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Topic: Scale spatial

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In the News (Mon 23 Oct 17)

  Benthic Habitat Mapping - Habitat Scale
Spatial scale (also called map scale) refers to the relationship between the size of a feature on a map (a shoreline, for example) and the size of that feature in the real world.
The detail of habitat delineation for a particular benthic habitat map depends upon both the spatial scale of the final map and the scale of the marine habitat under investigation.
Digital resolution of a habitat, as represented in GIS mapping applications, is related to both spatial and habitat scale of the benthic features under study.
www.csc.noaa.gov /benthic/mapping/analyzing/scale.htm   (653 words)

 Spatial Data Exploration Toolbox - Cross Scale - CIAT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The identification of appropriate scales for analysis and prediction is a challenging problem.
Although the factors producing scale dependent patterns may not be clearly understood, we have been able to create accurate and reliable descriptions of scale dependent patterns and processes to design data sampling procedures and test the accuracy and reliability of methods of prediction.
Figure 3 illustrates an analysis resulting from the unique ability to delineate spatial "hotspots" at different scales using the Geographic Analysis Machine, one of the tools from University of Leeds that is part of the Data Exploration Toolbox.
gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org /cross_scale/spatial-data-exploration-toolbox.htm   (733 words)

 Problems of Spatial Scale   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Spatial scale is an important concept in relation to social measurement, being inextricably tied up with measurement and sampling.
Therefore, it is important to distinguish between scales of measurement (i.e., those relating to the sample) and scales of spatial variation (i.e., those in data).
Given a specific sample which can be modelled as a random field, the scale(s) of spatial variation in the data can be characterised using either functions of spatial resolution or functions of lag (distance and direction of separation) such as the variogram.
www.apnet.com /refer/measure/Outlines/problems_of_spatial_scale.htm   (226 words)

 Scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Scale or Balance (In Urdu:Mizan or ميزان) is a comprehensive treatise on the contents of Islam written by Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, a Pakistani Sunni Islamic scholar.
The Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik scale and the Mercalli scale are used to measure the intensity of earthquakes.
The Fujita scale estimates the intensity of tornadoes.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Scale   (363 words)

 SCALE Web Site
Spatial complexity plays a central role in the structure and function of grazed ASAL ecosystems, but modern human land use tends to deplete spatial biocomplexity through ecosystem fragmentation.
Spatial complexity is crucial in ASAL ecosystems, which tend to be both spatially extensive and temporally variable.
Spatial analyses will be scaled up in harmony with the amplitude of climate variability (seasonal, annual, multi-annual and long term trends).
www.nrel.colostate.edu /projects/scale/proposal.htm   (7890 words)

 WDNR - Ecosystem Concepts - Scale
Scale is the relative amount or degree of something, often expressed in terms of a progressive classification as to size, complexity, or importance.
In management of natural resources, scale is often used to describe the scope of a management action "whether site-specific, local, regional, or statewide in space, and annual, seasonal, or successional in time" and the degree to which the management action alters the existing plant and animal communities.
Spatial scale is used to describe the geographic size of a community or ecosystem.
www.dnr.state.wi.us /org/land/er/biodiversity/concepts/scale.htm   (292 words)

 Robin M. Reich - Colorado State University
A spatial autoregessive model was used to spatially predict pH, depth to bedrock, percent lamella, and percent rockiness, as function of percent slope, elevation, and various Landsat TM bands.
The spatially predicted surfces of soil characteristics, along with the Landsat TM bands were passed through the discriminant functions, one pixel at a time, to produce the final map.
The large-scale spatial varibility in the number of native species, percent sand, percent silt, and carbon was modeled using various Landsat TM bands and elevation.
www.warnercnr.colostate.edu /~robin/appl.html   (683 words)

