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Topic: Senate of Finland


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  Senate of Finland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Senate of Finland combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland between 1816 to 1917.
Due to the Civil War in 1918 the Senate was relocated to the town of Vaasa from January 29 to May 3.
In 1918 the economic division became the Cabinet and the judicial division became the Supreme court of the independent Republic of Finland.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Senate_of_Finland   (178 words)

  
 Senate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature.
In the United States, each of its member states has a Senate and a lower chamber, known variously as the House of Representatives, House of Delegates, General Assembly or Assembly, except for the state of Nebraska, where the Senate is the only body of a unicameral legislature.
Until 1919, the Senate of Finland was the executive branch and supreme court.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Senate   (552 words)

  
 Finnish Civil War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Finland's autonomy had been restored by the Provisional Government of Russia, but in the process the police force in Finland was virtually abolished.
The rebellion in Finland thus differed from the October Revolution and from the various uprisings on the European Continent that followed the world war — Béla Kun's revolt in Hungary, the Spartacists in Berlin, or the "Bavarian Soviet Republic" in southern Germany.
When Finland, in the mid-1930s, again oriented towards Scandinavia, the reception was less enthusiastic than the Finns had expected, and ultimately Finland had to fight the Winter War on her own.
www.eastcleveland.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Finnish_Civil_War   (2820 words)

  
 Helsinki's Senate Square — Virtual Finland
Finland destiny was sealed in Tilsit, in 1807, when Napoleon and the Russian Czar Alexander I came to an agreement on their respective spheres of influence.
Finland, situated in the Russian sphere, was conquered in the Finnish War of 1808-1809.
The cornerstone of modern Finland was laid in 1809 at the Porvoo Diet, where Czar Alexander proclaimed himself constitutional ruler of the new Grand Duchy and promised to maintain the faith and laws of the land.
virtual.finland.fi /finfo/english/senaatti.html   (989 words)

  
 Grand Duchy of Finland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
An extended Finland Proper was made a titulary Grand Duchy (more correctly, Grand Principality) in 1581, when king John III of Sweden, who as a prince had been royal duke of Finland (1556–1561/1563), extended the list of subsidiary titles to the Kings of Sweden considerably.
The Russian Emperor ruled as the Grand Duke of Finland and was represented in Finland by the Governor-General of Finland.
The Senate of Finland was the highest governing body of the Grand Duchy.
www.leessummit.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Grand_Duchy_of_Finland   (717 words)

  
 Diet of Finland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Diet of Finland, Suomen valtiopäivät or Finlands Lantdag, was the legislative assembly, and successor to the Riksdag of the Estates, of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906.
During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of occupied Finland (Nobility, Clergy, Burghers and Peasants) were assembled at Porvoo (Borgå) by Tsar Alexander I, the new Grand Duke of Finland, between March 25 and July 19, 1809.
The central event at Porvoo was the sovereign pledge and the oaths of the Estates in on March 29.
www.americancanyon.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Diet_of_Porvoo   (800 words)

  
 Finnish Civil War
The first serious battles were on the night of January 19th, followed by the Senate's declaration on January 25th transforming the White Guards into the Army of Finland, and on January 26th the order of rebellion was issued.
Finland, the first Nordic (and European) country to adopt universal suffrage, became the last to adopt parliamentarism.
When Finland later, in the mid-1930s, again orientated towards Scandinavia, the reception was less enthusiastic than the Finns had expected, and ultimately Finland had to fight the Winter War on her own.
brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/f/fi/finnish_civil_war.html   (2249 words)

  
 Finland's declaration of independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on December 6, 1917.
After abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, the personal union between Russia and Finland lost its legal base – at least according to the view in Helsinki.
The Senate of Finland, the government the Parliament had appointed in November, came back to the Parliament with a proposal for a new republican Instrument of Government on December 4th.
www.bexley.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Finland's_declaration_of_independence   (531 words)

  
 Oskari Tokoi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Tokoi was born in 1873 in Perho, Kannus in southern Ostrobothnia.
In 1917 he was elected to head the Senate of Finland.
Because of the war, Tokoi couldn't return to Finland and was forced to flee, first to England and Canada and later in 1921 to the United States.
www.leessummit.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Antti_Oskari_Tokoi   (317 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Senate   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The word senate is derived from the Latin word senex (old man), via the Latin word senatus (senate).The original senate was the Roman Senate.
Modern democratic states with bicameral parliamentary systems representatives are sometimes organised with a Senate, often distinguished by an ordinary parallel lower house (usually called House of Representatives, Chamber of Deputies, or National Assembly) by electoral rules (minimum age required for voters and candidates, proportional or majority system, electoral basis = collegium).
Examples of other states with senates include the Italian Senate, the Canadian Senate, the Philippine Senate and the Australian Senate.
www.internet-encyclopedia.org /wiki.php?title=Senator   (489 words)

