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Topic: Scientific revolution


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  The Scientific Revolution
There was a scientific revolution of sorts in the high Middle Ages that in many ways rivalled the later scientific revolution in its sweeping changes, but all the cultural components were not in place.
So the scientific revolution of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries did not produce a way of thinking about the world that closely resembles our own (this is why some people think that there was little scientific "progress" in the Middle Ages).
But the humanist revolution didn't happen all at once; the dichotomy between "experience" and "authority" was a vexed question throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
www.wsu.edu:8000 /~dee/ENLIGHT/SCIREV.HTM   (5282 words)

  
  The Scientific Revolution - free Suite101 course
The central moment in establishing our own scientific culture is called the "Scientific Revolution," (although not all historians think that term is appropriate.) The revolution overthrew the authority of the ancient Greek natural philosophers, astronomers and physicians.
The scientific revolutionaries themselves, for all their undoubted and awe-inspiring genius, were not abstract "great minds" standing outside their society and culture.
Scientific institutions spread across Europe, developing from temporary and informal groups into the permanent institutions founded in the 1660s, the English Royal Society and the French Royal Academy of Sciences.
www.suite101.com /course.cfm/17556/overview/27050   (0 words)

  
  Scientific Revolution - MSN Encarta
Scientific Revolution, the period roughly between 1500 and 1700 during which the foundations of modern science were laid down in Western Europe.
The scientific revolution can be seen as a major aspect of the sweeping and far-reaching changes of the Renaissance.
In broad terms the scientific revolution had four major aspects: the development of the experimental method, the realization that nature obeys mathematical rules, the use of scientific knowledge to achieve practical aims, and the development of scientific institutions.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_701509067/Scientific_Revolution.html   (1306 words)

  
  Scientific revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Since the time of Voltaire, some observers have considered that a revolutionary change in thought, called in recent times a scientific revolution, took place around the year 1600; that is, that there were dramatic and historically rapid changes in the ways in which scholars thought about the physical world and studied it.
During the scientific revolution, changing perceptions about the role of the scientist in respect to nature, the value of evidence, experimental or observed, led towards a scientific methodology in which empiricism played a large, but not absolute, role.
The scientific revolution, as a change in theoretical outlook, is normally identified as a four step process (this is not true of 'scientific practice' which is much less clearly definable historically).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Scientific_revolution   (3256 words)

  
 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Thomas Kuhn, 1962) is an analysis of the history of science.
SSR is viewed by postmodern and post-structuralist thinkers as having called into question the enterprise of science by demonstrating that scientific knowledge is dependent on the culture of groups of scientists rather than on their adherence to a specific, definable method.
It follows that it is improper to maintain that a term has changed its reference during the course of a scientific revolution; it is more appropriate to describe the process of development of such terms as "mass" as "having undergone a denotional refinement" during the course of a scientific revolution.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/The_Structure_of_Scientific_Revolutions   (4223 words)

  
 Scientific Revolution - MSN Encarta
Scientific Revolution, name commonly used to denote the period of history during which the conceptual, methodological, and institutional foundations of modern science were laid down in Western Europe.
Its exciting success was to stimulate the development of a whole range of instruments for studying nature, such as the microscope, the thermometer, the barometer, the air pump, and the electrostatic generator.
The scientific revolution has also been characterized as the period of the “mathematization of the world picture”, when quantitative information and the mathematical analysis of the physical world was seen to offer more reliable knowledge than the more qualitative and philosophical analyses that had been typical of traditional natural philosophy.
uk.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_1461500585/Scientific_Revolution.html   (1444 words)

  
 Scientific Revolution - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Paralleling the secularization of politics was the secularization of thought.
The scientific revolution of the 17th century laid the foundation for a...
All science experiments follow the scientific method, the step-by-step process that guides thinking and discovery.
encarta.msn.com /Scientific_Revolution.html   (210 words)

  
 Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Political revolutions are inaugurated by a growing sense, often restricted to a segment of the political community, that existing institutions have ceased adequately to meet the problems posed by an environment that they have in part created.
In much the same way, scientific revolutions are inaugurated by a growing sense, again often restricted to a narrow subdivision of the scientific community, that an existing paradigm has ceased to function adequately in the exploration of an aspect of nature to which that paradigm itself had previously led the way.
To discover how scientific revolutions are effected, we shall therefore have to examine not only the impact of nature and of logic, but also the techniques of persuasive argumentation effective within the quite special groups that constitute the community of scientists.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/kuhn.htm   (6971 words)

  
 Scientific revolution Summary
The scientific revolution was a fundamental change in the direction of Western thought and scientific practice that may reasonably be said to have begun with the reassertion of heliocentric model of universe advocated by Nicolaus Copernicus in 1543 and t...
In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in...
The Scientific Revolution in Europe brought humanity from its crossroads at the Renaissance into the modern world over the course of several hundred years, as it enabled people to discover the knowledge of the natural world.
www.bookrags.com /Scientific_revolution   (0 words)

