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Topic: Seawater

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In the News (Thu 23 May 19)

  Applications: Seawater
Seawater systems are used by many industries such as shipping, offshore oil and gas production, power plants and coastal industrial plants.
The main use of seawater is for cooling purposes but it is also used for fire-fighting, oil field water injection and for desalination plants.
Copper alloys are widely utilized in the design of seawater systems for their excellent resistance to corrosion and biofouling and many other excellent properties.
www.copper.org /applications/marine/homepage.html   (413 words)

  Seawater - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Seawater is water from a sea or ocean.
Seawater pH is limited to the range 7.5 to 8.4.
Seawater can be turned into drinkable (potable) water by one of a number of desalination processes, or by diluting it with fresh water to reduce the salinity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Seawater   (666 words)

 Kodiak Laboratory Seawater Facilities   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Filtered seawater is frequently desirable for experimental purposes and in areas such as aquariums where control of species composition and avoidance of fouling organisms is essential.
The general seawater laboratory and the three associated cold rooms are designed to conduct experiments in a controlled environment that are easily cross-correlated or verified through observations and experiments conducted in adjacent bays or ocean areas.
The seawater laboratory opens to the gear loft and then to the exterior through large garage type doors and the entire area is fork lift compatible.
www.afsc.noaa.gov /kodiak/facilities/seawaterlab.htm   (555 words)

 8(p) Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Seawater
Seawater is a mixture of various salts and water.
Calculations of seawater salinity are made of the parts per 1000 of the chlorine ion present in one kilogram of seawater.
The density of seawater generally increases with decreasing temperature, increasing salinity, and increasing depth in the ocean.
www.physicalgeography.net /fundamentals/8p.html   (694 words)

 The Hendrix Group - crevice corrosion of nickel alloys in seawater
Materials selection to combat crevice corrosion in seawater is especially complicated due to wide variations in seawater properties from location to location, difficulty in comparing various researchers' alloy ranking results, and difficulty in extrapolating test results to an anticipated service life in seawater applications.
The pH of seawater is usually in the range from 7.7 to 8.3 in surface waters, due to the buffering effects of carbonate salts.
Seawater, utilized for cooling purposes in chemical or other process plants, is usually taken from relatively shallow water sources or from seawells, which rarely exceed 60 feet (20 meters) in depth.
www.hghouston.com /n032298.html   (2865 words)

 Density of Seawater   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Although the density of seawater varies at different points in the ocean, a good estimate of its density at the ocean's surface is 1025 kilogram per cubic meter.
Seawater has been the source of life It is where the first living and breathing organisms set fins on planet Earth.
Since the composition of seawater is affected mainly by the addition of dissolved salts brought to it by the rivers, volcanic eruptions, erosion of rocks, and many other ways, the composition differs from one region to the next.
hypertextbook.com /facts/2002/EdwardLaValley.shtml   (638 words)

 Sea Water Power | Multi Purpose Seawater Power Station | Power Storage & Desalination | Global Cooler
Using seawater as the working fluid is renewable as opposed to continuing to use the limited supply of fresh water which would appear to be a step in the right direction.
In the meanwhile I present this road map to ecological sustainable renewable water and energy in the form of multi purpose seawater hydro technology that is capable of producing sustainable on-demand hydro electricity, on-demand fresh drinking water, backup storage for renewables and in the fore-see-able future, on-demand green hydrogen.
The resultant is renewable seawater hydropower that when melded with desalination eliminates the wait for rain and removes the limitation of a limited fresh water supply.
www.seawaterpower.com   (1667 words)

 Seawater Foundation - Seawater Farms Eritrea
A seawater farm is a farm that uses clean, untreated seawater to raise its crops instead of freshwater.
In the case of integrated seawater farming, the animals we raise are shrimp and fish.
Because integrated seawater farming was developed in our time, we have engineered it to address the problems of our time — hunger, environmental degradation, rising temperatures, drougth and desertification, collapsing fisheries, shrinking cropland, disappearing forests, the loss of plant and animal species, poverty, and indirectly, the growth of population.
www.seawaterfoundation.org /swEritrea.htm   (1256 words)

 Clean Water Products
The carbon dioxide in the seawater is increased due to slowsand micro-organisms.
The calcium and magnesium of 60 percent of the seawater is placed in 30 to 40 percent of the seawater, which combines to form the reject.
Cluff's seawater purification unit employs nanofiltration in the four membrane housings on the right followed by RO at 800 PSI in the three membrane housings on the left.
www.cleanwaterproducts.com /seawaterprod.html   (775 words)