We used the estimates for each spatial scale, weighted by number of individuals captured in year one at the scale being investigated to provide a regional (weighted) estimate of survivorship and compared this value to that obtained by pooling all the data and estimating a single regional estimate.
Therefore, we did not consider the spatial scale of the individual station in further analyses, except in cases where the individual station was equivalent to the "location" because there were no other neighboring stations over which to pool data.
Spatial scale differences in statistical power reflect differences in sample sizes among the spatial scales equivilent to that of location, biogeographic province, and winter range.
www.birds.cornell.edu /pifcapemay/d-rosenberg.htm   (5501 words)

 Journal of Vision - Lack of benefit from information across spatial scales in an object recognition task, by Cheung ...
If non-redundant information is available in different spatial scales, access to multiple scales should provide better recognition performance than access to a single scale.
Spatial scales used were 2, 4, 8 and 16 cycles/object.
Subjects used a mouse to control the spatial location of the window in discrete steps and four different keys on the keyboard to select the spatial scale.
journalofvision.org /2/7/694   (359 words)

 Table of Contents
Map scale or representative fraction, the metric for scale in the traditional cartographic world, has no well-defined meaning in a digital world of seamless perspectives in which the user is free to zoom in or out at will.
Scale is a concept of relative magnitude, and looked at in these ways, spaces is scaled relative to the human body -- humans are the measure of space.
In addition, the appropriate scale across the data plane may vary, the resolution of the attributes at the campfire may be very high while the resolution of the village may be lower.
www.ncgia.ucsb.edu /varenius/scale/SCALE_rpt.html   (21149 words)

 Scale (spatial) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spatial scale provides a "shorthand" form for discussing relative lengths, areas, distances and sizes.
A microclimate, for instance, is one which might occur in a mountain valley or near a lakeshore, whereas a megatrend is one which involves the whole planet.
A sense of scale by Paul Falstad — visual depictions of the relative scale of various distances, ranging from the Planck length to the furthest known object in the Universe.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Scale_(spatial)   (148 words)

 Spatial Effects: Research Papers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Often, the largest (most detailed) scale maps are edited first, and the changes then transferred to the appropriate map at the next smaller scale, until either the smallest scale is reached or the edited feature becomes too small to represent.
The 1:250K scale specified for it implies a resolution between 100 and 200 m (assuming a map resolution of 0.5 mm).
The 1:80K scale implies a resolution between 50 and 100 m (assuming a map resolution of 0.5 mm).
www.spatial-effects.com /SE-papers1.html   (1629 words)

This is useful for skipping various checks for spatial transformation when deciding whether or not to recalc a shadow volume for a Spatial.
If this spatial has children, the function is called recursivly on its children.
Spatial objects, such as text, which don't make sense to have an exact bounds are ignored.
jmonkeyengine.com /doc/com/jme/scene/Spatial.html   (2659 words)

 SRP - About GIS
To learn more about how these spatial data can be used in planning for the recovery and management of threatened salmonid populations in Central California, go to the GIS for Planning section.
Spatial data represent a portion of the earth's surface such that each dataset has an inherent relationship between a certain distance on the map and the associated distance on the ground.
Map scales may be written in a variety of formats including a ratio or fraction, and may indicate how many units on the earth's surface are equal to one map unit (i.e.
www3.csc.noaa.gov /salmonid/html/spatial/spatial.htm   (1485 words)

 Spatialized Information Presentations
As one stands inside an office, he is aware of furniture and perhaps other people with dimensions of the meter scale; of writings and manual instruments at the centimeter scale; and of the walls, floor, and other structural features at the ten-meter scale.
Applied in another instance, the spatial continuity of physical audio spaces is responsible for much of the disparity between an impoverished multi-party conference call and the far richer physical conference, with its many concurrent discussions and potential for chance entry into spatially-localized conversations.
When the office door is open, the perceived presence and activities of co-workers has relevance; the external weather and time-of-day have relevance; and unexpected phenomena manifested across large spatial scales (e.g., shouts or gun shots) hold the potential for particular significance.
xenia.media.mit.edu /~ullmer/papers/multiscale/node3.html   (748 words)

