
 Quantifying Complexity Theory 
  the calculus of Newton and Liebnitz, the topology of Poincaré, nonEuclidean geometry of Riemann, statistics of Boltzmann, set theory of Cantor and renormalization of Wilson. 
  This theory takes the view that systems are best regarded as wholes, and studied as such, rejecting the traditional emphasis on simplification and reduction as inadequate techniques on which to base this sort of scientific work. 
  The approaches used in complexity theory are based on a number of new mathematical techniques, originating from fields as diverse as physics, biology, artificial intelligence, politics and telecommunications, and this interdisciplinary viewpoint is the crucial aspect, reflecting the general applicability of the theory to systems in all areas. 
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