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Topic: Semantics

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  Semantics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Semantics is distinguished from ontology (study of existence) in being about the use of a word more than the nature of the entity referenced by the word.
Semantic memory is a term used in neuropsychology to refer to memory for facts, or "knowledge", as opposed to memory for events (episodic memory).
Semantics is a subfield of linguistics that is traditionally defined as the study of meaning of (parts of) words, phrases, sentences, and texts.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Semantics   (438 words)

 Formal semantics of programming languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The formal semantics of a language is given by a mathematical model to represent the possible computations described by the language.
Categorical semantics (also called Functorial semantics), which is most easily understood as an algebraic semantics (and so is an axiomatic semantics), but which can also be understood as a kind of denotational semantics, and indeed familiarity with category theory is today a requirement for understanding most work in denotational semantics;
Game semantics was proposed as a kind of denotational semantics, but it has a dynamical aspect that allows it to be understood as a kind of operational semantics.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Semantics_of_programming_languages   (328 words)

 RDF Semantics
An alternative way to specify a semantics is to give a translation from RDF into a formal logic with a model theory already attached, as it were.
The semantics does not assume any particular relationship between the denotation of a URI reference and a document or Web resource which can be retrieved by using that URI reference in an HTTP transfer protocol, or any entity which is considered to be the source of such documents.
The 'intensional' semantics described in the main text provides for most common uses of subclass and subproperty assertions, and allows for simpler implementations of a complete set of RDFS entailment rules, described in section 7.3.
www.w3.org /TR/2004/REC-rdf-mt-20040210   (11716 words)

 Semantics 1
Semantics is the study of the relationship between words and their meanings.
Semantics can be defined in a narrow sense as the study of the relationship between words and their meaning--in other words, the study of how words mean and how such variables as context, connotation, and intent influence the meaning of a word or statement.
Semantics is a part of the larger discipline of semiotics, the study of meaning in general, covering the importance of all communication symbols, both verbal and non-verbal.
www.virtualsalt.com /think/semant1.htm   (6001 words)

 Lexical Semantics Encyclopedia Article @ LaunchBase.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Lexical semantics is a subfield of computational linguistics and linguistics.
A question asked is if meaning is established by looking at the neighbourhood in the semantic net a word is part of and by looking at the other words it occurs with in natural sentences or if the meaning is already locally contained in a word.
With the natural semantic metalanguage the other concepts may be described in a language and culture specific way.
www.launchbase.com /encyclopedia/Lexical_semantics   (367 words)

 semantics - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about semantics
Semantics asks how we can use language to express things about the real world and how the meanings of linguistic expressions can reflect people's thoughts.
Semantic knowledge is compositional; the meaning of a sentence is based on the meanings of the words it contains and the order they appear in.
Recent work in semantics has been examining the semantic underdeterminacy thesis, which holds that natural language sentences usually leave a lot to the imagination – they do not provide all the information needed for their meaning to be understood, and further processing is necessary for an interpretation to be reached.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /semantics   (416 words)

 CoFI -- Semantics
The orthogonality of basic specifications in Casl with respect to the rest of the language is reflected in the semantics by the use of a variant of the notion of institution [21] called an institution with symbols [35].
The semantics of basic specifications introduces a particular institution with symbols, and the rest of the semantics is based on an arbitrary institution with symbols.
Apart from polishing the full semantics of Casl and from consideration of the semantics of sublanguages and extensions of Casl, the development of a proof system for Casl is the main work remaining for the semantics task group.
www.brics.dk /Projects/CoFI/Semantics.html   (421 words)

 Metaphysical Semantics and the paradox of science
From the distinct sounds of words, semantics, a division of the linguistic sciences, attempts to reconcile any differences and arrive at a single meaning.
Over the centuries semantics was, and still is, a profoundly complex undertaking, one which demands that different traditional meanings also be considered (sociolinguistics).
Not only is society overly reliant on science to provide all the answers these days, specifically in sociology and psychology, when in fact these sciences have overstepped their capabilities in these fields, perpetuating beliefs based on concocted evidence, but they also have a communication problem.
www.matrixbookstore.biz /semantics.htm   (3831 words)

