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Topic: Second Crusade


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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  
  CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Crusades
The honour of initiating the crusade has also been attributed to Peter the Hermit, a recluse of Picardy, who, after a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and a vision in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, went to Urban II and was commissioned by him to preach the crusade.
Meanwhile the crusaders, revictualled by the Armenians of the Taurus region, made their way into Syria and on 20 October, 1097, reached the fortified city of Antioch, which was protected by a wall flanked with 450 towers, stocked by the Ameer Jagi-Sian with immense quantities of provisions.
From the outset the Crusades were defensive wars and checked the advance of the Mohammedans who, for two centuries, concentrated their forces in a struggle against the Christian settlements in Syria; hence Europe is largely indebted to the Crusades for the maintenance of its independence.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/04543c.htm   (14401 words)

  
  Crusade
The Fourth Crusade was initiated by Pope Innocent III in 1202, but ended up in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, as crusaders fought with Venetians and renegade Byzantines.
The vital crusading spirit was now dead, and the succeeding crusades are to be explained rather as arising from the efforts of the papacy in its struggle against the secular power, to divert the military energies of the European nations toward Syria.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta[?] in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate[?], Pelagius[?], they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/cr/Crusades.html   (970 words)

  
 Crusades - MSN Encarta
As the Crusaders marched east, they were joined by thousands of men and even women, ranging from petty knights and their families, to peasants seeking freedom from their ties to the manor.
The Crusades of the 12th century, through the end of the Third Crusade in 1192, illustrate the tensions and problems that plagued the enterprise as a whole.
In the years between the failure of the Second Crusade and 1170, when the Muslim prince Saladin came to power in Egypt, the Latin States were on the defensive but were able to maintain themselves.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761561210/Crusades.html   (2660 words)

  
 Crusade - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
When the First Crusade was preached in 1095, the Christian princes of northern Iberia had been fighting their way out of the mountains of Galicia and Asturias, the Basque Country and Navarre, with increasing success, for about a hundred years.
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/c/r/u/Crusades.html   (3606 words)

  
 Medieval Sourcebook: St. Bernard: Apologia for Second Crusade
The Second Crusade, in fact, was destined to be the last Crusade in which the armies were accompanied by large groups of pilgrims and other noncombatants.
The failure of the Crusade to achieve any victories whatever in the East emboldened Moslem military leaders, destroyed the myth of Western prowess in arms, and was to be responsible, at least in part, for causing the Moslem states of the East to draw closer together, to unite for further attacks upon the Latin states.
The end of the Second Crusade saw the Moslems preparing to unite, for the first time, against the Latin intruders in their midst, while the Latins, for their part, were divided sharply against one another.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/source/bernard-apol.html   (1071 words)

  
 Crusades. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Second Crusade, 1147–49, was preached by St. Bernard of Clairvaux after the fall (1144) of Edessa to the Turks.
The Crusaders, led mostly by French and Flemish nobles and spurred on by Fulk of Neuilly, assembled (1202) near Venice.
The Crusader Baldwin I of Flanders was elected first Latin Emperor of Constantinople, but within a year he was captured and killed by the Bulgarians and succeeded by his brother Henry.
www.bartleby.com /65/cr/Crusades.html   (2318 words)

  
 Crusades
The crusades took place through the 11th and 13th centuries A.D. The original intent of the crusades was to recapture “Christian” lands that had been invaded by Muslims.
First Crusade: The first crusade was launched by Pope Urban II after the Council of Clermont in 1095 A.D. The Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople sent a letter to Pope Urban II, asking for his assistance against the progressing Muslim invaders.
The Ninth Crusade: The Ninth Crusade was Led by King Edward I of England in 1271 A.D. It was an attempt to defeat the Mamluk sultan of Baibers.
www.allaboutgod.com /crusades.htm   (753 words)

