vapor that can condense (the reverse of evaporation).
At equilibrium (saturation), the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal.
www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/chem03/chem03037.htm   (310 words)

 Understanding CEC, Buffer soil pH, Percent Saturation
Both Percent Nutrient Saturation and Percent Base Saturation refer to a measurement, or estimate of the percent of the soil CEC that is occupied by a particular nutrient (nutrient saturation), or the sum of a group of nutrients (base saturation).
The percent Nutrient Saturation is the saturation of the individual elements.
To the degree that there is an "ideal" percent saturation range or ratio of cation nutrients, it would be affected by several other factors such as any unique characteristics of a plant species, the intended use of the plants, the nature of the soil itself, and others.
www.spectrumanalytic.com /support/library/ff/CEC_BpH_and_percent_sat.htm   (1915 words)

 WOW | Curricula | Teacher | The Chemistry of Oxygen Solubility
For chemistry (and physics) students this lesson provides explanation and animation of the physical principles that control the solubility of a non-polar gas:
For biology students, this lesson demonstrates applicability of chemistry to changes in environmental conditions and illustrates the role organisms can play in altering the chemical condition of their own environment.
The attractive forces that hold excess oxygen in solution similar to the dipole-induced dipole forces discussed earlier, but a smaller number of water molecules are available to induce dipoles in oxygen molecules.
waterontheweb.org /curricula/bs/teacher/oxygen/teaching.html   (1739 words)

 Solutions - Succeed in Physical Science   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A solution is the result of dissolving a substance in a fluid solvent, where the materials do not react chemically and are typically either both polar or both non-polar molecules.
If you just about reach the saturation point for salt in water at a given temperature and then lower the temperature of the water, the excess salt will then precipitate or "un-dissolve" and appear at the bottom of the container.
The saturation point for adding water to air at a given temperature means the relative humidity is 100%.
www.school-for-champions.com /science/chemsolutions.htm   (1466 words)

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