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Topic: Sea ice

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In the News (Sat 17 Aug 19)

  SOTC: Sea Ice
Sea ice is frozen seawater that floats on the ocean surface.
Grids of sea ice concentrations, as well as summaries using data from both SMMR and SSM/I depicting annual cycles of ice extent (all areas with at least 15 percent ice cover), ice covered area (the ocean area actually covered by ice), and departures from the monthly means or anomalies are available from NSIDC via ftp.
Sea ice conditions for September 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006, derived from the NSIDC Sea Ice Index.
nsidc.org /sotc/sea_ice.html   (1916 words)

 Antarctica: Sea ice
Sea ice is a very effective insulator and decreases the amount of heat lost from relatively warm oceans (-1.9C) to the much colder atm (-30C).
The boundary between open sea and sea ice is usually quite sharp in summer, being defined by prevailing winds and currents pushing the sea ice fragments.
Sea ice is thicker in the Arctic because the North Pole is a frozen ocean surrounded by land, so there is no where for the ice to go and it piles up.
www.cybamuse.com /antarctica/seaice.htm   (557 words)

 NASA Fact Sheets
The melting and growth of sea ice, in contrast to land ice, does not affect sea level, because the sea ice is floating on the ocean already and is in equilibrium with it.
Sea ice, with its high reflectance and the insulation it provides between the polar atmospheres and oceans, is a key part of the climate machine.
Sea ice varies significantly from season to season and from year to year, and the extent of its natural variability is not fully known.
www.gsfc.nasa.gov /gsfc/service/gallery/fact_sheets/earthsci/polar.htm   (1643 words)

 How does Arctic sea ice form and decay - Wadhams
In quiet conditions the first sea ice to form on the surface is a skim of separate crystals which initially are in the form of tiny discs, floating flat on the surface and of diameter less than 2-3 mm.
This becomes known as pancake ice because collisions between the cakes pump frazil ice suspension onto the edges of the cakes, then the water drains away to leave a raised rim of ice which gives each cake the appearance of a pancake.
At greater distances inside the ice edge, where the wave field is calmed, the pancakes may begin to freeze together in groups and eventually coalesce to form first large floes, then finally a continuous sheet of first-year ice known as consolidated pancake ice.
www.arctic.noaa.gov /essay_wadhams.html   (2911 words)

 Sea ice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sea ice may be contrasted with icebergs, which are chunks of ice shelves or glaciers that calve into the ocean.
In calm water, the first sea ice to form on the surface is a skim of separate crystals which initially are in the form of tiny discs, floating flat on the surface and of diameter less than 2-3 mm.
Sea ice extent and trend for September in the Northern Hemisphere
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sea_ice   (2159 words)

 intro   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Sea ice is a high latitude phenomenon that influences climate by modifying exchanges between the atmosphere and ocean and by redistributing heat and freshwater.
The sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere extends into the middle latitudes due to the effect of continentality and maintains a persistent and thick cover over most of the Arctic Ocean basins even though half of all north polar ice melts during the warmer months.
The accurate detection of sea ice formation and distribution characteristics are necessary to understand the role sea ice plays in influencing the oceanic and atmospheric controls upon regional climates and oceanic circulation.
seis.natsci.csulb.edu /rmorris/seaice/intro.htm   (491 words)

 Interactive Polar Ice Cap Melter ::: Everybody's Weather ::: NASA satellite images show dramatic polar sea ice cap melt ...
Sea ice records prior to late 1978, for example, are comparatively sparse, but they do imply that the recent decline exceeds previous sea ice lows.
Perennial ice cover is ice that survives the summer melt, consisting mainly of thick multiyear ice floes that are the mainstay of the Arctic sea ice cover.
Sea ice decline is likely to affect future temperatures in the region.
everybodysweather.com /Static_Media/Polar_Ice_Cap_Melter   (1188 words)

 SOCC: Current Arctic Sea Ice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Sea ice concentrations are estimated from the 19.3 and 37 GHz channels of the sensor using the Canadian sea ice algorithm.
Sea ice extent over the Northern Hemisphere has now reached a record minimum ice cover which is the lowest ever measured since sea ice cover records have been compiled this century.
This is the fourth year in a row that minimum sea ice cover has be this low and this is a clear sign that melting of sea ice is accelerating.
www.socc.ca /seaice/seaice_current_e.cfm   (398 words)

 Climate Change and Arctic Sea Ice
The Arctic's sea ice is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including polar bears, arctic foxes, seals, walruses, and whales, fish species such as Arctic cod and char, and sea birds such as guillemots, auks, and eiders.
The sea ice is also used as an important transportation route by caribou and muskox and a traditional hunting ground for the Inuit, that remarkable indigenous culture of the far north.
Many species of seal are ice-dependent, including the spotted seal, which in the Bering Sea breeds exclusively at the ice edge in spring; the harp seal, which lives at the ice edge all year; the ringed seal, which give birth to and nurse their pups on sea ice; the ribbon seal and the bearded seal.
archive.greenpeace.org /climate/arctic99/reports/seaice3.html   (4551 words)

