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Topic: Semantic memory


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  Memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A basic and generally accepted classification of memory is based on the duration of memory retention, and identifies three distinct types of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Declarative memory can be further sub-divided into semantic memory, which concerns facts taken independent of context; and episodic memory, which concerns information specific to a particular context, such as a time and place.
Semantic memory allows the encoding of abstract knowledge about the world, such as "Paris is the capital of France".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Memory   (1568 words)

  
 Semantic memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other factual knowledge; in contrast to episodic memory.
Semantic and episodic memory together make up the broader category of declarative memory, which is one of the two major divisions in memory.
Researchers holding the 'distributed semantic knowledge' view believe that your knowledge of the sound a dog makes exists in your auditory cortex, whilst your ability to recognize and imagine the visual features of a dog resides in your visual cortex.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Semantic_memory   (440 words)

  
 Memory
Both semantic and episodic memories, whether linguistically expressed or not, usually aim at truth, and are together sometimes called ‘declarative memory’, in contrast to nondeclarative forms of memory, which don't seem to represent the world or the past in the same sense.
But to say that psychologists of memory have turned their research efforts to the study of suggestibility, misinformation, and distortion is not, of course, to say that accuracy in memory has suddenly been shown by science to be impossible or unlikely.
Engel (1999) and Schacter (1996) are reliable and well-written introductions to the psychology of memory in general: Tulving and Craik (2000) is a thorough handbook on the cognitive psychology and neuropsychology of memory.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/memory   (11302 words)

  
 [No title]
Memory and Knowledge Representation: Semantic Memory organization The organization of semantic memory is usually conceptualized as the grouping or clustering of elements that are alike in meaning.
Memory and Knowledge Representation: Semantic Memory organization Consider: "A robin is a bird." The first stage of validation of the statement involves a comparison of both the defining and characteristic features of the two lexical categories (robin and bird).
Semantic memory consists of a vast network of concepts; these concepts are composed of units and properties that are lined by a series of associationistic bonds.
www.psyc.memphis.edu /faculty/gholson/3303/knwldgrep.doc   (2094 words)

  
 Semantic memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
educators and clinicians are the semantic memory weaknesses experienced by children...
For example, the structure of semantic memory is often evaluated by testing how quickly...
Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other knowledge; in contrast to episodic memory.
hallencyclopedia.com /Semantic_memory   (589 words)

  
 Psychological Science : Chapter 7: Home   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Researchers agree that memory is served by multiple systems; some psychologists focus on memory content as the basis for defining the different systems and others focus on the process of memory storage as the way to differentiate among systems.
Explicit memory involves the effortful storage and retrieval of declarative information and takes two forms: episodic memory, which is our memories of our personal experiences, and semantic memory, which is our memories of facts and information.
This enhancement of memory appears to be related to the release of glucose that accompanies the increase in epinephrine levels and the associated increase in arousal.
www.wwnorton.com /psychsci/ch7_overview.htm   (1122 words)

  
 Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology: Semantic memory
Semantic memory contrasts with episodic memory, where memories are dependent upon a relationship in time.
Semantic memory appears to categorize information that has similar meaning (in this case, surnames), that begins with the same letter, and has the same number of syllables.
Words and other memories that are stored in semantic memory contribute to episodic memory and the two work together to function as an effective long-term memory system.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0003/ai_2699000308   (306 words)

  
 Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
William James (1890) claimed: "Memory proper is the knowledge of a former state of mind after it has already once dropped from consciousness; or rather it is the knowledge of an event, or fact, of which meantime we have not been thinking, with the additional consciousness that we have thought or experienced it before" (p.
As well, psychologists have posited an implicit/explicit memory distinction on the basis of evidence that such memories are experimentally separable.
Semantic memories are those in which the subject retrieves only general knowledge information (e.g.
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~philos/MindDict/memory.html   (390 words)

  
 Tulving's Model: Episodic, Semantic, and Procedural Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
I know that the meaning of the word semantics is closer to the meaning of the word vocabulary than it is to the word disarmament.
Tulving himself suggests that episodic and semantic memory may be related.
Episodic memory may be an important type of semantic memory.
luna.cas.usf.edu /~brazas/cognitive/memory3.htm   (408 words)

  
 Semantic Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Semantic memory research has its origins in A. And machine translation.
The sentence verification task ("An S is a P.") was used almost exclusively to study semantic memory until the mid 1980s.
Memory is viewed as a network of concepts (not words).
www.psych.umn.edu /courses/fletcherR/5054/semantic.html   (654 words)

