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Topic: Scale (zoology)

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  Scale (zoology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Scales are quite common and have evolved multiple times with varying structure and function.
Ganoid scales are similar to cosmoid scales, but a layer of ganoin lies over the cosmine layer and under the enamel.
Cycloid scales have a smooth outer edge, and are most common on fish with soft fin rays, such as salmon and carp.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Scale_(zoology)   (442 words)

 Scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Richter scale, the Mercalli scale, the Rossi-Forel scale and the Omori are all used to measure the intensity of earthquakes.
The Fujita scale estimates the intensity of tornadoes.
The Torino Scale and the Palermo scale measure the impact hazard level of near-Earth objects such as asteroids.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Scale   (312 words)

 AllRefer.com - scale, in zoology (Zoology: General) - Encyclopedia
The growth of the scales is marked by rings, which aid in determining the age of the fish.
The placoid scales of sharks, which have a dentine base with a pulp cavity, are thought to be similar to the forms from which the teeth of the higher vertebrates evolved.
Among turtles and their relatives scales are usually found on the head, neck, limbs, and tail; in most of the group horny scales also form a pattern of flat plates overlying the bony dermal skeleton of the back and belly.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/S/scale4.html   (388 words)

 Search Results for "Zoology"
...scale, in zoology, in zoology, an outgrowth, either bony or horny, of the skin of an animal.
The major component of the scales of fishes is bone, and they are formed...
...horn, in zoology, in zoology, one of a pair of structures projecting from the head of a hoofed animal, used chiefly as a weapon.
www.bartleby.com /cgi-bin/texis/webinator/sitesearch?query=Zoology&filter=colReference   (205 words)

 scale --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Fish scales are formed of bone from the deeper, or dermal, skin layer.
The scales on the upper portion of the body may be extremely smooth and shiny, or there may be an elevated longitudinal ridge, or keel, running down the center of each scale.
Map scale is the mathematical relationship, or ratio, between the size of features on the Earth and the size of corresponding features on the map.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9066008   (814 words)

 zoology - definition by dict.die.net
In recent usage the term is often restricted to the sciences of botany and zo["o]logy collectively, and sometimes to the science of zoology alone.
Natural philosophy, originally, the study of nature in general; in modern usage, that branch of physical science, commonly called physics, which treats of the phenomena and laws of matter and considers those effects only which are unaccompanied by any change of a chemical nature; -- contrasted with mental and moral philosophy.
Model would be a preferable term, as less likely to mislead, the so-called artificial scales (scales represented by the use of flats and sharps) being equally natural with the so-called natural scale Natural science, natural history, in its broadest sense; -- used especially in contradistinction to mental or moral science.
dict.die.net /zoology   (643 words)

 CSIRO PUBLISHING - Australian Journal of Zoology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The spatial pattern of outbreaks of pink wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, within and among umbrella trees, Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.), in southeastern Queensland was investigated.
Pink wax scale was common on S. actinophylla, with approximately 84% of trees positive for scale and 14% of bees recording outbreak densities exceeding 0.4 adults per leaflet.
The patchy distribution of pink wax scale among trees is probably a consequence of variation in dispersal success of scale, host and environmental suitability for establishment and rates of biological control.
www.publish.csiro.au /nid/90/paper/ZO9960599.htm   (181 words)

 History of Geologic Time Scale
For the next major contribution to the geologic time scale we turn to William Smith, a surveyor, canal builder, and amateur geologist from England.
In the time scale shown at left, only the two highest levels of this hierarchy are represented.
The Phanerozoic Eon is shown along the top left side of this figure and represents the time during which the majority of macroscopic organisms, algal, fungal, plant and animal, lived.
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu /exhibit/histgeoscale.html   (789 words)

 Department of Zoology - Dr. Robert Costanza   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
It allows models tested and calibrated with extensive experimental data from small scale microcosms to be extrapolated to larger scale mesocosms and macrocosms (small watersheds) for testing of various scaling rules.
Also included is work on methods for comparing the results of complex simulation models to experimental data, analysis of the effects of model and data resolution on predictability, and methods to aggregate complex models to simpler ones with minimum loss of information.
At the larger spatial scales of regional landscapes, bioregions, and the earth as a whole, the interactions between ecological and economic systems cannot be ignored.
www.life.umd.edu /faculty/costanza.html   (418 words)