  
 Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions - outline
A scientific revolution is a noncumulative developmental episode in which an older paradigm is replaced in whole or in part by an incompatible new one (92).
Political revolutions begin with a growing sense by members of the community that existing institutions have ceased adequately to meet the problems posed by an environment that they have in part created—anomaly and crisis.
Because paradigm shifts are generally viewed not as revolutions but as additions to scientific knowledge, and because the history of the field is represented in the new textbooks that accompany a new paradigm, a scientific revolution seems invisible.
www.des.emory.edu /mfp/Kuhn.html   (8208 words)

  
 Lecture 12: The Scientific Revolution, 1642-1730   (Site not responding. Last check: )
However, this revolution was accomplished by utilizing the medieval roots of science which, in turn, meant the science of the classical age of Greece and Rome as well as the refinements to that science made by Islamic scholars.
The greatest scientific achievement of the 17th century was clearly the mathematical system of the universe produced by ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727).
The Scientific Revolution gave the western world the impression that the human mind was progressing toward some ultimate end.
www.historyguide.org /earlymod/lecture12c.html   (2623 words)

  
 Thomas Kuhn: Revolution Against Scientific Realism*
A scientific theory is usually felt to be better than its predecessors not only in the sense that it is a better instrument for discovering and solving puzzles but also because it is somehow a better representation of what nature is really like.
The challenges facing scientific realism-the idea that guided modern science from its beginnings in the scientific revolution until the twentieth century-are such that it will probably never be restored.
The inability to return to scientific realism suggests a tripartite division of the history of science, with a period of scientific realism fitting between two periods in which there is no insistence that theory correspond to reality.
history.hanover.edu /hhr/94/hhr94_4.html   (2791 words)

  
 A scientific revolution?
Scientific revolutions are still rare in biology, given that the field, unlike astronomy or physics, is relatively young.
The whole process from Darwin to Mendel, to Avery, to Watson and Crick was a scientific revolution that gave birth to molecular biology as a new discipline.
Scientific revolutions concern the replacement of an old paradigm by a new incommensurable one.
www.nature.com /embor/journal/v6/n8/full/7400497.html;jsessionid=5FD2DBBDEE5F08521BE536C29D2E9E3F   (3233 words)

  
 Scientific Revolution
There is usually the further assumption that civilizations which had the potential for a scientific revolution ought to have had the kind that took place in the West, that led to the sorts of institutional and social changes that appeared in the West.
This outline of the Scientific Revolution's many dimensions is meant to suggest how much we are likely to miss if we care only about social factors, or only about intellectual factors, as we survey the situation in China.
Revolutions in science as well as in politics take place at the margins of society, but the people who made the one in seventeenth-century China were firmly attached to the dominant values of their culture.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /~nsivin/scirev.html   (4888 words)

  
 Anatomy of a scientific revolution
According to the study, a scientific revolution is not a simple radical new beginning, but the result of a new organisation of transmitted knowledge.
The work, which is the result of an international team of authors, contains new insights into the premises, assumptions, and preconditions that underlie Einstein's scientific revolution, as, for instance, insights into the role of Einstein's previously largely unknown precursors and competitors for a theory which today represents the basis of modern cosmology.
The core results of this decades-long research - especially the insights into the mechanisms of a scientific revolution - are also available in a presentation intended for a wider public in Jürgen Renn's "On the shoulders of giants and dwarves - Einstein's uncompleted revolution", recently published with Wiley Press.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2006-07/m-aoa072806.php   (557 words)

  
 Amazon.com: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: Books: Thomas S. Kuhn   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The requirement for scientific statements to be "falsifiable" is a useful contribution to the debate: To be of any use, a scientific theory must narrow down from the list of all possible outcomes a set of predicted ones, and rule the rest out.
Scientific theories are absolutely never thrown out the moment contradictory evidence is observed: the dial is tapped, the experiment re-run, and "numerous articulations and ad hoc modifications of their theory" are devised to eliminate any apparent conflict.
The paradigm governs not only the theory but the education, instrumentation, rules and standards of scientific practice, and is the basis on which the scientific community decides which kinds of questions are and are not relevant to the development of scientific research.
www.amazon.com /Structure-Scientific-Revolutions-Thomas-Kuhn/dp/0226458083   (4393 words)

  
 Scientific Revolution, The Canadian Journal of History - Find Articles
Shapin sees the scientific revolution as a story about the mechanization of nature, a process that led to the depersonalization of natural knowledge and an attempt at the mechanization of knowledge-making, what we might call the creation of the belief in objectivity.
And despite Shapin's claims to a totally new way of looking at the scientific revolution, he continues to stress physics to the complete absence of natural history or biology of any kind.
Shapin's scientific revolution will not surprise anyone familiar with his influential monographs, most particularly Leviathan and the Air Pump (co-authored with Simon Schaffer, 1985) and The Social History of Truth (1994).
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3686/is_199712/ai_n8759083   (765 words)