Analyses of current ice conditions are produced bimonthly for regions in which sea ice is present.
All NIC regional sea ice analyses are derived from the near real-time integration of remotely sensed and in-situ oceanographic/meteorological observations.
All ARC/INFO sea ice attribute information are coded in a modified text strings derived from the WMO digital sea ice standard known as SIGRID.
www.natice.noaa.gov /products/arctic/index.htm   (487 words)

 NASA - Arctic Sea Ice Continues to Decline, Arctic Temperatures Continue to Rise In 2005
Arctic sea ice typically reaches its minimum in September, at the end of the summer melt season.
The perennial ice cover is that which survives the summer melt and consists mainly of thick multiyear ice floes that are the mainstay of the Arctic sea ice cover.
Sea ice decline is likely to affect future temperatures in the region.
www.nasa.gov /centers/goddard/news/topstory/2005/arcticice_decline.html   (1189 words)

 EO Study: Dwindling Arctic Ice
Sea ice that survives the summer and remains year round—called perennial sea ice—is melting at the alarming rate of 9 percent per decade, according to a study by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center senior researcher Josefino Comiso.
By collecting samples of ice as well as a wide range of satellite-based data to document the changes, scientists find that Arctic sea ice is melting at an increasing rate.
Researchers suspect that loss of Arctic sea ice may be caused partly by global warming and partly by changing atmospheric pressure and wind patterns over the Arctic that move sea ice around, which also help to warm Arctic temperatures.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov /Study/ArcticIce   (662 words)

 NASA - The Arctic Perennial Sea Ice Could Be Gone by End of the Century
Perennial sea ice floats in the polar oceans and remains at the end of the summer, when the ice cover is at its minimum and seasonal sea ice has melted.
Since sea ice does not change uniformly in terms of time or space, Comiso sectioned off portions of the Arctic data and carefully analyzed these sections to determine when ice had reached the minimum for that area each year.
Comparing the differences between Arctic sea ice data from 1979 to 1989 and data from 1990 to 2000, Comiso found the biggest melting occurred in the western area (Beaufort and Chukchi Seas) while considerable losses were also apparent in the eastern region (Siberian, Laptev and Kara Seas).
www.nasa.gov /vision/earth/environment/Perrenial_Sea_Ice.html   (768 words)

 Arctic Sea Ice Melting
Since sea ice and sheet ice both consist of fresh water, the result will be a huge increase in the amount of fresh water in the Arctic Ocean.
Extrapolation of the Rothrock et al data indicates that sea ice in the Eastern Arctic Ocean could be entirely gone by September 2001.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the sea ice may be melting even faster than indicated in the table.
www.daviesand.com /Choices/Precautionary_Planning/Arctic_Ice   (571 words)

 Everything you ever wanted to know about sea ice, but were afraid to ask.
Sea ice is a thin, fragile, solid layer that forms in the Polar Oceans.
Sea ice floats because it is less dense in the solid phase than it is in the liquid phase.
The oceanic processes of greatest significance in the Polar seas are those related to the presence of ice and include its thickness, compactness and type, its motion, the presence and energetics of ice-margin phenomena such as bands and eddies, and the penetration of oceanic swell into the ice pack.
southport.jpl.nasa.gov /polar/iceinfo.html   (560 words)

 Scientific American Frontiers . Don't Forget. Arctic Species at Risk | PBS
SEA ICE is any ice made of frozen seawater.
FAST ICE is sea ice that holds fast to the coast or another stationary object.
FLOES are chunks of floating sea ice and can range from a few meters to more than 10 kilometers across.
www.pbs.org /saf/1404/features/arcticanimals3.htm   (178 words)

 Arctic Sea Ice Changes in GFDL R30 Greenhouse Scenario Experiments
The Y-axis is in units of percent, with 100 percent representing the average Arctic sea ice volume simulated in the three model experiments for the decade 1950 to 1959.
So, by the year 2000, the total volume of Arctic sea ice present in the model is between 75 and 80 percent of that which was simulated to exist in the 1950's.
The ice moves freely with the surface ocean currents, provided the thickness is less than 4 meters, at which point additional convergence of sea ice is not permitted.
www.gfdl.noaa.gov /~kd/KDwebpages/NHice.html   (1908 words)

 Sea Ice Studies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Knowledge of sea ice properties is essential for safe navigation by fishing and commercial vessels and those involved in offshore oil and gas exploration as well as design and maintenance of offshore structures.
Climatological variation of ice properties is integral to climate change and long-term knowledge of sea ice properties greatly enhances our understanding of this phenomenon.
The snow and ice thickness radar system was originally designed to be an additional sensor to the ice probe but interference of the Radar signal with the EM signal necessitated its having its own housing.
www.mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca /science/ocean/seaice/properties_e.html   (1011 words)

