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Topic: Sea level rise

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  Transcription of the lecture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Relative sea level may change in response to vertical land movement or changes in the level of the ocean surface as shown in the accompanying image.
Sea level is known to be rising, but there is no convincing evidence that the rate of rise has increased during the 20th century: the rate of sea level rise seems to be constant and has not measurably increased due to global warming of the last 90 years.
Eventually as temperature rises, the curve peaks and plummets downward passing zero and rapidly becoming negative to a point somewhat less than 0 degrees C where the ice mass is completely gone (ice may be present during winter season, but it no longer persists through all seasons).
www.iitap.iastate.edu /gcp/sealevel/sealevel_lecture.html   (2760 words)

 The Threat of Sea Level Rise
Global average sea level has been rising over the last 100 years, and global warming is expected to increase the annual rate of sea level rise by two to five times.
Higher sea levels and warmer ocean temperatures are expected to increase the chances of coastal flooding and storm damage, erode shorelines and contaminate fresh water supplies.
Sea level near Galveston is steadily increasing Though the city was designed to withstand moderate sea level rise, it could not withstand the levels predicted to result from global warming.
archive.greenpeace.org /comms/97/arctic/library/climate/seachange.html   (3305 words)

 Sea level rise - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The estimated rate of sea level rise from anthropogenic climate change from 1910 to 1990 (from modelling studies of thermal expansion, glaciers and ice sheets) ranges from 0.3 to 0.8 mm/yr.
A common perception is that the rate of sea level rise should have accelerated during the latter half of the 20th century.
Sea level rise estimates from satellite altimetry are 3.1 +/- 0.4 mm/yr for 1993-2003 (Leuliette et al.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sea_level_rise   (5683 words)

 Sea level rise due to global warming - Climate Change   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
In the conventional tide-gauge system, the sea level is measured relative to a land-based tide-gauge benchmark.
It is likely that much of the rise in sea level has been related to the concurrent rise in global temperature over the last 100 years.
The rate of observed sea level rise suggests that there has been a net positive contribution from the huge ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, but observations of the ice sheets do not yet allow meaningful quantitative estimates of their separate contributions.
www.grida.no /climate/vital/19.htm   (296 words)

 OzEstuaries; Coastal Indicators - Sea Level Rise
In the context of sea level rise, the IPCC (2001) [1] used numerous greenhouse gas emission scenarios in various numerical climate models to predict the amount of sea level rise over the next century.
A sea level rise of 0.09 to 0.88 m is projected from 1990 to 2100 (Table 1).
The overall Australian average sea level rise of 0.30 mm per year is substantially lower that the global estimates of IPCC (2001) of 1-2 mm per year over the last 100 years.
www.ozestuaries.org /indicators/sea_level_rise.jsp   (684 words)

 NASA GISS: Science Briefs: Sea Level Rise   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Sea level could rise 40 to 65 cm by the year 2100, due to predicted greenhouse-gas-induced climate warming.
Such a sea level rise would threaten coastal cities, ports, and wetlands with more frequent flooding, enhanced beach erosion, and saltwater encroachment into coastal streams and aquifers.
However, future sea level is very difficult to predict, because not enough is known about how the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will react to global warming.
www.giss.nasa.gov /research/briefs/gornitz_01   (348 words)

 CRU Information Sheet no. 10: Sea level rise
Global warming is thought to change sea level mainly through thermal expansion of the ocean and by changing the net mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets.
Estimates of sea level rise from these sources over the last 100 years are very uncertain and the total gives an estimate which is less than that based on the tide gauge data as can be seen from the table below.
How much sea level will change in the future due to the continued burning of fossil fuels and other changes made by man such as changes in land use will depend on rather a large number of factors and for this reason estimates for the future are uncertain.
www.cru.uea.ac.uk /cru/info/slr   (755 words)

 CSCOR: Stressors : Climate Change: Current Programs : Sea Level Rise Research Program
Sea levels have risen between 100 and 250 mm (4 and 10 inches) during the past century and will inevitably be affected by climate change in the future.
The rate of sea level rise during the twentieth century has been nearly 2 mm per year, which is an order of magnitude higher than the average over the last several millennia.
A significant coastal management issue that is yet to be addressed is the conversion of IPCC estimates of global sea level rise down to regional and local levels, through the inclusion of land movements caused, for example, by subsidence.
www.cop.noaa.gov /stressors/climatechange/current/sea_level_rise.html   (731 words)