 Hatfield Marine Science Center of Oregon State University
Although seawater is allowed to sit in the pipes linking the pump house to the reservoir in an anaerobic state for six weeks, the pipe walls are still subject to growth of marine organisms.
Seawater that enters the treatment facility is exposed to chlorine for a given amount of time and returned to the bay cleaner than when it entered the pumps at the dock.
Seawater from the HMSC Education Wing flows through a trough along the road near the library, flowing into a small creek that enters the mudflat area to the south of the HMSC.
hmsc.oregonstate.edu /seawater.html   (1191 words)

 Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination
Seawater desalination requires minimal energy consumption equal to the osmotic pressure times the volume of desalinated water.
The ratio of the desalinated water volume to the seawater volume used to produce it is called the recovery ratio.
Pressurized seawater (red arrows) flows in the direction of the cylinder axis along the external surface of the membrane sleeve.
urila.tripod.com /Seawater.htm   (5028 words)

 Properties of seawater
Seawater is compressible, although not as compressible as a gas.
Seawater properties are valuable tools for tracing water parcels as differing water mass formation processes imprint different amounts of various properties on the water parcels.
Nitrate/oxygen and phosphate/oxygen are present in seawater in nearly constant proportions, given by the Redfield ratio.
sam.ucsd.edu /sio210/lect_2/lecture_2.html   (4974 words)

 Seawater Farms
Seawater farms, an operation founded by U.S. entrepreneur John Sperling, has taken the abundant and heretofore unusable resources of salt water and desert to create a managed plantation that produces, cost-effectively, fish, shrimp, lumber, and a nutritious plant, Salicornia, that thrives in salt water.
At seawater farms, these fish are not just a food product; Their skin is similar to leather when dried and is used to make a variety of products whereas the leftover heads are recycled for shrimp feed.
Seawater Farms currently focuses on salicornia fields but genetic research funded by John Sperling is being done in the hopes of using other more 'profitable' species in this type of agriculture.
www.ecoworld.com /Home/articles2.cfm?TID=336   (1451 words)

Seawater contains large numbers of electrically charged particles, or ions.
As seawater evaporates, the positive and negative ions are attracted to one another to form crystals of various types, the most common of these being sodium chloride (common salt).
Seawater also contains a large amount of dissolved carbon dioxide, and thus the oceans act as carbon ‘sinks’ that may help to reduce the greenhouse effect.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0031161.html   (288 words)

 [No title]
Seawater with a salinity of 35 ppt is about 1.0264 times as dense as freshwater at the same temperature, and so is said to have a specific gravity of 1.0264.
Seawater with a salinity of 35 ppt has a freezing point that is 1.9°C (3.4°F) lower than freshwater.
Aside from carbon dioxide, all of the gases have lower solubility in seawater as the temperature and salinity are raised.
reefkeeping.com /issues/2005-11/rhf/index.php   (4597 words)

 Seawater: Composition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Eventually though, as seawater freezes, the ice crystals trap areas with brine and the entire large piece of frozen seawater (ice floe) is salty.
Seawater temperature map showing areas of warmer water in red and areas of cooler water is blue.
This concept is a little tricky but just remember that the amount of dissolved gases in seawater depends more on the types of life forms (plants and animals) that are present and their relative proportions.
www.biosbcc.net /ocean/marinesci/02ocean/swcomposition.htm   (2424 words)

 Seawater Greenhouse - Gran Canaria
Its primary purpose is to enable crops to be grown in conditions that are otherwise difficult or impossible as a consequence of extreme temperatures, lack of fresh water, or both.
The surface seawater is quite cool as a result of the Canary Current and upwelling of arctic water off the coast of Morocco.
The concept is similar to that used in the Seawater Greenhouse, where solar heat is collected from the roof of the greenhouse and fed into a distillation process that produces freshwater.
www.seawatergreenhouse.com /gran_canaria.htm   (565 words)

 Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority
At the 600 meter depth, the temperature of the seawater is approximately 6 degrees C and warms up less than 1/2 degree as it travels the 1.7 km pipes.
With this extreme cold readily available, the seawater can be used for a series of purposes that warm the seawater without altering the other properties; and it can be blended with surface sea water to achieve specific temperatures.
The deep seawater is also from a depth below the mixing layer and the photic zone of the ocean.
www.nelha.org /about/seawater_data.html   (226 words)