  
 End of Europe's Middle Ages - Crusades
The crusaders did this but, when it became clear that the former emperor was unable to fulfil his promises of money, troops, and supplies, and amidst a great deal of political scheming in the capital, the crusaders took Constantinople for themselves in 1204.
Crusades were still organized and carried out later, but as the thirteenth century drew to a close, it was clear that the enthusiasm for crusading was decreasing.
It succeeded in eradicating the heresy at the expense of ravaging the countryside.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/endmiddle/bluedot/crusades.html   (1294 words)

  
 kingsofjerusalem
But the locals were fearful of Crusader destruction, and offered food and free passage to them to hasten them on their way.
The Sultan was having trouble with his Arab neighbors and saw the Crusaders as a possible deterrent to any of his neighbors who may have thought of invading his territories.
By this treaty, Jerusalem was to be restored to the Crusaders and Frederick II was to be King of Jerusalem, with the truce to last for about ten years.
www.medievalcrusades.com /kingsofjerusalem.htm   (1396 words)

  
 The Crusader Period
The Latin Kingdom of the Crusaders was that of a conquering minority confined mainly to fortified cities and castles.
After the overthrow of the Crusaders by a Muslim army under Saladin (1187), the Jews were again accorded a certain measure of freedom, including the right to live in Jerusalem.
Crusader authority in the Land ended after a final defeat (1291) by the Mamluks, a Muslim military class which had come to power in Egypt.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/History/Crusader.html   (409 words)

  
 ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies
The crusaders were persuaded to join the siege of Lisbon, which was held by the Muslims.
The crusaders begged to be taken within the city and the governor relented.
The crusader army was no longer the imposing force that had left Europe and could not even surround the city, though it was still the largest crusader army ever to march in the Holy Land.
www.the-orb.net /textbooks/crusade/secondcru.html   (3832 words)

  
 Looking Back on the Second Crusade
Roger of Howden, for example, lifted his account of the crusade verbatim from Henry of Huntingdon, while the description of these events in the annals of the Cistercian abbey of Waverley in Surrey is copied word for word from Robert of Torigni.
In the case of the crusade it was licentiousness in the camp that lay at the root of divine displeasure.
Nor are accounts of the Third Crusade completely devoid of references to the Second: Roger of Howden, for example, had the crusaders tell the Muslims in 1191 that they intended restoring the Christian possessions to the frontiers as at the time of Louis' sojourn in the East.
www.deremilitari.org /RESOURCES/ARTICLES/edbury.htm   (1594 words)

  
 Rejection of Pascal's Wager: The Crusades
The Crusades is the name given to a series of military expeditions, which spanned the eleventh to the thirteenth century, organized by western Christendom to recover the holy land of Palestine from the Muslims.
Convinced that God was on their side (apparently one of the crusaders, enlightened by numerous visions, found the holy lance that pierced Jesus side during the crucifixion [John 19:34]), surged out from the city to kill the infidels.
The Second Crusade (1147-1148) was called by Pope Eugenius III (d.1153) after the Turks recaptured Edessa in 1144.
www.geocities.com /paulntobin/crusades.html   (2043 words)

  
 A Quick Guide to the Major Crusades   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Called at the Fourth Lateran Council, the Fifth Crusade was the second attempt by Pope Innocent III to restore Jerusalem to Christian control.
The failure of the Crusade in Egypt was blamed partially on Pelagius and partially on Frederick II, whose failure to depart had kept the Crusaders in constant uncertainty.
Depending on whether one counts the Crusade of Frederick II as a separate Crusade or not, this Crusade is alternately numbered the Sixth or Seventh.
crusades.slu.edu /quick.htm   (1652 words)

  
 Second Crusade
After Edessa was recaptured by the Muslims in 1144, the Second Crusade was summoned by Roman bishop Eugenius III, and preached by Bernard of Clairvaux in France and Germany.
The Second Crusade was a failure, and ended when the French army, enroute to Edessa, attacked but failed to take Damascus in 1148.
The Crusade, energetically supported by Louis VII, was preached by St. Bernard of Clairvaux in France and, with interpreters, even in Germany....
jmgainor.homestead.com /files/PU/Cru/2cr.htm   (297 words)

  
 The Christian Crusades: 1095-1291   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The era the Crusades the first began in 1095 with Pope Urban II's famous speech and the ended in 1291 when Acre, the last of the Latin holdings in Palestine, was lost.
The Fourth Crusade: The Sack of Constantinople (1204) The crusade was to be directed at Egypt, because the Crusaders believed that conquering it would be the key to regaining Jerusalem.
Crusades (The Catholic Encyclopedia) The Crusades were expeditions undertaken to deliver the Holy Places from Moslem control.
gbgm-umc.org /umw/bible/crusades.stm   (1699 words)