 Sea Level, Ice, and Greenhouses -- FAQ
This is well under the rates of sea level rise experienced during the end of the last ice age (around 20 mm/year), so is not ecologically unprecedented.
The Filchner-Ronne (in the Weddell Sea) and the Ross Ice shelf (in the Ross Sea) act as buttresses to the West Antarctic ice sheet.
Sea level during the last 17,000 years: Fairbanks, R. A 17,000 year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation.
www.radix.net /~bobg/faqs/sea.level.faq.html   (2898 words)

 USGS FS 002-00: Sea Level and Climate
Climate-related sea-level changes of the last century are very minor compared with the large changes in sea level that occur as climate oscillates between the cold and warm intervals that are part of the Earth's natural cycle of long-term climate change.
During cold-climate intervals, known as glacial epochs or ice ages, sea level falls because of a shift in the global hydrologic cycle: water is evaporated from the oceans and stored on the continents as large ice sheets and expanded ice caps, ice fields, and mountain glaciers.
Sea levels during several previous interglacials were about 3 to as much as 20 meters higher than current sea level.
pubs.usgs.gov /fs/fs2-00   (1003 words)

 Sea level - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
To an operator of a tide gauge, MSL means the "still water level"—the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves are averaged out—averaged over a period of time such that changes in sea level, e.g., due to the tides, also get averaged out.
The melting of glaciers at the end of ice ages is an example of eustatic sea level rise.
The subsidence of land due to the withdrawal of groundwater is an isostatic cause of relative sea level rise.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sea_level   (943 words)

 Sea Level Rise
This is particularly important because it illustrates the fluctuating nature of NORMAL sea level, that is to say, prior to the atmospheric pollution of the last century.
The statistics of tidegauge measurements on a decadal level are examined by W. Sturges and B.G. Hong.
During the next century we are talking of sea-level changes in terms of mm/yr or cm/yr, but during the Holocene natural fluctuations of sea level have sometimes exceeded several meters in a century, which calls for remarkably sustained rates of change.
cerf-jcr.org /Books/SeaLevelRise.htm   (898 words)

 4. Sea level rise during recent millennia
They concluded that the rate of sea level rise during the time of tide gauge measurements is about 1 mm per year higher in the area than during the late Holocene, further evidence that in the recent past (order 100+ years) sea level is rising faster than in earlier millennia.
Given the uncertainties in both the PGR and their sea level estimates, this result should be regarded as evidence for an insignificant average eustatic change during the 1500 year interval.
They document that rates of sea level rise were relatively slow during the 17th and 18th centuries, and that the current rapid rate of sea level rise (about 3.5 mm per year) dates only from the early 19th century.
www.agu.org /revgeophys/dougla01/node4.html   (722 words)

He says the sea level is rising there, and his family is losing land (although pretty slowly, but still).
So the sea level rise in Honolulu is faster than most other places in the U.S. It's kind of neat to think about how the Earth will look 100 years from now, but kind of scary too.
During the last ice age, for instance, the sea level was much lower than it is today, so all of those beaches are now underwater.
waves.marine.usf.edu /slrise_menu/slrise_menu_article.htm   (1813 words)

 Sea Level Rise
Warming of the global climate results in sea level rise for a variety of reasons.
But because of the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) more CO and other gases are being released into the atmosphere and thus causing a warming of the global climate.
At the same time, the ocean water is becoming warmer, which results in a slight expansion of the water, raising sea level.
www.wesleyan.edu /ctgeology/LISproject/sea_level_rise.htm   (428 words)

 University of Colorado Global mean sea level
The measurement of long-term changes in global mean sea level can provide an important corroboration of predictions by climate models of global warming.
Long term sea level variations are primarily determined with two different methods.
Over the last century, global sea level change has typically been estimated from tide gauge measurements by long-term averaging.
sealevel.colorado.edu   (208 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Sea level rise 'is accelerating'
Australian researchers found that sea levels rose by 19.5cm between 1870 and 2004, with accelerated rates in the final 50 years of that period.
These records show that the sea level has risen, and suggest that the rate of rise is increasing.
Although climate models predict that sea level rise should have accelerated, the scientists behind this study say they are the first to verify the trend using historical data.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/sci/tech/4651876.stm   (503 words)