 AllRefer.com - San Jose scale (Zoology: Invertebrates) - Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The young nymphs, or crawlers, move about for a few hours in search of a good feeding spot; then they molt, lose their functional legs and antennae, and secrete a resinous waxy shell, or armor, under which they feed by sucking the sap of the host plant until they become adults.
The pest is dispersed by being carried on the bodies of larger insects, on the feet and beaks of birds, by wind, and by shipment of infested nursery stock.
The San Jose scale is classified in the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, order Homoptera, family Diaspididae.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/S/SnJsscl.html   (357 words)

 scale insect
The females never leave the protection of the scale after once forming it, but the adult males, which do not feed, develop a single pair of wings, leave the scale, and seek out the females, fertilizing them after the females are under the shell.
The unarmored scales (or soft scales) are similar to the armored scales except that only a small amount of wax is secreted, which adheres to the insect.
Control of scale insects has been largely by use of natural enemies, especially ladybird beetles and small parasitic wasps, which are natural predators of these pests.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/sci/A0843859.html   (399 words)

 C.V. - Warren J.S. Currie
The oceanic measurements show two basic groupings: physical measures such as temperature, turbidity etc. which scale according to turbulence, and biological measures (chlorophyll, zooplankton biomass), which deviate from a passive scaler in turbulence at scales that can be predicted from phytoplankton growth, zooplankton movement, and trophodynamics.
Scaling and the Problem of Processes: Lessons from cm scale plankton and CTD measurements in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Scaling properties of coastal plankton distributions in relation to turbulence.
www.biosci.ohiou.edu /faculty/currie/ocean/warren-cv.htm   (1427 words)

 Scale (zoology) Definition / Scale (zoology) Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek The Greek language (Greek Ελληνικά, IPA // – "Hellenic") is an Indo-European language with a documented history of some 3,000 years.
Adults have two pairs of membranous wings covered with scales, and mouth parts adapted for sucking....
(the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it; "the scale of the map"; "the scale of the model")
www.elresearch.com /Scale_(zoology)   (445 words)

 Ecology and Society: Contemporary visions of progress in ecology and thoughts for the future   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Scale has long been recognized as important in ecology (MacArthur and Levins 1964, Wiens 1989, Levin 1992), and it remains a sort of "final frontier" (Kareiva 1994).
Because ecology is a science of scale, practitioners continue to struggle to both incorporate scalar intricacy into their research and interpret their research with respect to scale.
Experimental science in general and ecology in particular are, by their very nature, scaling.
sunsite.wits.ac.za /eco/vol9/iss1/art14   (6128 words)

 Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock)
Colony on rose Male scales are elongate whereas those of females are circular and also larger.
Male and female individuals The scale of the female was turned upside down to show the colour of the body of the female.
Damage on pear The change in colour of the epidermis is due to the presence of scale insects.
www.inra.fr /Internet/Produits/HYPPZ/RAVAGEUR/6quaper.htm   (448 words)

 Re: What are the hearing ranges of other species of life ?
On a graph of sound level as a function of frequency (on a log scale), the curve showing hearing sensitivity is fairly flat for the middle frequencies but approaches nearly a vertical function at the frequency limits for both the low and the high frequency regions.
Because this portion of the function is very steep (and because the frequency scale is logarithmic, as well) any infinitesimal variability in the length of the basilar membrane will have a large effect in determining the frequency range.
In reality, a person with 20/22 vision and a person with 20/18 vision both have normal vision but because the distance scale is linear, we have no difficulty in dealing with a such variability.
www.madsci.org /posts/archives/1998-05/895879351.Zo.r.html   (555 words)

 Revised February 2003
The minimum grade average required for application to the OU College of Dentistry is 2.0 on a 4.0 scale for all college level work attempted.
The average GPA for those accepted to the 2002 class was 3.51 overall, with a science average of 3.40.
The DAT Exam is scored on a 1-30 scale with a 15 being median score in each of the areas.
www.ou.edu /cas/zoology/premed/Denreq99.htm   (1854 words)

 [No title]
A one-to-one correspondence between numbers and the value of some physical quantity, such as the centigrade or Kelvin temperature scales on the API (American Petroleum Institute) or Baumé scales of specific gravity.
To determine a quantity at some order of magnitude by using data or relationships which are known to be valid at other (usually lower) orders of magnitude.
] An effect in fluid flow that results from changing the scale, but not the shape, of a body around which the flow passes; this effect is relevant to wind tunnel experiments.
www.accessscience.com /Dictionary/S/S6/DictS6.html   (2811 words)