 EO Newsroom: New Images - Dwindling Arctic Sea Ice
According to a new NASA study, Arctic perennial sea ice has been decreasing at a rate of 9 percent per decade since the 1970s.
Researchers suspect the loss of Arctic sea ice may be caused by changing atmospheric pressure patterns over the Arctic that move sea ice around, and by warming Arctic temperatures that result from the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
The first image shows the minimum sea ice concentration for the year 1979, and the second image shows the minimum sea ice concentration in 2003.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov /Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=16340   (180 words)

 Daily AMSR-E sea ice maps
Sea ice map calculated from AMSR-E data using the ARTIST sea ice algorithem (ASI 5).
Animation of Arctic sea ice concentration (Jun 2002 to Sep 2005; MPEG format, 31.3 MB)
2005 minimum sea ice extent and mean September 2002-2005 and September 1979-1982 sea ice extents.
iup.physik.uni-bremen.de:8084 /amsr/amsre.html   (275 words)

 January 22, 2004: Glaciers and Sea Ice Endangered by Rising Temperatures
Unlike the melting of sea ice or the floating ice shelves along coasts, the melting of ice on land raises sea level.
Were Greenland's entire ice sheet to melt, global sea level could rise by a startling 7 meters (23 feet), inundating most of the world's coastal cities.
The United Nations Environment Programme is warning that for this region long associated with ice and snow, warming temperatures signify the demise of a popular ski industry, not to mention a cultural identity.
www.earth-policy.org /Updates/Update32.htm   (1528 words)

 Sea Ice Remote Sensing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The sea ice parameters to be retrieved from AMSR-E include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice.
Sea ice temperature is a by-product of the ABA algorithm and the sea ice snow depth will be obtained from an algorithm described by Markus and Cavalieri (1998).
Arctic and Antarctic daily and monthly sea ice extents and areas were derived using Nimbus 7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I data sets with the NASA Team sea ice algorithm which is summarized in Gloersen et al., 1992.
polynya.gsfc.nasa.gov /seaice_projects.html   (922 words)

 News About Ice Ages
Ice fjords, lifeblood for polar species, at risk in melting Arctic
The Arctic sea ice has never been as small as it is now.
Sea ice in the northern hemisphere has plunged to the lowest levels ever measured, a US Arctic specialist said Friday, adding that it was likely part of the long-term trend of polar ice melt driven by global warming.
www.terradaily.com /Ice_World.html   (1297 words)

 Sea Ice
To ensure an optimum performance over both marginal and consolidated ice, and to retain the virtues of each algorithm, the NASA/TEAM algorithm is given very little weight at low concentrations, while the opposite is the case over high ice concentrations.
The corrected brightness temperatures are used in the ice concentration calculations as well as in the multi sensor ice analysis.
In a similar way an algorithm for sea ice type analysis, distinguishing between first year and multi year ice has been developed and implemented.
saf.met.no /p/ice/index.html   (676 words)

 Sea Ice Forms
As the sea begins to freeze, unless it is VERY calm, it will form platelets growing to plates a foot or two across, with upturned edges where ripples splash and freeze.
If one holds an ice chisel, which has a handle 6 ft long at knee height and drops it and it does not go through, it is safe.
In bays sea ice may not break up in the summer if it is sheltered from any swell and may remain for 2-3 years or more becoming a small ice shelf perhaps 10 – 20 feet thick.
www.rosssea.info /sea_ice_forms.html   (1208 words)

Sea Ice Maps and Data (under construction!) Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg
Sea Ice Maps Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen
Frost flowers on sea ice as a source of sea salt and their influence of tropospheric halogen chemistry.
www.seaice.de   (107 words)

 Ice Mechanics
Sea ice is the most severe environmental factor in the Arctic.
Such hazards range from the forces that moving sea ice exerts against offshore structures to the gouging of the seafloor (a factor to be considered in the placement of pipelines).
Engineering properties and forces of moving ice on structures and pipelines are being studied.
www.mms.gov /tarprojectcategories/ice.htm   (311 words)

 Alaska Sea Ice Atlas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
This will be a GIS-based atlas of sea ice conditions in the territorial waters of Alaska, which will update previously printed ice atlases and provide risk analysis information for engineers and resource managers.
The Alaska Sea Ice Atlas will include a comprehensive collection of geo-referenced digital historical data on Alaska sea ice and other environmental factors that bear directly on ice processes and conditions.
Areas of uniform ice concentration, stage, and form are portrayed as polygons and superimposed on a 5-km-square grid.
holmes-iv.engr.uaa.alaska.edu /default.htm   (318 words)

 MMAB Sea Ice Analysis Page
The current sea ice state is important for both modeling efforts, such as the sea ice model and the global weather model, and for sea ice analysts, such as at the Anchorage WSFO.
Sea ice history and climatology information, including animations of the ice cover, is at http://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/seaice/Historical.html
Global ice cover as used for numerical weather, wave, and ocean prediction.
polar.ncep.noaa.gov /seaice/Analyses.html   (418 words)

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