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Topic: Second Intermediate Period

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In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

  Second Intermediate Period
Period of Ancient Egypt, 1650-1550 BCE, 100 years, in which central authority was largely lost.
Though the period was one of regional division and increasing poverty, it was not one of chaos or dramatic cultural decline.
The conclusion of this period, bringing forth the New Kingdom, came with the attack by the Theban kings.
i-cias.com /e.o/egypt_int02.htm   (317 words)

 The Structure of Egyptian History: And the Third Intermediate Period   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The rise of Herihor ushered in a period known as the "Renaissance", a term previously used by the founders of new dynasties, wehem meswt (he who repeats births), alluding to what was supposed to be a new era of Egyptian strength.
When considering that this led directly into the Third Intermediate Period, one might see this posturing as almost humorous, but in fact, during certain parts of the 21st and 22nd Dynasties, Egypt seems to have regained some of its power that was lost during the later part of the New Kingdom.
This period ended with the death of Psusennes II in the north, after which Sheshonq I came to power in the north apparently by marrying the daughter of Psusennes II.
www.touregypt.net /featurestories/thirdintermediate.htm   (1672 words)

The so-called "Intermediate" phases of Ancient Egyptian history refer to the periods when there was little or no strong central government and the ruling structure of the country was fragmented or divided.
These periods tend to be thought of as inferior times throughout Egypt's history, when the state was divided and the wealth of the country waned, although in fact these situations did in fact occur during more "normal" times too.
There are three "intermediate periods" which fall between the old, middle and and new kingdoms and the late period, and each one tends to involve a transition period, where a gradual breakdown in central power would result in the rise of various regional rulers.
www.egyptologyonline.com /intermediate_periods.htm   (1545 words)

 Manetho's Second Intermediate Period DE25
Although Africanus identifies this 518 year period as a separate dynasty, that the figure follows after the six kings suggests that it derives from a source similar to the one used by Josephus.
Second, since the six kings of the Great Hyksos Dynasty were the last of the Hyksos rulers, there couldn’t be an additional group of Hyksos kings following after them.
Whenever the Second Intermediate Period chronology is discussed, Manetho is routinely chastised for his highly inflated figures and his confusing account of this period’s history.
members.tripod.com /ggreenberg/writings/w-man-sip-de25.htm   (3768 words)

 d. The Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period (11th-17th Dynasties). 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History
The Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period (11th-17th Dynasties).
The Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period (11th–17th Dynasties)
The 13th Dynasty (1786–1633) was a period of declining power for Egypt, and increasing pressure by invaders from western Asia.
www.bartleby.com /67/92.html   (609 words)

 Ancient Egypt: History
The intermediate period comes to an end with the Theban king Mentuhotep 2 uniting north and south of Egypt.
The temples at Edfu and Kom Ombo belong to this period.
The temples at Dendera and Esna belong to this period.
i-cias.com /e.o/egypt_a_6.htm   (1078 words)

 Historical Development of Royal Cemeteries outside Thebes and inside Thebes (Early Dynastic-Second Intermediate Period) ...
As Egyptian society gradually developed from the predynastic chiefdoms to the first united kingdoms of the Early Dynastic Period (Dynasties 1 and 2), impressive royal tomb complexes were constructed, surrounded by cemeteries of courtiers and servants.
The characteristic tomb of the Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom was a rectangular flat-topped superstructure with steep sloping sides called a mastaba (after the Arabic word for the benches found in front of village houses) [16902].
During Dynasty 17, at the end of the Second Intermediate Period, a Theban princely family were buried in the traditional necropolis at Dira' Abu al Naja.
www.thebanmappingproject.com /articles/article_2.2.html   (859 words)

 Second Intermediate Period of Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom.
This dynasty was succeeded by a group of Hyksos princes and chieftains, who ruled in the eastern Delta with their local Egyptian vassals, and are known primarily by scarabs inscribed with their names, called by modern Egyptologists the Sixteenth Dynasty.
The later kings of the Thirteenth Dynasty appear to be only ephemeral monarchs under the control of a powerful line of viziers, and indeed it has been suggested that the kingship in this period might have been elective if not actually appointive.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Second_Intermediate_Period_of_Egypt   (672 words)

 Middle Kingdom of Egypt - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 1991 BC and 1648 BC.
These kings appear to gradually lose their grasp over Egypt, and a Fourteenth Dynasty appeared in the Delta region, but the pharaohs of this dynasty seem to be minor monarchs in the Delta region.
The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties witnessed the slow decline of Egypt into the Second Intermediate Period in which some of the Asiatic settlers of Amenemhat III would grasp power over Egypt as the Hyksos.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt   (818 words)

"Intermediate Periods" are characterised by rival and often simultaneous dynasties.
The 21st - 24th Dynasties is known as the Libyan Period, and the system adopted by the Libyan rulers and modified by the later 25th Dynasty Kushites was generally effective.
This second occupation was a period of suppression and rebellion resulting in the Egyptians welcoming the rule of the Macedonian leader Alexander.
www.egyptologyonline.com /chronology.htm   (724 words)