 ArtLex's Sc-Sd page
For example, a scale noted as "1:50." This scale would be read "one to fifty," meaning "one unit of measurement [inches, feet, meters, etc.] here represents fifty of the same units at full size." A size equal to actual size is full-scale.
scale by increasing all the measurements proportionately, using such measuring devices as a scaling board, caliper, or pointing machine.
Scientific activities involve a large amount of study and methodology — as when using the "scientific method." The principal sciences are: mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, physics, geology, biology, botany, zoology, archaeology, engineering, medicine, and psychology.
www.artlex.com /ArtLex/Sc.html   (2819 words)

 CSIRO PUBLISHING - Books & CDs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The soft scale family Coccidae is one of ten families of plant sucking scale insects present in New Zealand.
Her interest in the soft scales began with the collection of many undescribed species during the Insect Survey of the East Cape Region, 1992-1994, organised by John Dugdale.
Since 1992, she has worked on scale insects in the NZ Arthropod Collection for Landcare Research and is curator of the specimens in that part of NZAC.
www.publish.csiro.au /nid/18/pid/4769.htm   (380 words)

 scale on Encyclopedia.com
SCALE [scale] in zoology, an outgrowth, either bony or horny, of the skin of an animal.
It is predicted that the mobile payment user scale will reach 97.5 million by 2008.
Human scale: Mulloway Studio Architects has imbued this suburban Adelaide extension with a sense of welcome and a wealth of delightful details--all on a warm and intimate scale.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/s1/scale4.asp   (693 words)

 Invertebrate Zoology Syllabus
The plus-minus grades may be adjusted to fit the circumstances at the discretion of the instructor.
Based on percentages, final grades for lab will be determined on the same scale as those in the lab.
It is meant to acquaint you with information gathering techniques, to focus your attention on a taxon so that you will learn about it in depth, and, of course, to improve your writing skills.
www.marietta.edu /~mcshaffd/invert/invsyllf2000.html   (3085 words)

 The Scale March 1996
During scale maturation and before oviposition production of the wax layers occurs mainly on the margin of the ventral side of the body, resulting in attachment of the margin of the shield to the leaf or twig surface; therefore, the scale is protected from penetration of insecticides at later stages of adult female.
Study of scale fauna of Budapest, mostly in botanical gardens, with special interest in needle- and squamate-leaved evergreens; distribution of species; biology; degree of infestation; surveys revealed 8 established scale species found on 10 genera of 4 plant families; most common species found were Carulaspis juniperi and Leucaspis pini.
Study of this scale, its native parasitoids, percentage of scales parasitized, and dispersion of the scales and its parasitoids on the citrus plants during the year; Aphytis hispanicus was present in 34.8% of orchards; rate of parasitism was low and decreased during the year.
www.sel.barc.usda.gov /Coccoidea/scale1996.htm   (12763 words)

 Scale - TheBestLinks.com - Orders of magnitude, Scale (zoology), Scale (music), Scale (measurement), ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Scale - TheBestLinks.com - Orders of magnitude, Scale (zoology), Scale (music), Scale (measurement),...
Scale, Orders of magnitude, Scale (zoology), Scale (music), Scale (measurement)...
This is a disambiguation page, i.e., a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title.
www.thebestlinks.com /Scale.html   (112 words)

 Additional references about zoology (from zoology) --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia
More results on "Additional references about zoology (from zoology)" when you join.
The word zoo is from the Greek word zoion, which means “animal.”; Zoology is the science of animals as botany is the science of plants.
Some fields focus on particular animal groups, such as icthyology (the study of fishes), ornithology (the study of birds), and entomology (the study of insects).
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-210606   (905 words)

 Zoology Syllabus
This syllabus and the grading scale apply to both the lecture and laboratory.
Lecture text: Illustrated Principles of Zoology by C.P. Hickman, C.W. Roberts and A. Larson.
The grade scale for General Zoology (lecture and lab) is as follows:
www.csc.edu /mathsci/akrejci/BIOL139/zoosyl.htm   (1293 words)

 SIUC - COS - Zoology - John D. Reeve - Publications
Biological control by the parasitoid Aphytis melinus, and population stability of the California red scale.
Aggregation by parasitoids in the successful control of the California red scale: a test of theory.
Biological control of scale insects and ecological theory.
www.science.siu.edu /zoology/reeve/publications.html   (531 words)

 Saissetia oleae Olivier
- Adult: The adult female attaches itself to the host, remaining immobile; scale sub-ovate, convex, measuring 2 to 5 mm x 1 to 4 mm long and 2.0 to 2.5 mm wide.
Ventral side of females and their eggs Scales have been turned upside down.
Saissetia oleae (Bernard) Female scale insects on an olive twig (Bernard J.-F. / INRA Maroc)
www.inra.fr /Internet/Produits/HYPPZ/RAVAGEUR/6saiole.htm   (471 words)

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