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# Topic: Separated by neighbourhoods

###### In the News (Thu 18 Jul 19)

 Separation axiom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The separation axioms all say, in one way or another, that points or sets that are distinguishable or separated in some weak sense must also be distinguishable or separated in some stronger sense. They are separated if each of them has a neighbourhood that is not a neighbourhood of the other; that is, neither belongs to the other's closure. The points x and y are separated if and only if their singleton sets {x} and {y} are separated; all of the remaining conditions for sets may also be applied to points (or to a point and a set) by using singleton sets. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Separation_axiom   (1707 words)

 Regular space X is a regular space iff, given any closed set F and any point x that does not belong to F, there are a neighbourhood U of x and a neighbourhood V of F that are disjoint. Then, given any point x and neighbourhood G of x, there is a closed neighbourhood E of x that is a subset of G. In fact, this property characterises regular spaces; if the closed neighbourhoods of each point in a topological space form a local base at that point, then the space must be regular. www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/t3/T3_space.html   (917 words)

 Peter Tucker and Duncan Smith: Simulating Household Waste Management Behaviour The definition of 'neighbourhood' is left very loose, though might be taken to be a contiguous group of households, separated from other neighbourhoods by physical barriers such as railways, main roads, green space, or by a step-change in housing type. Individual, street, neighbourhood and community recycling performances are not in steady state, though they often portray a reasonable degree of stability over the longer term (Boldero, 1995; Pieters, 1989). Neighbourhood I is of homogeneous semi-detached and small detached housing, whilst in neighbourhood II this type of housing is co-mingled with local authority properties including the flats. jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk /2/3/3.html   (10546 words)

 World Bank Urban Solid Waste Management: Glossary Separation from a fluid of suspended particles or flocks. Separation physical/mechanical process by which secondary raw materials (paper, metals, glass, plastics/synthetics) are obtained from MSW. Separation of particles, sediment, from a liquid or a gas by means of gravitational force. www.worldbank.org /urban/uswm/glossary.html   (10327 words)

 Internet-based neighbourhood information systems and their consequences Depictions of neighbourhoods were also the province of a range of local people – estate agents, journalists, social workers, for example – who filtered local knowledge for specific purposes and in specific ways, distilling and perpetuating particular neighbourhood images as they did so. How neighbourhoods are 'sorted' is merely one example of a process, or series of processes, that can sort people not merely according to basic data such as income, but according to individual tastes and consumer preferences, likely lifestyle habits and so on. The full report, Neighbourhoods on the net: The nature and impact of internet-based neighbourhood information systems by Roger Burrows, Nick Ellison and Brian Woods, is published for the Foundation by The Policy Press (ISBN 1 86134 771 5, price £9.95). www.jrf.org.uk /knowledge/findings/housing/0405.asp   (1699 words)

 Al Jazeera English - Archive   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Israel's approval of a new route for its West Bank separation barrier is part of a political agenda designed, under the pretext of security, to mark the state's borders, a Palestinian official has said. The ICJ ruled that parts of the separation barrier which jut into the West Bank are illegal and should be torn down. Palestinians point to its route as proof of an intention to pre-empt the borders of their promised future state, while Israel insists that it is a security measure designed to prevent attacks on its soil. english.aljazeera.net /NR/exeres/E197DB3E-6D8D-4AEC-AABA-712BBC05CD82.htm   (786 words)

 A brief conceptual tutorial on multilevel analysis in social epidemiology: investigating contextual phenomena in ... The lines are not only separated by an amount corresponding with the different neighbourhood SBP means (that is, intercepts), but are also separated by varying amounts for different BMI values. The figure shows that this correlation is positive, which can be interpreted as follows: in neighbourhoods with a higher mean level of SBP (a higher value of the intercept), BMI has a stronger impact on SBP (the slope of the association is steeper). Figure 5  Neighbourhood and individual variances (A) and variance partition coefficient (VPC) (B) are shown as a function of individual BMI. jech.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/59/9/729   (4145 words)

 Water and Sanitation - Commentary The residents of Lemba, a poor neighbourhood of Kinshasa, endured huge mounds of rotting garbage that blocked sewage canals and drew armies of rats—until they had the idea to hold a cleanliness contest. These are not decaying slums in the urban centre but dynamic new neighbourhoods developed on the edge of the city over the past 25 years by enterprising migrants from rural areas. For rich people living in established neighbourhoods, Karachi has modern sanitation, with flush latrines in the homes and underground sewers. www.unicef.org /pon97/water5.htm   (970 words)