The presence of a memorial to a Second Intermediate Period military leader at the Theban terminus of the road accords well with what is known to have been located at the other end of the route during that turbulent period.
Considering the presence of large Theban forces at Abydos during the Second Intermediate Period, and of fortresses and palaces at Denderah and Ballas at the beginning of the New Kingdom, the military importance of the routes connecting Thebes with the northern part of the Qena Bend is clear.
During this intermediate period, the Theban state was hemmed between the Asiatic dominated Delta of the increasingly Egyptianized Hyksos rulers and the powerful Kerman rulers in Nubia.
oi.uchicago.edu /OI/AR/92-93/92-93_Desert_Road.html   (2451 words)

 Tthornton : Period 3500BCE to 587 BCE
This was another period of instability and civil strife characterized by short reigns and frequent turnovers.
Throughout most of this period, Egypt was ruled by a series of non-Egyptian, Semitic kings called Hyksos ("princes of the foreign lands") who swept down from the northeast bringing with them the horse-drawn chariot, which they introduced into Egypt.
Emphasis on written law at first (later oral law) emerged as a hedge against the threats of assimilation, encroachment, or eradication at the hands of a series of conquerors: the Babylonians, the Persians, the Greeks, and the Romans.
www.nmhschool.org /tthornton/mehistorydatabase/period_3500bce_to_587_bce.htm   (2533 words)

 Second Intermediate Period
This period saw the decline of the past thirteenth and fourteenth dynasties and the great increase in number of the Asian population whom, bit by bit started to settle and spread in the whole land of Egypt.
It is the period of the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties.
After that a period of peace ensued, but Rameses III’s reign was troubled by a plot, that appears to have involved a numerous numbers of officials, to manipulate the succession.
www.kingtutshop.com /freeinfo/2ndPeriod.htm   (1719 words)

 Civilization.ca - Egyptian civilization - Chronology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Manetho, a scribe in the fourth century B.C., was the first person to group the reigns of Egyptian kings according to dynastic periods.
Second Intermediate Period, 1640-1550 B.C. Fourteenth to seventeenth dynasties
Graeco-Roman Period, 332 B.C. Thirty-first and thirty-second dynasties
www.civilization.ca /civil/egypt/egctimee.html   (208 words)

 Chronology of the Great Pharohs
The Predynastic period, which ends with the unification of Egypt under one king, is generally subdivided into three parts, each of which refers to the site at which its archaeological materials were found: Badarian, Amratian (Naqada I), and Gerzean (Naqada II and III).
Archaeological sources indicate the emergence, by the late Gerzean period (about 3200 BC), of a dominant political force that was to become the consolidating element in the first united kingdom of ancient Egypt.
The architecture, art, and jewelry of the period reveal an extraordinary delicacy of design, and the time was considered the golden age of Egyptian literature.
www.osirisweb.com /egypt/egypt2.html   (3556 words)

 World Almanac for Kids
The second dynasty of Mameluke sultans, the Burjis, was of Circassian origin and ruled from 1382 to 1517.
The period from the 16th to the mid-18th century was an age of commercial prosperity when Egypt, at the crossroads of several commercial routes, was the center of a flourishing entrepôt trade in coffee, textiles, and spices.
In this period Egyptian agriculture was so completely dominated by cotton grown to feed the textile mills of Lancashire, England, that grain had to be imported to feed the rural population.
www.worldalmanacforkids.com /explore/nations/egypt2.html   (7206 words)

 Early Dynastic-New Kingdom Egypt: History and Urbanism 3100-1070
The period from 3000-2700 BC was one of consolidation of the pharaonic social order.
Following unification and during the Early Dynastic Period of 3000-2700 BC the first 2 dynasties completed the unification of Egypt and created the underpinnings of its social order.
Foreign involvement was probably spurred by economic needs and required the existence of state and temple specialists traveling to the areas immediately adjacent to Egypt to bring back the raw resources required by the state.
www.unm.edu /~gbawden/328-eghist/328-eghist.htm   (1664 words)

A Synchronism of the Archaeological Assemblages in Nubia in the Second Intermediate Period
oi.uchicago.edu /OI/DEPT/RA/BBW/BBWIntro.html   (990 words)

 HHF Factpaper: Egypt and the Semites; The Second Intermediate Period
HHF Factpaper: Egypt and the Semites; The Second Intermediate Period
Scarabs of the period mention chieftains with names like "Anat-her'" and Yacob-her'" and whatever the meaning of her, "Anat was a well-known Semitic goddess, and it is difficult to reject the accepted view that the patriarch Jacob is commemorated in the other name.
It is not surprising, therefore, that insofar as few grandiose monuments and exotic accouterments were collected from the period of Hyksos rule, the plunderers were prone to pronounce that little of value was contributed by the Aamus, and that, perforce, Egypt's civilization went into decline during the reign of their six "appointed" chiefs-of-chiefs, the Hyksos.
www.hebrewhistory.info /factpapers/fp010-2_egypt.htm   (8801 words)