 Stoat: Sea level rise   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
But one area where its pretty hard to say "its not a problem" is sea level rise, which is one reason people are interested in it.
Because the sea level rise over the past century is a slight puzzle - "The Enigma", according to Munk - because different estimates produce different results.
So: there are essentially two ways to estimate sea level changes over the last century: firstly, you can total up (over the last century) thermal expansion, glacier melt, ice sheets, terrestrial storage and so on, and you get a value of 0.7 +/- 1.5 mm/y.
mustelid.blogspot.com /2004/12/sea-level-rise.html   (544 words)

 Discovery Channel :: News :: Sea Level Rise Accelerating   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
By projecting the accelerating of sea level rise from 1870 to 2001 into the future, Church says the year 2100 should see ocean waters 11 to 13.4 inches (0.280-0.340 meters) higher than 1990 levels.
As for how Church and White found the sea level acceleration where others failed, the trick was in gathering lots of data.
That suggests there was no net sea level rise from the 1st century A.D. to about 1800 A.D. In other words, the current trend in sea level rise started in the 19th century, has been accelerating through the 20th century and continues now into the 21st century.
dsc.discovery.com /news/briefs/20060130/sealevel_pla.html?source=rss   (497 words)

 Coral Reefs & Sea Level Rise
Any rise in sea level will have significant and profound effects on the economies and on the living conditions of the populations of coastal and island countries (Small Islands Information Network).
In addition to corals living at their physiological depth limit, slow growing coral species are also susceptible to the negative consequences brought by sea level rise as they will be unable to grow fast enough to keep pace with rising ocean levels (Hoegh-Guldberg 1999).
If coral growth rates are reduced by general environmental stresses, then the rise in sea level that is expected under even moderate global climate change projections will present additional and perhaps insurmountable challenges for coral reef communities in the future (Hoegh-Guldberg 1999).
www.biology.duke.edu /bio217/2001/sealevel/page2.html   (1037 words)

 IMAGE - Sea Level Rise
The impacts of global warming on the global sea level are calculated by the Sea-Level Rise Model of IMAGE 2.2 (SLRM).
In this model the total sea-level rise is influenced by thermal expansion of the oceans and by changing the net mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets.
The uncertainty in these indicators is large, with ranges for 1990-2100 of 0.11 to 0.43 m for thermal expansion, 0.04 to 0.17 m for the glacier contribution, -0.01 to 0.07 m for the Greenland ice sheet and -0.12 to -0.02 m for the Antarctica contribution.
www.rivm.nl /image/model_details/sea_level_rise   (569 words)

 CSIRO Marine Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Sea-level rise projections for the 21st century and beyond are developed by simulating how the atmosphere and oceans respond to increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases.
During the 20th Century, the rate of global averaged sea-level rise is estimated to be 1-2mm a year, an order of magnitude larger than the average rate over the previous several millennia.
In Australia the rise of sea-level relative to the land (June, 2001) at Fremantle is 1.38 mm/year with more than 90 years of data, and at Sydney 0.86 mm/year from 82 years of data.
www.marine.csiro.au /LeafletsFolder/45slevel/45.html   (1157 words)

 SD : Environment : Potential Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on Populations and Agriculture
The literature confirms that indirect effects of sea level rise, as well as the potential impact of extreme events, may be more significant than direct effects in the future.
In the absence of an accepted methodology for building long-term scenarios, two approaches are explored here: an analysis of a large database of extreme events that have occurred over the last 100 years, and an analysis of population statistics in relation to a national Vulnerability Index based on physiographic features and population density.
Combined with changes in population concentrations and the positive skew of many climatological elements (such as wind and rainfall), as well as sea-level rise itself, this indicates that relatively greater disasters are likely.
www.fao.org /waicent/faoinfo/sustdev/EIdirect/EIre0045.htm   (398 words)

 EO Newsroom: New Images - Glaciers, Climate Change, and Sea-Level Rise
Average global sea level rises and falls in response to climate change.
A warmer climate increases melting of glaciers and ice sheets, and sea level rises.
Although the glacier is a big contributor to sea-level rise, its retreat is not directly tied to increased global temperatures and melting.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov /Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=16970   (578 words)

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