 #tex2html_wrap_inline537# (Hausdorff) Spaces implies that points and compact sets can be `separated off' by open sets and even implies that compact sets can be `separated off' from other compact sets in the same way. A valuable exercise: separate each point of C from x using disjoint open sets, note that the open neighbourhoods of the various elements of C, thus obtained, make up an open covering of C, reduce it to a finite subcover by appealing to compactness... A basic formal distinction between algebra and topology is that although the inverse of a one-one, onto group homomorphism [etc!] is automatically a homomorphism again, the inverse of a one-one, onto continuous map can fail to be continuous. at.yorku.ca /course/atlas5/node2.html   (218 words)

 Springer Online Reference Works The first separation axiom was the Hausdorff axiom, requiring that any two distinct points of the space can be separated by means of neighbourhoods, i.e. In particular, functional separation of a point and a set implies their separation by neighbourhoods in the given space. As well as the separation axioms, the so-called conditions of compactness type are significant for the theory of topological spaces. eom.springer.de /T/t093130.htm   (2209 words)

 Separated sets - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia There are various ways in which two subsets of a topological space X can be considered to be separated. Our examples, [0,1) and (1,2], are not separated by closed neighbourhoods. axiom, which is the condition imposed on separated spaces. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Separated_sets   (1056 words)

 Parliament of Australia: House of Representatives: Like most people, they are attached to their homes and to their neighbourhoods. More importantly, these neighbourhoods are generally rich in assets and advantages that, with a little planning and investment, can be translated into economic opportunities. As a result they now have elite neighbourhoods, physically separated — sometimes literally walled off — from the poorer parts of town. www.aph.gov.au /house/members/firstspeech.asp?id=PG6   (2260 words)

 Israel's media as a tool of government disinformation When it was decided to build the Separation Wall around Jerusalem, the plan was to cut a-Ram off from the city. The two parts of the city and its neighbourhoods would be separated by a nine-metre-high wall. Not to mention the students who are separated from their universities; the sick, separated from their hospitals; even the dead, separated from their cemeteries. www.redress.btinternet.co.uk /uavnery158.htm   (1856 words)

 Telegraph | News | 'White flight' plus immigration always add up to segregation The old Victorian city has profoundly segregated neighbourhoods: areas separated not simply by wealth but by ethnicity, culture and religion. That is the allegation normally thrown at working-class inhabitants of inner cities: the people who are "left behind", who complain about "their" neighbourhoods being "swamped by immigrants", and who say that "immigrants are claiming too many benefits and are allowed to jump the queue for council housing". The depressing conclusion - that the middle classes are, despite the rhetoric of inclusiveness, no more welcoming or inclusive than some of their working-class compatriots - might turn out to be correct. www.telegraph.co.uk /news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/10/08/nfaith208.xml   (893 words)

 Springer Online Reference Works The topology of such sheaves is separated (i.e. is separated (such is the case, for example, for the sheaf of germs of continuous (or differentiable) functions which is generated by the pre-sheaf ; however, the sheaf of germs of analytic functions on a manifold is separated). eom.springer.de /s/s084840.htm   (2238 words)

 Normal space - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia X is a normal space iff, given any disjoint closed sets E and F, there are a neighbourhood U of E and a neighbourhood V of F that are also disjoint. In fancier terms, this condition says that E and F can be separated by neighbourhoods. It turns out that X is completely normal if and only if every two separated sets can be separated by neighbourhoods. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Normal_space   (1059 words)

 Toledo, Spain There is no point in trying to divide it rationally; there are really only two concrete areas: the Casco Histórico, or Historical Quarter, which is, essentially, the whole of the old city; and the newly-built neighbourhoods, which are separated by the city walls. Outside of the city walls, you find a very different Toledo; a modern city with all the apartment blocks you find all over Spain, though some parts, such as Vega Baja, have historic remains such as those of the Circo Romano (Roman Amphitheatre). The Covachuelas neighbourhood, too, is where the Roman Theatre is buried. worldfacts.us /Spain-Toledo.htm   (1236 words)

 Springer Online Reference Works Two functionally-separable sets are always separable by neighbourhoods, but the converse is not always true. However, Urysohn's lemma holds: In a normal space, every two disjoint closed sets are functionally separable. A space in which every point is functionally separable from every closed set not containing it is called completely regular (cf. eom.springer.de /s/s084520.htm   (262 words)