A standard assumption in computationally oriented semantics is that knowledge of the meaning of a sentence can be equated with knowledge of its truth conditions: that is, knowledge of what the world would be like if the sentence were true.
Dynamic semantics (e.g., [GS91a,GS91b]) takes the view that the standard truth-conditional view of sentence meaning deriving from the paradigm of FOPC does not do sufficient justice to the fact that uttering a sentence changes the context it was uttered in.
However, the relevant semantic properties of individual words or groups of words are seldom to be found in conventional dictionaries and closer cooperation between semanticists and computationally aware lexicographers is required.
cslu.cse.ogi.edu /HLTsurvey/ch3node7.html   (2729 words)

 Semantics -> High Rankings® Search Engine Optimization Forum
With the semantics kicking in, the levels of integration of these two are also boosted considerably.
This is true because, as we said, semantics needs a "pattern" in order to recognize the pointers and what they point to.
This is the most common SERP we are seeing distribution and sprinking of keywords, breaking down and distribution of keyword phrases, lots of stemming results, possible semantics play etc, See these SERPs california health insurance or this one car shipping or this one time tracking software.
www.highrankings.com /forum/index.php?showtopic=3116&hl=   (3525 words)

 XQuery 1.0 and XPath 2.0 Formal Semantics
The dynamic semantics of [XPath/XQuery] are normatively defined in [XQuery 1.0: An XML Query Language] and [XML Path Language (XPath) 2.0].
The goal of the formal semantics is to complement the [XPath/XQuery] specification ([XQuery 1.0: An XML Query Language] and [XML Path Language (XPath) 2.0]), by defining the meaning of [XPath/XQuery] expressions with mathematical rigor.
In particular, the dynamic semantics relates [XPath/XQuery] expressions to the XML value to which they evaluate, and the static semantics relates [XPath/XQuery] expressions to the XML Schema type that is inferred for that expression.
www.w3.org /TR/xquery-semantics   (7321 words)

 AIS SIGSEMIS - Deriving Emergent Semantics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The actual semantics of a web page is the emergent semantics that evolves over a period of time, which depends on the browsing paths of all the users who visit that page.
The semantics of a web page, w, can then be defined as the subset of the points in the reduced dimension space corresponding to the sub-paths that are within a threshold distance from page w.
The semantics of a user browsing path is then the collection of concepts represented by the semantics of the pages traversed by the user.
www.sigsemis.org /articles/grosky/document_view   (1137 words)

 Cover Pages: The SGML/XML Aversion to Semantics
All primitive relational semantics important to the schema designer must be shoehorned into these crude syntactic structures, but the XML DTD processor will not be able to recognize the significance since no additional "meaning" can be attached to them.
First, we must remember that SGML was given birth in the context of "document publishing." Indeed, one of the chief concerns addressed by SGML was that it be able to "achieve typographic results comparable to procedural markup" for high-quality printing of marked-up documents [8879 Annex A].
This is because the semantics of the markup bears an implicit one-to-one mapping to its syntax.
xml.coverpages.org /sgmlEschewsSemantics.html   (2786 words)

 Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - semantics, functional role   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
semantics, functional role - The meaning of a representation is the role of that representation in the cognitive life of the agent.
functional role semantics], the meaning of a representation is the role of that representation in the cognitive life of the agent, e.g.
The view has arisen separately in philosophy (where it is sometimes called "inferential," or "functional" role semantics) and in cognitive science (where it is sometimes called "procedural semantics").
artsci.wustl.edu /~philos/MindDict/semantics-fr.html   (275 words)

 Denotational Semantics of Computer Programming Languages
Models for semantics have not caught-on to the same extent that BNF and its descendants have in syntax.
As originally presented, its semantics are defined by its conversion rules and these are purely syntactic - they could be implemented in a decent text editor or macro-processor.
We prefer to have semantics based on abstract objects rather than on purely syntactic rules which might be meaningless or ambiguous, or on concrete objects which might be implementation dependent or superseded.
www.csse.monash.edu.au /~lloyd/tilde/Semantics   (1497 words)

 general semantics
As a direct result of my exposure to general semantics, in conjunction with my own extensive mathematics, physics, engineering, military, and computer science backgrounds, I went into the study of philosophy with the explicit purpose of clarifying the theoretical foundations of general semantics.
As a theory, general semantics "is" a forerunner of genetic epistemology.
The primary application of general semantics is in training individuals to view their environments using the general semantics world view, to think in terms of levels of abstraction, to use the extensional devices, to become aware of making assumptions, to extensionally check them out, and to be prepared for them to be wrong.
www.xenodochy.org /gs   (1273 words)

