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Topic: Scandinavian defense union


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In the News (Mon 19 Aug 19)

  
  Scandinavian defense union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A Scandinavian defense union that would include Sweden, Norway and Denmark was planned between the three countries after World War II.
All three countries were unanimous that a united defense would be of utmost importance to prevent a repetition of the terrors that a new war would bring.
After the Continuation War where Soviet Union forced Finland to sue for peace but failed in its goal of conquering and annexing the country (in a manner similar to the Baltic States), Finland became neutral and retained democratic goverment and market economy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Scandinavian_defense_union   (551 words)

  
 Kalmar Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Kalmar Union (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish: Kalmarunionen) was a series of personal unions (1397–1520) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden under a single monarch.
Eric was deposed (1438–1439) as the union king and was succeeded by the childless Christopher of Bavaria.
The last structures of the Kalmar Union remained until 1536 when the Danish Privy Council, in the aftermath of a civil war, unilaterally declared Norway to be a Danish province, without consulting their Norwegian colleagues.
www.leessummit.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Kalmar_Union   (632 words)

  
 Read about Scandinavian Monetary Union at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Scandinavian Monetary Union and learn ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The Scandinavian Monetary Union, or Skandinaviska myntunionen in Swedish and Skandinaviske møntunion in Danish, was a
Norway, which was in union with Sweden, however with full inner autonomy, entered the union two years later, in 1875 by pegging its currency to gold at the same level as Denmark and Sweden.
In 1905 the political union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved, but this did not affect the basis for co-operation in the monetary union.
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Scandinavian_Monetary_Union   (375 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Scandinavia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The Scandinavian languages are (as a language family) entirely unrelated to Finnish and Estonian, which as Finno-Ugric languages are distantly related to Hungarian.
The end of the Scandinavian political movement came when Denmark was denied military support from Sweden-Norway to annex the (Danish) Duchy of Schleswig, which together with the (German) Duchy of Holstein had been in personal union with Denmark.
The modern Scandinavian co-operation after World War I also came to include the independent Finland and (since 1944) Iceland and Scandinavian as a political term came to be replaced by the term Nordic countries; and eventually, in 1952, by the Nordic Council institution.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Scandinavia   (5837 words)

  
 Trade Union
Even then, unions refused to be contained within the tight legal framework that had been created, and this government was besieged by a renewed industrial militancy that not only rendered its legislation inoperable but also brought it to electoral defeat on the issue of the enforcement of statutory controls on wage bargaining.
Even then, once the CIO unions scored their dramatic unionizing victories in rubber, auto, and steel of 1936 and 1937, a second condition had to be met: the CIO unions had to demonstrate their capacity to enforce the contractual provisions of workplace due process and discipline a turbulent rank and file.
For unions to play a role in the reorganization of productive relations that was made possible (and necessary) by the new technologies, they had to decentralize their organizational and political capacities and create a strong union presence in the workplace.
cyberspacei.com /jesusi/inlight/philosophy/anarchism/trade_union.htm   (15582 words)

  
 Scandinavian Design   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Nevertheless, trade unions have served the interest of the workers' collective in two ways that are important for the present argument: They have been an essential instrument for workers in wage negotiations, and they have been a key instrument for furthering democracy in society as a whole.
A local trade union strategy has to be based on solidarity between the different groups of workers involved--a solidarity that goes beyond the traditional division of labor in the labor process and the traditional jurisdictions between the unions involved.
Given the Scandinavian societal, historical, and cultural setting, the first part of this chapter focused on the democratic aspect of skill-based participatory design, especially the the important role of local trade unions and their strategies for user participation.
www.ilt.columbia.edu /publications/papers/Ehn.html   (13759 words)

  
 Military of Denmark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Its primary purpose is to prevent conflicts and war, preserve the sovereignty of Denmark, secure the continuing existents and integrity of the independent nation of the Kingdom of Denmark and further a peaceful development in the world with respect to human rights.
Since 1988, Danish defense budgets and security policy have been set by multi-year agreements supported by a wide parliamentary majority including government and opposition parties.
However, public opposition to increases in defense spending – during a period when economic constraints require reduced spending for social welfare – has created differences among the political parties regarding a broadly acceptable level of new defense expenditure.
www.sevenhills.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Military_of_Denmark   (411 words)

  
 Search Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics -> The Stalin Era A struggle for leadership followed Lenin's death in early 1924; Joseph V. Stalin and Leon Trotsky were the two main protagonists, with Stalin emerging victorious by the late 1920s.
The union shop, a closely allied term, indicates a company where employees do not have to belong to a labor union when hired but are required to join within a specified period of time in order t...
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics -> The Khrushchev Era The death of Stalin on Mar. 5, 1953, ushered in a new era in Soviet history.
www.encyclopedia.com /search.asp?target=Scandinavian+defense+union&rc=10&fh=30&fr=11   (575 words)