 Civilization I: Lecture / Essay 6 (HIS 1113 Department of History & Political Science--SBU)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Manetho's Archaic period began with the unification of the two lands and continues with the rule of the first two dynasties or ruling families.
The Old Kingdom period saw the rule of dynasties 3, 4, 5, and 6, and the most outstanding of these dynasties was the fourth.
This very poorly known period of nearly 200 years begins a little after 2200 BC coinciding with the onset of a drought which ravaged the lands of the Amorites and the Hurrians in the northern part of the Tigris-Euphrates region.
www.sbuniv.edu /~hgallatin/hi13le06.html   (3258 words)

 Middle Bronze Symposium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
However, establishing a chronological typology of scarabs of the first half of the second millennium was proved to be one of the most problematic and controversial issues since the beginning of scarab studies.
One of the most problematic issues in the reconstruction of the history of the late Middle Kingdom in Egypt is determining the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period, that is, the actual takeover of the eastern Delta by a dynasty of Canaanite origin.
century throughout the Second Intermediate Period, the Egyptian pottery in Nubia is exclusively of Upper Egyptian origin, attesting to a hiatus in contacts between Lower Egypt and Nubia during this period.
www.tau.ac.il /humanities/archaeology/projects/mbsg/bentorlecture.html   (3742 words)

 Egypt The Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and Second Intermediate Period, 2686 to 1552 B.C. - Flags, Maps, Economy, ...
Historians have given the name "kingdom" to those periods in Egyptian history when the central government was strong, the country was unified, and there was an orderly succession of pharaohs.
These periods are known as "intermediate periods." The Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom together represent an important single phase in Egyptian political and cultural development.
This period of decentralized rule and confusion lasted from the Seventh through the Eleventh dynasties.
workmall.com /wfb2001/egypt/egypt_history_the_old_kingdom_middle_kingdom_and_second_intermediate_period_2686_to_1552_bc.html   (693 words)

 Ancient Egypt   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
In the Second Intermediate Period the Hyksos, a group of Asiatic settlers took over the reign of Egypt.
The period of these rulers is notable for the beginning of the systematic robbing of the Royal Tombs.
During this Period, the power was split between the Northern Kings and the High Priests of Amun at Thebes.
gei.aerobatics.ws /egypt_ancient.html   (938 words)

 The Ancient Egypt Site - 2nd Intermediary Period
The second part of the 13th Dynasty, however, was marked by usurpations and kings openly proclaiming their non-royal birth.
Remarkably, several kings of the second half of the 14th Dynasty, had the word nourrishment as part of their royal names, an indication that the provisions of food become a topic of high political importance.
With his reign, a new period of prosperity and wealth would begin: the New Kingdom.
www.ancient-egypt.org /history/14_17/index.html   (1065 words)

 Egyptian New Kingdom, Babylonia, Assyria, Hittites, etc.
The chronology for the period before the Canon of Kings, 1400 down to 700, is secured by the "Assyrian Kinglist" and a reported eclipse of the sun that can be dated to 15 June 763 BC.
This period begins with the domination of the Hurrians, already or soon to be led by a nobility of Indo-European horsemen, the Mitanni.
Clayton has the Late Period beginning with the Persian Conquest, which is not really fair to the XXVI Dynasty, which should not be considered part of an "Intermediate" period.
www.friesian.com /notes/newking.htm   (7979 words)

 eHistory.com: Ancient History: Ancient Egypt Overview
Ancient Egyptian dynasties are grouped into periods of stability referred to as 'kingdoms' and periods of fragmentation and chaos referred to as 'intermediate periods'.
The chaotic period between the Old and New Kingdom are known as the First Intermediate Period.
A series of weak rulers causes a new breakdown in centralized authority during the Second Intermediate Period (dynasties 14th, 15th, 16th and 17th.) The Hyksos from Asia took advantage of Egypt's internal conflicts.
ehistory.osu.edu /ancient/egypt/overview.cfm   (771 words)

 Egyptology - Ron Pettus: Chapter 8 review
1) The Second Intermediate Period is defined by the ______________ of Egypt.
3) The end of the Second Intermediate Period came with the conquest of the Hyksos kings at Avaris by __________, King of Thebes.
4) The question that lies at the heart of the Second intermediate Period is the nature of the ___________, or Aamu as the Egyptians named the people of Avaris.
www.stchas.edu /faculty/rpettus/eg_cr08.htm   (933 words)

 Egypt: History - Second Internediate Period (13th to 17th Dynasties)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
It is remarkable that as many as six kings of the period chose for themselves the Nomen Sobekhotep 'Sobk is satisfied', with a reference to the crocodile-god of the Fayyum first honored in a cartouche by Queen Sobeknofru.
It is the second oldest, and quite the most elaborate, telling them that he wishes to fashion in their true forms statues of the god Osiris and his Ennead and asking them to arrange for his inspection of the ancient books where such things are recorded.
This Neferhotep--there seems to have been a second of the name whom it is impossible to place--was followed by a Sihathor whose tenure of the throne was only three months.
www.touregypt.net /hsecin1a.htm   (3768 words)

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