 Seawater Chemistry
Salinity is the term used to describe the concentration of inorganic, dissolved salts in seawater.
It is also quite easy to determine the salinity of a seawater sample by measuring Cl because the overwhelming proportion of the salinity consists of the major conservative elements.
O is removed from the seawater, the salts do not go along with the water.
core.ecu.edu /geology/woods/SEAWATERchemistry.htm   (2610 words)

 Seawater salinity
Standard Seawater has always been certified in chlorinity and its widespread use helped to eliminate one source of discrepancy between determinations carried out by different laboratories in the period when the chlorinity titration was routinely used for determining of salinity.
IAPSO Standard Seawater is still certified in chlorinity also, but it should be stressed that this is to be regarded as a separate independent variable relationship to salinity.
Although every effort is made to ensure that all ampoules of IAPSO Standard Seawater are of a uniform high quality, a faulty ampoule will be encountered occasionally, the most frequent cause being the development of minute cracks at the point where the tip is sealed.
www.ices.dk /ocean/procedures/standard_seawater.htm   (833 words)

 Desalination of seawater
Seawater desalination by means of reverse osmosis has been applied for more than 20 years.
The process is primarily used in the parts of the world where natural ground or surface water for drinking water purposes is only present to a limited extent.
When using traditional energy recovery systems, the energy consumption by desalination of seawater (35,000 ppm) is 6 to 7 kWh/m3, whereas HOH is able to guarantee an energy consumption of 3 to 4 kWh/m3.
www.hoh.com /07_sektorer/swro.htm   (450 words)

 Seawater Intake
YOKOTA Seawater Intake Pumps, with their patented construction of a "continuous air-bleeding" method which interlocks a bleed pump (vacuum pump) to the centrifugal pump, provide strong priming efficiency without penetration of seawater or muddy water into the vacuum pump even during continuous suction.
Because shrimp require especially pure seawater, it is delivered to the hatchery from a distance of 350m offshore.
Because a large amount of seawater is needed for cooling, the main pump that the plant uses is a large capacity YOKOTA Double Suction Volute Pump.
www.aquadevice.com /english/01top_topic08.htm   (1841 words)

 Today's Seawater Therapies
Seawater Hypertonic Solution is suitable for all except those who suffer from high blood pressure, a heart condition, kidney disease, eczema or psoriasis.
In cases of vaginal infections, hypertonic seawater (10 ml) can be used as a vaginal douche, using suitable traditional douche equipment, from 1 to 3 times daily, according to the severity of the condition.
Physiological irrigation and cleansing of the intestinal membranes.
oceanplasma.org /documents/therapiese.html   (4645 words)

 Seawater Greenhouse - Home Page
The Seawater Greenhouse is a unique concept which combines natural processes, simple construction techniques and mathematical computer modelling to provide a low-cost solution to one of the world's greatest needs – fresh water.
The Seawater Greenhouse is a new development that offers sustainable solution to the problem of providing water for agriculture in arid, coastal regions.
The process uses seawater to cool and humidify the air that ventilates the greenhouse and sunlight to distil fresh water from seawater.
www.seawatergreenhouse.com   (281 words)

 Surfrider Foundation A-Z: Desalination
Until recently, however, application of seawater desalination ("desal") on a large scale has been primarily limited to arid regions of the world that have a cheap supply of energy, such as in the Middle East.
For every 2 gallons of seawater introduced, about 1 gallon of drinking water is produced and 1 gallon of concentrated brine (about twice the normal salt concentration of seawater) is returned to the ocean.
Unless the seawater intake is gathered from beach wells or galleries there is an inevitable destruction of marine life (fish and smaller marine life like eggs and larvae) as the water is drawn into the desal plant.
www.surfrider.org /a-z/desal.asp   (3151 words)

 Energy of Seawater Desalination
Osmosis is the phenomenon of water flow through a semi permeable membrane that blocks the transport of salts through it.
Seawater contains a variety of salts, but the calculation will be simplified by assuming that all the salt is sodium chloride (NaCl).
The number of NaCl moles in seawater is, therefore, 33 / 58.5 = 0.564 mol / liter.
urila.tripod.com /desalination.htm   (730 words)

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