  
 Articles - Scandinavian Monetary Union   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion, Norwegian: Skandinaviske myntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other.
Norway, which was in union with Sweden, however with full inner autonomy, entered the union two years later, in 1875 by pegging its currency to gold at the same level as Denmark and Sweden (.403 grams [1]).
The monetary union was one of the few tangible results of the Scandinavian political movement of the 19th century.
www.foreverc.com /articles/Scandinavian_Monetary_Union   (373 words)

  
 Scandinavian fonts - Harvard Independent - Arts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
For centuries, the history of Scandinavian printing has been one of petty theft and enduring mediocrity - a history that the region is today beginning to overcome only by disclaiming the very Scandinavianness that once promised to set it apart.
But as great Scandinavian scientists like Carl Linnaeus desperately sought recognition from their non-Nordic peers, they started to resent what they saw as the primitive and unreconstructed character of the flletter fonts in which their gleaming insights were immured, like diamonds inside a turd.
Soon unscrupulous Scandinavian merchants were literally smuggling copies of the Englishman John Baskerville's epochal romantic typeface into the region, and Sweden's King Gustav III was pulling out all the stops to get his hands on Didot's similarly innovative creation.
www.harvardindependent.com /news/2005/10/13/Arts/Scandinavian.Fonts-1021835.shtml   (751 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Scandinavian defense union   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other.
After the Continuation War where Soviet Union forced Finland to sue for peace but failed in its goal of conquering and annexing the country (in a manner similar to the Baltic States, Finland became neutral with democratic goverment and market economy.
The Continuation War was fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during World War II; from the Soviet bombing attacks on June 25, 1941, to cease-fire September 4, 1944 (on the Finnish side) and September 5 (on the Soviet side).
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Scandinavian-defense-union   (1525 words)

  
 Foreign relations of Sweden - TheBestLinks.com - AsDB, Council of Europe, Europe, European Union, ...
The foreign policy of Sweden is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain a neutral country in the event of war.
While some argued that it went against Sweden's historic policy of neutrality, where Sweden had not joined during the Cold War because it was incompatible with neutrality, others viewed the move as a natural extension of the economic cooperation that had been going on since 1972 with the EU.
It sits as an observer in the Western European Union and is an active member of NATO's Partnership for Peace and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.
www.thebestlinks.com /Foreign_relations_of_Sweden.html   (667 words)

  
 Per Albin Line - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Per Albin Line was a 500 kilometer long line of fortifications erected during World War II around the coast of southern Sweden to protect the country from a possible German invasion.
First defense line: machine-gun armed concrete bunkers along the shore (several of which still remain)
Second defense line: armed troops 300 meters inland behind barbed wire, some in concrete bunkers.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Per_Albin_Line   (120 words)

  
 Scandinavian defense union   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
A Scandinavian defense union that would include Sweden, Norway and Denmark was planned between the threecountries after World War II.
Allthree countries were unanimous that a united defense would be of utmost importance to prevent a repetition of the terrors that anew war would bring.
The proposed union was being discussed by a joint Scandinaviancommittee during the winter of 1948 - 1949, but theCold War tension between the United States and the Soviet Union, andpreparations for a western alliance that would result in the North Atlantic Treaty proved that the efforts were in vain.
www.therfcc.org /scandinavian-defense-union-90587.html   (433 words)

  
 Defense of Marriage
Certainly, the slippery slope argument was at the center of the legislative debate on the federal Defense of Marriage Act, and so should protect that act from being voided on the same grounds as Texas's sodomy law.
That code, which clearly defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman, was approved overwhelmingly by the voters of California.
The union of a man and woman is the most enduring human institution, honored and encouraged in all cultures and by every religious faith.
defenseofmarriage.blogspot.com   (12223 words)

  
 Foreign relations of Denmark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Denmark is not a member of the Western European Union but does hold observer status.
In December 1992, the rest of the EC agreed to exempt Denmark from certain aspects of the European Union, including a common defense, a common currency, EU citizenship, and certain aspects of legal cooperation.
The Amsterdam Treaty was approved in the referendum of May 28, 1998, but the persistent skepticism of the EU in Denmark may no longer be a purely Danish phenomenon, as other member nations seem to have lowered their ambitions for ever greater political integration.
www.butte-silverbow.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Foreign_relations_of_Denmark   (503 words)

  
 Nordic Council - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
With Denmark, Norway, and Iceland being members of NATO, Sweden being neutral, and Finland having had cooperation treaties with then Soviet Union, the Nordic Council has not been involved in any military cooperation.
Though ultimately it was the case that Finland did not dare to ratify the treaty due to its special relationship to the Soviet Union.
Sweden did not apply due to its non alliance policy, which was aimed at preserving neutrality.
www.butte-silverbow.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Nordic_Council   (345 words)

