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Topic: Serotonin

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In the News (Sun 16 Dec 18)

  Serotonin definition - Depression Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments Including Clinical and Manic Depression on ...
Serotonin: A hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain.
Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that causes blood vessels to narrow.
For example, medications that affect the action of serotonin are used to treat depression.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5468   (204 words)

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a monoamine neurotransmitter found in cardiovascular tissue, the peripheral nervous system, blood cells, and the central nervous system.
The biosynthesis of serotonin from the amino acid tryptophan is similar to that found for the catecholamines, and 5-hydroxytryptophan can cross the BBB to increase central levels of 5-HT.
Although serotonin is metabolized by monoamine oxidase to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, most of the serotonin released into the post-synaptic space is removed by the neuron through a reuptake mechanism inhibited by the tricyclic antidepressants (see lecture notes for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
www.neurosci.pharm.utoledo.edu /MBC3320/serotonin.htm   (559 words)

  Serotonin : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. , Natural Way to Raise Serotonin
Excessive stimulation of serotonin receptors is usually a result of administration of a high dose serotonin agonist to a patient who is already receiving a drug capable of potentiating the serotonin pathways.
Serotonin syndrome, which occurs as a result of enhanced serotonin concentration in the central nervous system, is a well-known adverse effect of serotonin-active medications.
We assayed increasing concentrations (0-10 mm) of N-acetyl- serotonin in testis microsomes and (0-1 mm) of N-acetyl- serotonin in testis mitochondria.
www.raysahelian.com /serotonin.html   (3249 words)

Serotonin, whose chemical name is 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT, is synthesized both in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and in enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract.
Serotonin is known to play an important part in several biochemical processes and disorders, including depression, migraine headaches, bipolar disorder, anxiety, appetite, and even sexuality.
Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan, an amino acid that has been falsely associated with turkey and its purported effect on sleepiness.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Serotonin   (563 words)

 Serotonin- Health Encyclopedia and Reference
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter produced in the brain known to influence the functioning of the cardiovascular, renal, immune, and gastrointestinal systems.
The diffuse connections of serotonin allow it to affect many basic psychological functions such as anxiety mechanisms and the regulation of mood, thoughts, aggression, appetite, sex drive and the sleep/wake cycle.
Multiple observations suggest that serotonin, one of the most abundant neurotransmitters, plays an important role in the regulation of mood and a key role in the treatment of depression.
www.healthcentral.com /encyclopedia/408/409.html   (688 words)

  Serotonin Summary
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract.
Serotonin has been thought to play a part in many disorders, notably as part of the biochemistry of depression, migraine, bipolar disorder and anxiety.
Serotonin and 5HIAA are sometimes produced in excess amounts by certain cancer tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for these tumors.
www.bookrags.com /Serotonin   (1267 words)

 Olympus MIC-D: Polarized Light Gallery - Serotonin
With a molecular weight of 176.2, the melting point is 167 to 168 degrees Celsius and the synthesized form of serotonin is often sold as a solid with the addition of a hydrochloride group (HCl).
The name "serotonin" plays to the 1930s research on the organic compound as a vascular and gastrointestinal contractile agonist in blood that, as a powerful serum vasoconstrictor, induces muscle tone.
Serotonin is produced in the gastrointestinal system and transmitted via the blood stream to the body's nerve cells.
www.olympusmicro.com /micd/galleries/polarized/serotonin1.html   (402 words)

 Serotonin   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Serotonin is found in both the brain and the gut, but it is now widely understood that 95% of the serotonin in the body resides in the gut.
Most of the serotonin found in the brain is of the 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 subtypes; antidepressants tend to work on these subtypes.
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a chemical neurotransmitter (a chemical in the nervous system that helps transmit messages along the nervous system).
www.aboutibs.org /Publications/serotonin.html   (546 words)

 Serotonin syndrome American Family Physician - Find Articles
Serotonin syndrome is an important drug-related complication of psychopharmacologic therapy for depression, bipolar affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and Parkinson's disease.
Serotonin syndrome is an iatrogenic disorder: it only occurs in the setting of drug therapy that has a net effect of augmenting brain serotonin neurotransmission.
Serotonin syndrome is not associated with abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid analysis, radiographic studies (including computed tomographic scanning), electroencephalography (excluding seizures) or routine serum electrolyte determinations.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m3225/is_n5_v52/ai_17640135   (780 words)

 [No title]
These dramatic changes in serotonin level and reduced blood flow may be the cause of not only the head pain, but also the nausea and distorted vision or speech that often accompanies a migraine.
Like all amines, serotonin is basic because of the lone elctron pair on the nitrogen that can accept a hydrogen ion in the same way that the one pair on the nitrogen in ammonia does.
Serotonin is thought to have 15 receptors and receptor sub-types: 5-HT1 through 5-HT7 as well as 8 other subtypes which are all located in the cerebral cortex, posterior hypothalamus and central grey metter.
www.msu.edu /user/espino11/chemical.htm   (714 words)

 Amino Acid Derivatives
Serotonin is synthesized through 2-step process involving a tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent hydroxylation reaction (catalyzed by tryptophan-5-monooxygenase, also called tryptophan hydroxylase) and then a decarboxylation catalyzed by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.
Serotonin is present at highest concentrations in platelets and in the gastrointestinal tract.
Serotonin containing neurons have their cell bodies in the midline raphe nuclei of the brain stem and project to portions of the hypothalamus, the limbic system, the neocortex and the spinal cord.
web.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/aminoacidderivatives.html   (2081 words)