 Spatial Statistics Software
The spatial software uses sparse matrix methods to compute the matrix determinants employed in the maximum likelihood estimation of the spatial autoregressions.
The spatial autoregressive local estimation example estimates a sequence of 150 spatial autoregressions around each of 3,107 observations in under two minutes.
Conference on Spatial and Spatiotemporal Econometrics (held at LSU on November 7-9, 2003)
www.spatial-statistics.com   (528 words)

 Project Description - Cross Scale - CIAT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
However, temporal and spatial interdependencies, which characterize many of their goals and problems, also contribute to a confusing range of temporal and spatial perspectives among stakeholders.
The symptoms have been a lack of clear objectives, a lack of precision in defining physical areas of interest, and a failure to quantify variables, all of which are indispensable for arriving at negotiated agreements for community action as well as reproducing results achieved.
The SWBM has restricted "scales" of use, meaning that model driving variables are "pre-engineered" and may not simulate processes important at highly detailed spatial and temporal scales.
gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org /cross_scale/project-description.htm   (10079 words)

 Spatial Scale Of High-Speed Flows In The Magnetotail
Even before the space age, observers noted that in the arctic winter, when the sky is dark most of the time, the brightest auroras (Image 1) were seen in the hours around midnight.
Discovered at the end of the 80's, such flows are spatially and temporally limited, typically lasting about 10 minutes and being composed of minute-long bursts.
This spatial extent is composed of 3 dimensions: the dawn-dusk, the north-south and the "Sun-Earth direction" scale size.
www.spacedaily.com /news/earth-magnetic-04h.html   (1403 words)

 An information theory saliency measure in scale and spatial coordinates   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
A more complete description of information decomposition in both scale and spatial coordinates can be found in the hypertext article: [Jag ICCV 95].
For each ROI, the information infinitesemal is integrated in spatial coordinates, to give the scale expansion, just as done for the whole image in the previous example, only more efficiently utilizing the precomputed R^3 information map.
The scale space information decompositions corresponding to the different ROI's is shown in the small diagrams around the center image.
www.cs.rochester.edu /u/jag/scale/scale.html   (400 words)

 Multi-scale Tools to Assess Spatial Feasibility of Intensive Forest Management
Spatial surfaces were generated to provide information on forest growth potential (e.g., growing degree days, soil moisture), disturbance hazards (e.g., fire hazard rating, budworm hazard rating), and wildlife habitat (e.g., capability for Marten).
The spatial order of constraints can be changed to explore policy constraint hierarchies and overlaps (e.g., how much additional area is constrained by aerial spray buffers after the fish habitat guideline buffer has been applied).
Spatial simulation of the large-scale forest fire regime in a boreal landscape.
gis.esri.com /library/userconf/proc02/pap1164/p1164.htm   (3187 words)

 Multi-scale spatial correlation and scaling behavior of surface soil moisture
The scaling behavior of surface soil moisture variance is presented across spatial scales of observation from 1 × 1 km
Three representative semi-variograms were chosen to calculate the scaling of soil moisture variance with increasing support scale.
We suggest that understanding the spatial correlation pattern of soil moisture across scales is critical for characterizing the scaling behavior of soil moisture variance.
www.agu.org /pubs/crossref/2006/2006GL025831.shtml   (277 words)

 Saline tracer visualized with three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography: Field-scale spatial moment analysis
Using modified moment analysis of the electrical conductivity tomograms, the mass, center of mass, and spatial variance of the imaged tracer plume were estimated.
Such underestimation is attributed to (1) reduced measurement sensitivity to electrical conductivity values with distance from the electrodes and (2) spatial smoothing (regularization) from tomographic inversion.
The center of mass estimated from the ERT inversions coincided with that given by migration of the tracer plume using 3-D advective-dispersion simulation.
www.agu.org /pubs/crossref/2005/2004WR003460.shtml   (381 words)