  
 CNN Specials - EU Defence
The aim is to develop the resources and the wider pool to be able to call up 60,000 troops within 60 days and to sustain an operation for at least a year.
UK and Scandinavian leaders have promised that the new Rapid Reaction Force will not become a European standing army and that no EU nations will be forced to contribute troops to operations in which they do not wish to participate.
The European Union, an economic and political alliance of 15 European states, is changing faster than at any other time in its 50-year history.
www.cnn.com /SPECIALS/2000/eurounion/story/defence   (684 words)

  
 Scandinavian Spring 2000 Courses   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Sanders, is on the faculty of the Scandinavian Department.
Advanced language classes (formerly Scandinavian 101, 103 and 104) will meet on Tuesdays as one class of 100B for a lecture in which linguistic and cultural issues, text analysis, reading, writing and grammar will be covered, and on Thursdays each language group will meet separately with a GSI for a discussion session.
This course presents the cultural, historical and political development of the Scandinavian countries starting with the dissolution of the Nordic Kalmar Union and the event of the Reformation.
socrates.berkeley.edu /~scanweb/scand_sp2000_crs_sched.html   (1938 words)

  
 Scandinavian (re)Union -? - Stormfront White Nationalist Community   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Anyway I am sure that 326,803 armed Estonian men (age 15-49) would be honoured to stand side by side on the battlefield with brave men from Scandinavian Union when needed.
In the beginning of the war there was 9000-men Swedish army in Estonia to defend her (two thirds of it were Estonians).
When You talk about Scandinavian Union, I think it would be nice to have such thing as Estonian-Finnish Union...
www.stormfront.org /forum/showthread.php?p=1156135   (1145 words)

  
 Union Soldier In The Civil War
In a sense, the Union Army represented a cross-section of American society in the mid-nineteenth century.
In defense of the war contractors, however, most were conscientious, and according to James McPherson, by 1862 the Union forces became the best equipped in the world's history.
And even after the bloody battles were over, Union and Confederate soldiers aided each other with the gruesome task of burying the dead and attending to the wounded.
www.cwc.lsu.edu /other/other/acw_inf.htm   (7808 words)

  
 Finland's Relations with the Soviet Union, 1940-1986
While Western countries are continually warned of impending "Finlandization" with its essential reduction of independence and security and its necessary deference to the Soviet Union, the Finns have, during the past four decades, never lost an argument with the Soviets over basic Finnish interests.
Finland is a small, Western, liberal democracy that has seen the Soviet Union invade it twice, attempt to subvert its government, issue ominous demands and hurl a dizzying volume of threats.
Negotiations for a Scandinavian defense alliance (1948-49) were declared unacceptable to the Soviets.
www.loyno.edu /history/journal/1985-6/botticelli.htm   (2667 words)

  
 Tech Service Center   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Due to the uncertain status of the Finno–Soviet relations in the years after the Continuation War, and the precise interpretation of the treaty's wordings, Finland followed the Warsaw Pact countries' decision and did not participate in the Marshall Plan.
In general, Finland kept its relations towards western military powers very cool (including the proposed Scandinavian Defense Union) and NATO in particular.
Soviet Union had similar agreements with many nations, that were not directly allied with it like North Korea since 1961 and Vietnam since 1978.
www.techservicecenter.com /index.php?title=YYA_Treaty   (373 words)

  
 Scandinavian Defense Union Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
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Finland which had fought two wars against the Soviet Union, had close relations with the Scandinavian countries but had after losing the Continuation War entered into a state of dependence to its eastern neighbour.
www.karr.net /search/encyclopedia/Scandinavian_defense_union   (704 words)

  
 Scandinavian Review: Greenland today   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Only foreign affairs and defense remain completely under the control of the government in Copenhagen.
This simmering dispute later erupted into the most serious "border conflict" among the Scandinavian states in the 20th century.
In May 1921, Denmark declared the entire island of Greenland "Danish territory." Norway insisted that this violated its traditional hunting and fishing rights along the east coast and argued that prior discovery by Norwegians entitled it to claim at least part of the island.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3760/is_200304/ai_n9211128   (1419 words)

  
 Western European Union
It was set up in Brussels in 1955 as a defensive, economic, social, and cultural organization, consisting of Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands; Portugal and Spain became members in 1988, and Greece joined in 1995.
In 1999 the EU voted to absorb all the functions of the WEU in preparation for making the EU a defensive and peacekeeping military organization as well as a social and economic one.
Scandinavian security and intelligence: the European Union, the WEU, and NATO.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0851907.html   (478 words)

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