  
 Pehr Evind Svinhufvud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Serving as a judge for the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland, he played a major part in the movement for Finnish independence and was banished (1914–1917) to Siberia.
Svinhufvud was elected president in 1931, and appointed Mannerheim as head of the government's Council of Defence, not the least as an answer to the Lapua movement's fear of having fought the Civil War in vain.
He believed it to be better for Finland if the Social Democrats could be kept outside of the Cabinet, because of which in the presidential election of 1937 the Social Democrats and the Agrarian party voted against him.
lighthousepoint.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Pehr_Evind_Svinhufvud   (769 words)

  
 Finland - THE RUSSIAN GRAND DUCHY OF FINLAND, 1809-1917   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Finland was not annexed to the Russian Empire but was joined to Russia instead through the person of the tsar.
Imperial assurances that Finland would be autonomous and that its traditions would be respected were encoded in two 1809 decrees that constituted for the Finns the basis of their relationship with Russia.
The counterpart of the Senate in St. Petersburg was the Committee for Finnish Affairs, composed of Finns, which presented Finnish requests to the tsar; however, Finnish civil servants usually carried on the business of government with little interference from the tsarist government in St. Petersburg.
www.countrystudies.us /finland/10.htm   (524 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Civil War in Finland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Subsequently the Left lost their police force in Finland was virtually abolished.
On November 16, during the general strike, the newly formed Workers' Revolutionary Central Council voted to seize power by a narrow majority, but the supreme revolutionary organ, the executive committee, could not recruit qualified members, and the revolution had to be called off.
Revolutionary Finland's programme and draft constitution, written by Otto Ville Kuusinen, was however heavily influenced by the Social Democrats; by the generally liberal ideas of the Swiss cantonal system.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Civil-War-in-Finland   (2783 words)

  
 Vaasa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In the middle of the century Saint Mary's Church was built and in the 1370's the building of the fortress at Korsholm, Crysseborgh, was undertaken, and it served as administrative centre of the Vasa County.
As a consequence of the occupation of central places and arresting of politicians in Helsinki the senate decided to move the senators to Vaasa, where the White Guardss that supported the senate had a strong position and the contacts to the west were good.
The Senate of Finland began its work in Vaasa on February 1, 1918 and it had four members.
www.wikiverse.org /vaasa   (608 words)

  
 MANNERHEIM - War of Independence - Vaasa Senate
In foreign policy, however, the Senate pushed through their policy and decided that the German expedition, which was on its way to Finland, had to be accepted.
The arrival of the speaker of the Senate generated the idea all over the country that the position of the Senate would now be stronger.
The Vaasa Senate, however, took the lead, and in early May both the parts of the Senate were united.
www.mannerheim.fi /06_vsota/e_senaat.htm   (376 words)

  
 Senate of Finland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Senate of Finland combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland 1816 to 1917.
Due to the Civil War in 1918 the Senate was relocated to the of Vaasa from January 29 to May 3.
The vice-chairman of the economic departement the Prime minister of Finland and the other senators became ministers.
www.freeglossary.com /Senate_of_Finland   (421 words)

  
 Prime Minister of Finland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In 1918 the Senate of Finland was transformed into the Cabinet of Finland, and the position as vice-chairman of the Senate's Economic Division was transformed into that of a prime minister.
The President nominates Prime Minister, according to the (new) Constitution of Finland, after the parties of the Parliament (Eduskunta) have negotiated on distribution of seats in Cabinet and on its programme.
The previous 85 years full formal powers to appoint the Prime Minister and the rest of the Cabinet had been the privilege of the President, who for instance was free to diverge from principles of Parliamentarism, although the ministers must enjoy the confidence of the Parliament.
usapedia.com /p/prime-minister-of-finland.html   (294 words)

  
 SENATE FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
An example of this is the United_States_Senate where the number of seats is fixed at two per state, regardless of size.
In the legislatures of U.S._states, Senates were also used for this purpose until the 1963 case of ''Baker_v._Carr'', in which the Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States ruled that state legislatures must apportion seats in both houses according to population.
The Jamaican Senate, for example, has 21 members, thirteen appointed by the prime_minister and eight by the leader_of_the_opposition.
www.whereintheworldiskerry.com /Senate   (505 words)