  
 [No title]
Memory Information-Processing Model of Memory * Sensory memory: it’s purpose is to hold an internal copy of physical information just long enough for the system to select something in particular to attend to; that information then gets transferred to.
More memory missteps * Illusory memories * Students (N = 24) were presented a booklet in which there were four stories of childhood events.
Other important memory concepts * Autobiographical memory * Reminiscence peak of adolescence and early adulthood * Transitional firsts, such as 1st and 4th years of college * Flashbulb memories are very clear, visual, detailed memories of a new, important, emotional event.
www.tamu.edu /classes/psyc/barnhardt/6edc_f03.txt   (925 words)

  
 Braingle: 'Semantic Memory' Mentalrobics Article
The location of semantic memory in the brain is still a debated issue, but many scientists believe that the knowledge is widely distributed across the entire brain.
Semantic memory is what is most often emphasized in schoolwork.
It is interesting to note that semantic memory requires repetition whereas episodic memory is by definition the memory of a one-time event.
www.braingle.com /mind/index.php?id=417   (182 words)

  
 World of MS - Symptoms & Treatments - New methods give information about semantic memory disorders   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
However, more often researched than semantic memory has been episodic memory, which is a combination of all events during a lifetime.
Now researched semantic memory is a partial area of the memory and it includes all general knowledge about the world gathered during a lifetime.
It is assumed that disturbance in semantic memory is not the first cognitive symptom of MS.
www.msif.org /en/symptoms_treatments/ms_by_topic/cognitive_problems/articles/memory_disorders.html   (809 words)

  
 Semantic memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other knowledge ; in contrast to episodic memory.
Researchersholding the 'distributed semantic knowledge' view believe that your knowledge of the sound a dog makes exists in your auditorycortex, whilst your ability to recognise and imagine the visual features of a dog resides in your visual cortex.
Perhaps allthese representations are indexed by the left temporal pole, a region particularly vulnarable to damage in semantic dementia.
www.therfcc.org /semantic-memory-413.html   (308 words)

  
 Organization of Semantic Memory
Based on the literature on semantic priming, they suggested that the links in the network were based on semantic distance or relatedness (semantic association).
Semantic priming is identified in a classic experiment by Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971).
This is confirmed in the literature on memory for prose.
www.fscwv.edu /users/ffidura/cogpsy/cpsemorg.html   (2578 words)

  
 Muter 1978 Recognition failure in semantic memory
Given the considerable amount of scatter of the data in Figure 1 of Tulving and Wiseman, there is no evidence that the present semantic memory data are different from the episodic memory data with respect to the relationship between overall recognition rate and amount of recognition failure of recallable words.
However, the present task is clearly not an episodic memory task according to Tulving's own definitions: Episodic memory is memory for "autobiographical events, describable in terms of their perceptible dimensions or attributes and in terms of their temporal-spatial relations to other such events" (Tulving, 1972, p.
If, as Tulving (1972) has suggested, there are two memory systems, episodic memory and semantic memory, the present data suggest that in some respects retrieval from semantic memory is remarkably similar to retrieval from episodic memory.
www.psych.utoronto.ca /~muter/Abs1978.htm   (2067 words)

  
 WOEXP: 375 - Semantic memory retrieval versus episodic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Semantic memory retrieval by judging visually sentences with a yes/no response using right fingers versus episodic knowledge retrieval.
Semantic memory retrieval from visually sentences with a yes/no response using right fingers versus evaluative judgment.
Memory retention of newly encoded visually presented barcodes in 4, 6 or 8 seconds in a delayed non-matching-to-sample task.
hendrix.imm.dtu.dk /services/jerne/brede/WOEXP_375.html   (1331 words)

  
 Semantic Networks
A propositional semantic network whose nodes represent concepts and conceptual relations; type labels on the concept nodes make CGs into a typed or sorted version of existential graphs in which the EG ovals are represented by concepts of type Proposition.
A propositional semantic network that combines relational graphs with oval nodes that may contain other EGs or RGs; when the ovals are used to negate the nested graphs, an EG can represent any proposition in first-order logic, but the ovals can also be used to represent modal and metalevel information about the nested graphs.
A semantic network whose nodes represent entities and whose arcs represent relations that hold among the entities; the only logical operators that can be represented in a relational graph are conjunction and the existential quantifier.
www.jfsowa.com /pubs/semnet.htm   (10051 words)