  
 The Second Crusade - Saint Bernard
The dangerous concentration of power in the hands of Nureddin (sultan of Aleppo and Damascus) and the capture of Edessa caused the preaching of the second Crusade to relieve the pressure of Frankish states before they were swept away completely...
Bernard himself preached the so-called "Second Crusade." An extraordinary pervasive man, he induced thousands of fighting men to put on the cross.
pointing out the true causes of the failure, the follies and vices of the crusaders themselves, he asserted that a new expedition, under-taken in a spirit of piety, would be crowned with success and urged the states of Christendom to combine in one great effort for securing the kingdom of Jerusalem.
latter-rain.com /crusades/crutwo.htm   (512 words)

  
 bibliography-03.html
A collection of19 essays on the Second Crusade (1147-49) and St. Bernard of Clairvaux focusing on the expedition's backgroundand ideology, the Crusade itself, and its aftermath.
Phillips (Jonathan and Martin Hoch, edited by), The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences.
Essays examine the planning, execution, and consequences of the Crusade for Western Europe, the Crusader States of the Holy Land, and the Muslim Near East.
www.allcrusades.com /BIBLIOGRAPHY/bibliography-03.html   (131 words)

  
 Second Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
While those who participated in the Second Crusade had probably planned to do so before hearing of the loss of Edessa to Zangi, the urgency of the crusade was likely reinforced by the loss.
It is important to note that the majority of the crusaders during this period crusaded either in Iberia (where they seized Lisbon) or (more unsuccessfully) on the eastern border of Germany against the Slavs and Wends.
While the Second Crusade didn't directly help the Christian presence in the Mideast, from 1153 to 1169 the Franks were again on the offensive.
www.umich.edu /~eng415/timeline/summaries/second_crusade.htm   (528 words)

  
 the second crusade
The Second Crusade was called in response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144.
The second crusade was preached in France by Bernard of Clairvaux, the "honey-tongued teacher" who found it expedient to dwell upon the taking of the cross as a potent means of gaining absolution for sin and attaining grace.
Bernard of Clairvaux was also humiliated, and when his attempt to call a new Crusade failed, he tried to disassociate himself from the fiasco of the Second Crusade altogether.
www.crusades-history.com /The-Second-Crusade.aspx   (629 words)

  
 Medieval Church.org.uk: Second Crusade (1147-1148)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The second crusade (1147) was caused by the conquest of Edessa by the Mohammedans,
Bernard of Clairveaux preached the crusade in France and Germany, promising certain victory, promising even that God would smite the hosts of the infidels by a miraculous interference.
He saved his fame as an inspired prophet by declaring the crusading armies unworthy of victory, and the defeat a divine punishment of their sins.
www.medievalchurch.org.uk /cr_2.php   (356 words)

  
 Second Crusade, 1147-1149   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
One of the least successful crusades, despite being led by Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France.
The remaining crusaders, still led by Conrad and Louis, joined Baldwin III of Jerusalem in an attack on Damascus which fell apart after arguments amongst the crusaders.
The failure of the Second Crusade demonstrated the dangers of the land route across Anatolia which the First Crusade only just survived.
www.rickard.karoo.net /articles/wars_crusade2nd.html   (117 words)

  
 Burning Crusade reaches Second Life numbers in 24 hours - Second Life Insider
Controversy around the resident numbers aside, for a person who first logged in when Second Life had 30,000 residents, the growth of Second Life is staggering.
Second Life only has a little over 45000 paid subscribers and everybody else plays the game for "free".
Second Life Insider is a member of the Weblogs, Inc. Network.
www.secondlifeinsider.com /2007/01/24/burning-crusade-reaches-second-life-numbers-in-24-hours   (1617 words)

  
 The Second Children's Crusade - by Jon Basil Utley
Like the Crusaders who in 1099 massacred almost the whole population of Jerusalem, earlier American Crusaders in 1991 also caused terrible death and destruction.
Guiding the crusade was the Evil One, Crazy Lord Cheney, King Bush's favorite counselor.
And that was the story of the Second Children's Crusade.
www.antiwar.com /utley/?articleid=9867   (1411 words)

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