  
 The Coming Scientific Revolution, by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. (Apr. 2, 1999)
The future of scientific progress is to be recognized as already rooted, awaiting broader and fuller appreciation, within the contributions to modern experimental physical science by the leading discoverers of recent centuries, Platonists such as Nicholas of Cusa, Leonardo da Vinci, Johannes Kepler, Gottfried Leibniz, Carl Gauss, and Bernhard Riemann.
The object of a modern scientific education, is to have the student replicate each and all of the most important of the known discoveries of validated universal physical principles, since (chiefly) the Ionian Greeks.
The classical scientific illustration of the nature of the incompetence underlying computerized "benchmarking," is the nature and outcome of Kepler's determination, that the orbit of Mars is elliptical, rather than circular.
www.larouchepub.com /lar/1999/lar_coming_sci_rev_2618.html   (14511 words)

  
 [No title]
Sir Isaac Newton, the culminating figure in the scientific revolution of the 17th century, was born on Jan. 4, 1643 (N.S.; Dec. 25, 1642, O.S.), in the manor house of Woolsthorpe, near Grantham, Lincolnshire, England.
Perhaps the greatest scientific genius of all time, Newton made fundamental contributions to every major area of scientific and mathematical concern to his generation.
It was in the universities of Europe, in the 12th and 13th centuries, that the experiment was conceived and the testing of hypotheses became a rival form of authority to that of the church, creating the accuracy, efficiency and prosperity on which the modern world is founded.
www.lycos.com /info/scientific-revolution.html   (626 words)

  
 Section 4: The Scientific Revolution: Copernicus to Newton /Shaping of the Modern World/Brooklyn College
This Scientific Revolution is just as much a definer of the modern world as the developments in politics we studied over the past two sections.
The Scientific Revolution was the prelude to the wider movement we call the Enlightenment.
Constructing a new, equally persuasive synthesis was the achievement of the Scientific Revolution.
academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu /history/virtual/core4-4.htm   (4431 words)

  
 Anatomy of a Scientific Revolution
According to the study, a scientific revolution is not a simple radical new beginning, but the result of a new organisation of transmitted knowledge.
The work, which is the result of an international team of authors, contains new insights into the premises, assumptions, and preconditions that underlie Einstein’s scientific revolution, as, for instance, insights into the role of Einstein’s previously largely unknown precursors and competitors for a theory which today represents the basis of modern cosmology.
The core results of this decades-long research - especially the insights into the mechanisms of a scientific revolution - are also available in a presentation intended for a wider public in Jürgen Renn’s "On the shoulders of giants and dwarves - Einstein’s uncompleted revolution", recently published with Wiley Press.
www.physorg.com /news73312394.html   (0 words)

  
 ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies
The Scientific Revolution is a rather loose phrase historians use to describe a profound change in intellectual thought in the 16th and 17th centuries.
These (and other) developments tended to proceed along independent lines until the great scientific academies of the 18th century both brought them together and helped spread their findings to the rest of society.
Moreover, the recovery of Greek scientific writings showed that even some ancient authorities had likewise argued that the sun was the center and not the Earth.
www.the-orb.net /textbooks/westciv/science.html   (2700 words)

  
 The Scientific Revolution   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The year 1543 may be taken as the beginning of the scientific revolution, for it was then that Copernicus published The Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies and Vesalius, On the Structure of the Human Body.
His scientific successes were due to his ability to make what some historians have called "thought experiments." Taking a particular problem, such as the law that governs falling bodies, he would strip it of all complicating factors, such as the effect of air resistance, and then speculate on what would happen.
The triumphs achieved by the mathematical method redoubled efforts in the field of mathematics itself, and during the seventeenth century, analytic geometry and calculus were discovered, logarithms and the slide rule were invented, and arithmetical and algebraic symbols were improved and came into common use.
mars.wnec.edu /~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/scientificrev.html   (2909 words)

  
 Steven Weinberg on scientific revolutions
Kuhn argued further that in scientific revolutions it is not only our scientific theories that change but the very standards by which scientific theories are judged, so that the paradigms that govern successive periods of normal science are incommensurable.
But those who participate in a scientific revolution are in a sense living in two worlds: the earlier period of normal science, which is breaking down, and the new period of normal science, which they do not yet fully comprehend.
The greater revolutions of this century, quantum mechanics and relativity, were before my time, but they are the basis of the physics research of my generation.
www.cs.utexas.edu /users/vl/notes/weinberg.html   (2241 words)

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