 Compact space Then we can separate x and A by neighbourhoodss: for each a in A, let U(a) and V(a) be disjoint neighbourhoods containing x and a, respectively. Note that if A is infinite, the proof fails, because the intersection of arbitrarily many neighbourhoods of x might not be a neighbourhood of x. In this way, we see that in a Hausdorff space, any point can be separated by neighbourhoods from any compact set not containing it. www.fact-index.com /c/co/compact_space.html   (1294 words)

 the-BA : The self-sorting tendency   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Images and perceptions of neighbourhoods and communities used to be generated from a range of primarily local sources. The question for the future is whether IBNIS will assist in the production of increasingly separated spaces where neighbourhoods – as defined by software programmes – will come to be more homogeneous within themselves and more diverse between themselves than would otherwise have been the case. Obviously, whilst no one would want to prevent the public availability of neighbourhood information, it would be as well to be alert to the implications that IBNIS might have for vulnerable neighbourhoods and populations. www.the-ba.net /the-ba/CurrentIssues/ReportsandPublications/ScienceAndPublicAffairs/SPAJune06/Feature2June06.htm   (758 words)

 Embrun - Ottawa Real Estate Although traditionally a francophone community, in recent years the town's population is becoming more anglophone, with 40% (2005 estimate) of the population speaking English at home. Embrun has four main housing neighbourhoods which provide a home for 90% of the town's population. These four main housing neighbourhoods are generally separated from the other, with usually only one or two streets connecting them. www.ottawaliving.ca /community.php?community_id=155   (386 words)

 Springer Online Reference Works (see Separation axiom), that is, one in which one-point sets are closed and any two disjoint closed sets can be separated by neighbourhoods (that is, are contained in disjoint open sets). For hereditary normality of a space it is sufficient that all its open subspaces are normal, and it is necessary and sufficient that any two sets none of which contains an adherence point of the other are separable by neighbourhoods. A normal space is called perfectly normal if every closed set in it is the intersection of countably many open sets. eom.springer.de /n/n067660.htm   (434 words)

 IRAN - cities   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) The neighbourhoods were structurally separated by the typical oriental way of agglutinated building. Houses - built like rooms grouped around a central yard - were not single but stood wall-to-wall leaving only a few lanes which allow access. Those formed a system of blind alleys each of which belonged to another neighbourhood. www.geographie.uni-stuttgart.de /lehrveranstaltungen/exkursionen/Iran_2004/cities3.htm   (254 words)

 Hausdorff space   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) The conditions imposed are the most significant separation axioms. space, or separated space, iff, given any distinct points x and y, there are a neighbourhood U of x and a neighbourhood V of y that are disjoint. The points x and y, here represented by dots on opposite sides of the picture, are separated by their respective neighbourhoods U and V, here represented by disjoint open disks with the original dots at their centres. hausdorff-space.kiwiki.homeip.net   (918 words)

 CNN.com - Aid call for Lagos blast survivors - February 1, 2002 Pictures of dozens of children are stuck on a bulletin board, while relatives have been scouring hospitals, police stations and morgues in search for loved ones. Officials have said the explosions began when a fire spread to the depot, which stored rockets and heavy artillery shells, at a base surrounded by crowded slums and working-class neighbourhoods. But what sparked the fire in the first place is not clear. archives.cnn.com /2002/WORLD/africa/02/01/nigeria.soldiers/index.html   (498 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) With the advent of zoning and modern transportation systems in the 19th century, the historical city structure began to disintegrate: uses became separated, and neighbourhoods became economically segregated. They also discuss ideal construction materials for laneway dwellings, but the basis for all their proposals is the concrete block: a low-tech, non-combustible solution that provides fire protection, is easy to lay by hand, easy to align along lot lines, and relatively easy to transport into a laneway for construction. It is close to the ground, and a slow development process would mean that it is not disruptive to the neighbourhood,” says Van Elslander. www.building.ca /archive04/fm04_buildingbackalley.htm   (1116 words)

 Basic Program of the Bureau of Unitary Urbanism (Kotanyi & Vaneigem) A living critique means setting up bases for an experimental life where people can come together to create their own lives on terrains equipped to their ends. Such bases cannot be reservations for “leisure” activities separated from the society. Unitary urbanism is the contrary of a specialized activity; to accept a separate urbanistic domain is already to accept the whole urbanistic lie and the falsehood permeating the whole of life. www.bopsecrets.org /SI/6.unitaryurb.htm   (1110 words)

 Living - Harlow Council The development of new housing at Church Langley is nearing completion, and there is a further prize-winning development at Abode, New Hall Farm. The neighbourhoods are separated by ‘green wedges’ which give the town a pleasant green aspect. The 164 acres Town Park is a lovely place to visit in any season with attractive landscapes, river walks, an adventure playground a children’s paddling pool and Pets’ Corner. www.harlow.gov.uk /content-2   (167 words)

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