 7 An Information Infinitesimal Decomposed in Both Scale and Spatial Coordinates
Particularly for large scales, patches have to be large to have the contrast signal between successive resolutions not drown in noise.
The scale space information distributions for each one of the rectangles is summed up using the patch-wise algorithm in section 5, and are shown in the diagrams around the center image.
For most subsequent image processing and/or interpretation the rectangular ROI's (regions of interest) together with their scale properties to be the appropriate output.
www.cs.rochester.edu /~jag/scale/iccv95html/node7.html   (468 words)

 The Spatial-Scale Problem in Image Analysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Geologists and geographers use maps at different spatial-scales and the choice of the spatial-scale depends on the scale at which the phenomena of interest are occurring.
The physical processes which generate the 3-space surface structures on the surface of the earth and which emerge as image structures through the imaging process, act at a variety of spatial-scales.
Approaches for image representations using different levels of spatial resolutions were proposed (Klinger, 1971), (Uhr, 1972), (Hanson and Riseman, 1974), (Tanimoto and Pavlidis, 1975).
www.ensc.sfu.ca /people/grad/brassard/personal/THESIS/node73.html   (448 words)

 Rules of thumb for spatial data -- Brian Klinkenberg
If topology has not been built, the measurement scale of a GIS data set can be estimated by: A) Measuring the gap between undershoots and the line to which they are supposed to connect, or B) Measuring the length of dangling lines.
The measurement scale (grain) and the observational scale (extent) are inversely correlated, a result of logistical constraints in measurement.
A measure of the scope of a data set is the L/S ratio: the ratio of the geographic scale (L: the maximum width of the project area, the square root of area for an oddly-shaped area, the extent) to the measurement scale (S: the resolution or grain).
www.geog.ubc.ca /~brian/rules_of_thumb   (1624 words)

 RMRS-GTR-87: Development of coarse-scale spatial data for wildland fire and fuel management
We produced seven coarse-scale, 1-km2 resolution, spatial data layers for the conterminous United States to support national-level fire planning and risk assessments.
Managers can use these spatial data to describe regional trends in current conditions and to support fire and fuel management program development and resource allocation.
Coarse-Scale Spatial Data for Wildland Fire and Fuel Management including: Data tables of Historical Fire Regime by Fire Regime Current Condition Class; General Technical Report; GIS data layers.
www.fs.fed.us /rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr87.html   (389 words)

 NCSM - Mathematical Tools to Concepts to References Elementary List   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
-- number concepts/operations, counting/skip-counting/one-to-one correspondence, classification/sorting/making sets, algebra/patterns, symmetry, fractions, spatial visualization, area/surface area, equality/equivalence/inequality/equality, ratio/proportion/percent, perimeter/circumference, volume, surface area/surface area, problem solving/thinking skills, estimation, transformational geometry, reasoning, money, similarity/congruence, probability/chance, measurement/scale
-- area/surface area, volume, classification/sorting/making sets, angles, reasoning, measurement/scale, spatial visualization, symmetry, fractions, spatial visualization, perimeter/circumference, counting/skip-counting/one-to-one correspondence, geometry, similarity/congruence, area/surface area, problem solving/thinking skills, ratio/proportion/percent, number concepts/operations, weight/mass, constructions, geometry, relationships/connections, transformational geometry, tessellations/tiling
-- geometry, spatial visualization, problem solving/thinking skills, algebra/patterns, reasoning, fractions, similarity/congruence, perimeter/circumference, ratio/proportion/percent, angles, classification/sorting/making sets, symmetry, transformational geometry, constructions, relationships/connections, number concepts/operations, area/surface area, symmetry, tessellations/tiling, counting/skip-counting/one-to-one correspondence
mathforum.org /ncsm/NCSMPublications/2000/MTCR_List_E.html   (1074 words)

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