 Seratonin: The chemistry of Well-Being
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.
Serotonin is a chemical that helps maintain a "happy feeling," and seems to help keep our moods under control by helping with sleep, calming anxiety, and relieving depression.
Serotonin release is triggered by a carbohydrate load (sugar, etc.) and there are many who feel that eating Carbohydrates under stress is aimed at this serotonin release.
www.angelfire.com /hi/TheSeer/seratonin.html   (2275 words)

 UAB Health System   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Serotonin is one of dozens of neurotransmitters and is found in body tissues including the brain, blood, and the mucous membranes lining the stomach and digestive tract.
In the past decade, research studies of serotonin have found that it plays an essential role in the regulation of sleep, appetite, temperature, blood vessel tone, secretion of certain hormones and in the perception of pain, thereby affecting a wide range of conditions, such as migraine headaches, depression and sleep disturbances.
It is the role that serotonin plays in depression that perhaps is of most interest to scientists, who conclude that people with depression have "imbalances" in the brain's neurotransmitters; low levels of serotonin and another neurotransmitter norepinephrine are believed to play a critical role.
www.health.uab.edu /show.asp?durki=61541&site=734&return=18687   (435 words)

 NIDA - Publications - Slide Teaching Packets - The Neurobiology of Ecstasy (MDMA) - Slides 8 through 14
Indicate that the function of serotonin depends on the region of the brain into which it is released (it also depends on the type of serotonin receptor present in that region--see discussion in Slide 9).
When serotonin binds to serotonin receptors (there are actually at least 14 types of serotonin receptors), it causes a change in the electrical properties of the receiving neuron that generally results in a decrease in its firing rate.
The serotonin transporters are proteins located on the serotonin neuron terminals and they are in a unique position to transport serotonin from the synaptic space back into the neuron where it can be metabolized by enzymes.
www.drugabuse.gov /pubs/teaching/teaching4/Teaching3.html   (1556 words)

Serotonin belongs to a wider category of neurotransmitters known as monoamines.
Research thus far has shown that serotonin is mainly involved in mood regulation; control of basic activities such as eating, sleep and arousal; and control of pain.
Since serotonin affects so many areas in the brain, it is natural that researchers would be interested in discovering how MDMA affects serotonin, especially in terms of how it might cause damage in to the many systems it influences.
www.macalester.edu /psychology/whathap/ubnrp/mdma/serotonin.html   (341 words)

 Serotonin   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine) is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan, and found in the cells of the central nervous system, in blood vessels, but mostly in the intestine (90%).
It is believed that in stings and venoms, serotonin may function as an irritant, since intravenous injections of serotonin in man produce pain, gasping, coughing, tingling and prickling, nausea, cramps, and other unpleasant symptoms.
The dramatic changes in serotonin level and reduced blood flow during a migraine may be the cause of not only the head pain, but also the nausea and distorted vision or speech that often accompanies a migraine.
www.eskimo.com /~tla/Serotonin.htm   (1165 words)

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is widely distributed in animals and plants, occurring in vertebrates, fruits, nuts, and venoms.
Although serotonin may be obtained from a variety of dietary sources, endogenous 5-HT is synthesized in situ from tryptophan through the actions of the enzymes tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.
Serotonin is released during migraine attacks, and the major metabolite of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), is excreted in increased amounts.
home.tampabay.rr.com /lymecfs/seroton.htm   (4835 words)

 serotonin - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The structural similarity of serotonin to several drugs known to cause mental aberrations, such as LSD, has prompted much speculation as to the role of serotonin in naturally occurring mental disorders such as schizophrenia or depression.
The function of serotonin in blood platelets is not clear; it seems to have no important role in the clotting mechanism.
Localization and quantification of gonad serotonin during gametogenesis of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-serotoni.html   (802 words)

 Life Enhancement:: Reducing Aggression and Violence: The Serotonin Connection
Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), was first isolated from blood exactly 50 years ago and was later identified as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS).
It is thought that the decrease in serotonin associated with withdrawal may contribute to the craving for alcohol that occurs during this period.
Serotonin released into the synaptic cleft is normally inactivated by either being taken back up into the neuron that released it (reuptake) or metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO).
www.life-enhancement.com /article_template.asp?ID=208   (4175 words)

 ScienceDaily: Serotonin Metabolites In Mollusks Suggest Pathways For Human Therapies
Disruptions of serotonin signaling pathways are thought to occur in disorders such as depression, anxiety, sudden infant death syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and irritable bowel syndrome.
Because serotonin is distributed throughout the body, pharmaceuticals intended to correct serotonin imbalances in a specific tissue, such as in the brain, ultimately take effect in other tissues as well.
It's possible that the role of serotonin sulfate in marine mollusks is similar to melatonin, which resests the circadian clock in humans, Stuart and colleagues suggested in the Journal of Neurochemistry.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2004/09/040910080324.htm   (1194 words)

 Carol Hart--Secrets of Serotonin, Chap. 2
Serotonin is believed to have a major role in causing migraine headache, cluster headache, and possibly tension headache.
Serotonin causes the smooth muscle of the gut to contract when it is released by the nerves supplying the muscle.
Serotonin activity in the brainstem is highest while we are wide awake and absent during REM sleep, the period of sleep in which we are actively dreaming.
nasw.org /users/twoharts/serotonin.html   (4915 words)

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