  
 History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The War of Finland in 1808-09 brought the transfer of Finland from Swedish rule to become an autonomous grand duchy of the Russian empire.
Towards the end of 1918, the names of the Senate and its administrative departments were changed by decree, with the Economic Division of the Senate becoming the Government of independent Finland and the administrative departments becoming Government ministries.
The Judicial Division of the Senate was separated from the executive wing and divided in two to produce the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court.
www.valtioneuvosto.fi /vn/liston/base.lsp?r=749&k=en   (577 words)

  
 Helsinki's Senate Square — Virtual Finland
The Senate, or as it is now called, the Palace of the Council of State, was Engel's first large monumental building around the Senate Square.
The staircase in the main wing and the senate room on the first floor are considered to be the finest interiors.
Each Thursday at one o'clock the cabinet convenes in a room on the third floor, and on Fridays at eleven it presents to the President of the Republic those matters that require his decision.
virtual.finland.fi /netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=26025   (287 words)

  
 Helsinki's Senate Square — Virtual Finland
Some of the buildings have been demolished, but his most important creations around the Senate Square are preserved.
There it lay, resplendently framed by sea inlets and bare masses of grey rock, which was later built on or converted into parks.
Here you can view the Senate Square, which measures 100 x 165 metres, in a 360 degree panorama picture, created for Virtual Finland by A4Media.
www.finland.fi /netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=26022   (989 words)

  
 Civil War in Finland - FreeEncyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Finnish Civil War was fought from January to May 1918, between the "Reds", Communists together with Leftist Finnish Social Democrats, and the "Whites", forces of the Conservative coalition-cabinet who had proclaimed Finland's independence from Russia the previous December 6th and intended to maintain the status quo.
The Reds were alarmed by the government's decision to employ the White-oriented Protection Guards as the nucleus of a national army, and to use them to disarm the 40,000 Russian troops that remained in Finland.
The Whites regrouped in the north and centre of the country under the political leadership of Senate president Pehr Evind Svinhufvud and the military command of Carl Gustaf Mannerheim.
openproxy.ath.cx /ci/Civil_War_in_Finland.html   (524 words)

  
 Open Directory - Society: Government: Parliaments and Legislatures   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Finland - Suomen Eduskunta - The Parliament of Finland, a unicameral body of 200 members elected on a proportional basis.
France - Senate - Upper house of the French parliament.
Poland - Senate - Chamber of the parliament.
www.dmoz.org /Society/Government/Parliament   (1083 words)

  
 1899. Fundamental Rules for preparation, inspection and promulgation of laws given for the Empire.
But apart from the local legislative needs in Finland deriving from the characteristic social structure of the land, the administration of the Empire brings forth also other legislative questions concerning Finland, which because of their close association to the general interests of the Empire, cannot be exclusively treated by the institutions of the Grand Duchy.
We are confident that the cooperation between the institutions of the Empire and the Grand Duchy of Finland, based on the firm rules of law in the legislative matters concerning their mutual interests, will serve to the better security of the real advantage and benefit of the Russian Empire.
When the Governor-General of Finland deems it necessary, for the needs of administration in the Grand Duchy, to complete the existing laws in compliance with these rules, then he shall, for their further preparation, communicate his proposals on the matter to the competent Imperial Minister and to the Minister State Secretary for Finland.
www.histdoc.net /history/keisarik.html   (778 words)

  
 Senate   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Senate Commerce Committee plans to vote next week on legislation setting a "hard date" that will force broadcasters to shut off their analog TV signal and begin airing programs using digital transmissions.
Kazakhstan's upper house of parliament, the Senate, passed a bill on Wednesday to allow the state to intervene in the sale of foreign-held stakes in oil firms, a move that may hit CNPC's bid for PetroKazakhstan.
The Opposition says a senate inquiry into the federal government's proposed changes to workplace relations will be too short.
www.infothis.com /find/Senate   (611 words)

  
 Finland Snapshots - Finland Travel Tourist Attractions
Finland is located in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia.
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy.
Helsinki, the capital of Republic of Finland, is a sparkling city.
www.wanderplanet.com /Snap/eu/FI/FI.htm   (378 words)

  
 Priests of the Sacred Heart - Where We Work.
1917: On December 6, the senate of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland proclaimed itself an independent republic and was recognized as such by the Soviet Union with the moral support of the League of Nations.
The Vatican was the first foreign state outside the Soviet Union to recognize the Republic of Finland during its Civil War.
They were in touch with the Finnish government which was happy to take advantage of every additional opportunity to confirm the national independence of the country.
www.poshusa.org /missfin.html   (1061 words)

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