 The 'Definitive' Critique of General Semantics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Margaret Gorman, a Thomist philosopher and educator, in her 1962 study of general-semantics accepts Black's critique as a "closely reasoned paper" which shows Korzybski's "profound lack of understanding of what is asserted in Aristotelian logic...as well as the difficulties and confusions in the theory of abstraction..." (20).
This in turn requires us to determine how far semantic reactions are a faithful reflection of the physical reality outside the organism...a mere description of the physical world will not suffice for Korzybski's purpose; he requires criteria for distinguishing the "real" from the unreal or illusory.
The fact that four semantically entirely different words should have one sound and spelling appears as a genuine tragedy of the race; the more so since the discrimination between their uses is not always easy.
www.driveyourselfsane.com /gsarticles/maxblack.html   (10110 words)

 Lexical Semantics Bibliography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Thus children are not invariably conservative but show conservative tendencies, and their generalizations are influenced by morphophonological and semantic criteria.
Lambrecht, K. The pragmatics of case: on the relationship between semantic, grammatical and pragmatic roles in English and French.
The lexical semantics of verbs of motion: The perspective from unaccusativity.
dingo.sbs.arizona.edu /~hharley/522/522Spring1999/LexSemBiblio.html   (2342 words)

 Semantics and Google   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Semantics is the study of meaning, fully developed, Semantics could well be key in a Great Leap Forward in search technology.
Well, Semantics is a multi-tool for Google, unfocused it can be used to broad-match the main index into rough categories, focused, it can determine both the topic of a page, and its' relevance to that topic.
As mentioned, these are early days in Googles' use of Semantics, which I see as a gradual process rather than a sudden off/on switch, and there may well be some self-learning involved in it, where increasing use brings increasing refinement.
www.diy-seo.com /semantics.html   (251 words)

 2 Operational Semantics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
However, an operational semantics is more precise than an interpreter because it is defined mathematically, and not based on the meaning of the language in which the interpreter is written.
An operational semantics for a programming language is a means for understanding in precise detail the meaning of an expression in the language.
The only difference between the operational semantics and the interpreter is that the interpreter is a function, so we start with the bottom-left expression in a rule, use the interpreter to recursively produce the value(s) above the line in the rule, and finally compute and return the value below the line in the rule.
www.cs.jhu.edu /~scott/plbook/book/html/mainch4.html   (7098 words)

 ongoing · On Semantics and Markup
Eventually I co-founded Open Text and did search engines and drifted into the SGML community, and was nervous about the notion of semantics as early as 1992; a certain proportion of that community asserted that SGML markup was semantic and that the semantics came from the DTD.
The first time I saw this happen was a dozen years ago on the dictionary project, when we started running statistical analysis of the millions of supporting quotations used to illustrate word usages to track temporal patterns in the arrival into and departure from the language of English words.
Schemas · The existence of a schema (of whatever flavour) is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for attaching semantics to markup.
www.tbray.org /ongoing/When/200x/2003/04/09/SemanticMarkup   (1579 words)

 SIL Bibliography: Semantics
Burquest, Donald A. "Semantic parameters in Angas kinship terminology."
Hwang, Shin Ja J. "The semantics of the Korean verb of existence."
Bugenhagen, Robert D. "The semantics of irrealis in Austronesian languages of Papua New Guinea.
www.ethnologue.com /show_subject.asp?code=SEM   (1997 words)

 Semantics - Book Information
This second edition of Semantics provides an engaging introduction to semantics for students new to the field.
This second edition provides an engaging introduction to semantics for students new to the field.
Contains exercises that familiarize the student with the practice of semantic description.
www.blackwellpublishing.com /book.asp?ref=0631226931&site=1   (156 words)

 Citroen SM @ SeMantics - Home
SeMantics was formed back in 1992 to cater for the needs of owners of Citroën
We encourage owners to use these wonderful cars and help them in any way we can by providing practical help such as sourcing essential parts or providing the name of a recognised SM mechanic or servicing agent.
A new technical section is in preparation with many details to help you keep your SM on the road.
www.semantics.uk.com /home.htm   (548 words)

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