  
 Cogprints - Recognition failure of recallable words in semantic memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
In an experiment in which there was no study phase, 54 subjects were tested for recognition of famous surnames and then were tested for cued recall of the same surnames.
The present data therefore extend the generality of this relationship, and of the principle that the probability of retrieval from memory depends critically on the cues provided.
It is argued that the similarity between results for episodic memory experiments and the present semantic memory experiment can be more parsimoniously accommodated by tagging theory than by episodic theory.
cogprints.org /4394   (339 words)

  
 Semantic Memory - organized knowledge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Semantic memory is a netlike organization of concepts in memory with many interconnections.
Semantic relatedness is reflected in the strength of links connecting concepts.
The distributed representation of the sight of the rose is thus represented by the matrix of activation over the units in the network, without recourse to any explicit symbol for representing the rose.
www.ship.edu /~ambart/PSY_325/LTMMODEL.htm   (1916 words)

  
 Semantic Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
the most impressive thing about semantic memory is not simply its size, but the ease with which concepts and meanings are inter-related and associated
Semantic memory and the normal brain: evidence from hemodynamic imaging
Priming results in general proved difficult for any sort of "feature list" model of semantic memory to account for, and thus Smith et.
www.u.arizona.edu /~jbarker/cogpsy2002/mar7.semanticmem.html   (1256 words)

  
 CRISP - Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects, Abstract Display   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The structure of semantic memory has been theoretically described as a network of concept nodes united by a series of labeled semantic connections (Collins and Loftus 1975).
The focus of this proposal is to examine the relative impairment of the semantic memory network in two forms of degenerative dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Semantic dementia (SD).
The first goal of this proposal is to examine the level of automatic spreading activation produced in the semantic networks of AD and SD patients matched for their overall level of impairment on explicit semantic tasks (Specific Aim 1).
crisp.cit.nih.gov /crisp/CRISP_LIB.getdoc?textkey=6648092&p_grant_num=1F31DC005885-01A1&p_query=&ticket=14375997&p_audit_session_id=65338802&p_keywords=   (382 words)

  
 Semantic Memory
Many models of semantic memory propose that semantic memory is simply a propositional network.
One common view is that propositions are connected to each other in memory, when they share arguments.
According to the feature comparison model decisions such as "Is a canary a bird?" are not based on activating a semantic network but by looking at the features of the item and comparing them to the features that characterize the category.
www.uark.edu /misc/lampinen/sm.html   (692 words)

  
 Semantic dementia: relevance to connectionist models of long-term memory -- Murre et al. 124 (4): 647 -- Brain
Semantic dementia: relevance to connectionist models of long-term memory -- Murre et al.
Semantic dementia: relevance to connectionist models of long-term memory
Semantic dementia is a recently documented syndrome associated
brain.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/124/4/647   (474 words)

  
 labpub   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Watson, J.M., Balota, D.A., and Sergent-Marshall, S.D. Semantic, phonological, and hybrid veridical and false memories in healthy older adults and in Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, Neuropsychology, 15, 254-267.
R., Balota, D. A., and Connor, L. Implicit memory and the formation of new associations in nondemented Parkinson's disease individuals and individuals with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: A serial reaction time (SRT) investigation.
Balota, D.A., and Duchek, J.M. Semantic priming effects, lexical repetition effects, and contextual disambiguation effects in healthy aged individuals and individuals with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, Brain and Language, 40, 181-201.
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~dbalota/labpub.html   (2252 words)

  
 Organization of Semantic Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Most of the semester when we have talked about "memory" it has been episodic.
This includes word meanings, facts ("George W. Bush is President of the United States", "Houston is a city in Texas", "soccer is a team sport where the ball is moved with the feet"), knowledge about animals ("giraffes have long necks"), objects, etc, etc.
In contrast to episodic memory, these are not events that happened to you personally.
www.u.arizona.edu /~vanpettc/326/knowledg.html   (1583 words)

  
 WOEXT: 318 - Semantic memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Type of memory not associated with specific events or episodes.
Listen to names of animals and respond with left hand thumb button press when a named animal is found in the United States and is used by people versus listen to consonant-vowel syllable triplets and responding with left hand thumb button press when a triplet contains both the consonant /b/ and the consonant /d/.
Semantic retrieval with a decision whether a visually presented word was living or nonliving with right hand button response versus episodic retrieval.
hendrix.imm.dtu.dk /services/jerne/brede/WOEXT_318.html   (487 words)

  
 Cogprints - A Computational Model of Children's Semantic Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A computational model of children's semantic memory is built from the Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) of a multisource child corpus.
Three tests of the model are described, simulating a vocabulary test, an association test and a recall task.
Adequacy is correct, which means that this simulation of children's semantic memory can be used to simulate a variety of children's cognitive processes.
cogprints.org /3777   (736 words)

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