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Topic: Shale

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In the News (Wed 17 Jan 18)

 Shale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds.
Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lake and lagoonal deposits, in river deltas, on floodplains, and offshore of beach sands.
Shales that are subject to heat and pressure alter into a hard, fissile, and metamorphic material known as slate that is often used in building construction.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Shale   (190 words)

 Oil shale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
With mining, the oil shale is/can be mined either by traditional underground mining or strip-mined from the ground and then transported to a processing facility.
At the facility, the shale is heated to 450-500 °C and enriched with hydrogen (via introduction of superheated steam).
Oil distilled from shale was first burnt for horticultural purposes in the 19th Century, but it was not until the 1900s that larger investigations were made and the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves was established in 1912.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Oil_shale   (1840 words)

 Shale & Slaty Shale
Shale is a sedimentary rock composed predominantly of clay-sized particles.
Shale is formed by the lithification of clay or mud, commonly with admixed silt.
Shale is often used in paved highway construction as subbase fill material as it is readily available and less expensive to excavate than sandstone or limestone.
www.state.ar.us /agc/shale&.htm   (984 words)

 Burgess Shale fossils
The Burgess Shale was deposited at the base of this cliff, probably in anoxic conditions, as indicated by the lack of bioturbation (burrows, trackways, etc.) and the abundance of pyrite (often indicating the presence of H2S).
Briggs, D.E.G.; Erwin, D.H.; Collier, F.J., 1994 The Fossils of the Burgess Shale.
The Burgess Shale: Not in the shadow of the Cathedral Escarpment.
www.geo.ucalgary.ca /~macrae/Burgess_Shale   (1498 words)

 Encyclopedia: Shale   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Oil shale is a general term applied to a group of fine fl to dark brown shales rich enough in bituminous material (called kerogen) to yield petroleum upon distillation.
Shale tends to be fissile, i.e., it tends to split along planar surfaces between the layers of stratified rock.
Shales comprise an estimated 55% of all sedimentary rocks.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Shale   (713 words)

 Oil shale   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
During pyrolysis the oil shale is heated to 500° C in the absence of air andthe kerogen is converted to oil and separated out, a process called "retorting".
Oil shale was formed in the distant past by the simultaneous deposit of silt and organic debris on lakebeds and sea bottoms.As the raw materials accumulated, heat and pressure transformed them into a stable mixture of inorganic minerals and solidifiedorganic sludge.
Oil shale exploitation has all the normal environmental effects from open-pit mining, the pre-refining stage to get crude oilmay emit ash, pipelines must be built to an oil refinery, and the waste rock must be disposed of, rock which incidentally is aknown carcinogen.
www.therfcc.org /oil-shale-44942.html   (475 words)

 AllRefer.com - shale (Geology And Oceanography) - Encyclopedia
shale, sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation of mud or clay, having the property of splitting into thin layers parallel to its bedding planes.
Shales with very high silica content may have been formed when large quantities of diatoms and volcanic ash were present in the original sediment.
Shales that contain a large percentage of alumina are used as a source of that mineral in the manufacture of cement.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/S/shale.html   (254 words)

 WEC Survey Of Energy Resources 2001 - Oil Shale
The retort process (Petrosix) where the shale undergoes pyrolysis yields a nominal daily output of 3 870 barrels of shale oil, 120 tonnes of fuel gas, 45 tonnes of liquefied shale gas and 75 tonnes of sulphur.
The oil shale (known as "brown combustible shale" in China) in the formation can be divided into two parts of differing composition: the lower 15 m of light-brown oil shale of low-grade and the upper 100 m of brown to dark-brown, finely laminated oil shale.
The proved amount of oil shale in place is reported by the WEC Member Committee to be 40 billion tonnes; proved recoverable reserves of shale oil are put at 4 billion tonnes, with estimated additional reserves of 20 billion tonnes.
www.worldenergy.org /wec-geis/publications/reports/ser/shale/shale.asp   (4219 words)

 Ask Mikey about Geology, Rock Types & Miscellaneous, Rockhounding Arkansas
Shale is a sedimentary rock that may have a variety of colors, but because of its composition typically has partings that are parallel to the bedding of the layers of rock above and below it.
Shale may be fl, gray, red, green, or brownish, depending on how much pyrite, iron oxide, or carbonaceous (organic) material was deposited with it or formed after it was deposited.
So a sample of shale may exhibit one or more colors, however, it is commonly fl or gray, it splits into sheets (is fissile), is usually soft enough to scratch with your fingernail, but sometimes it takes a nail if the rock has really gotten hard, and is very fine-grained.
rockhoundingar.com /askmikey/askMgeology.html   (3733 words)

 Shale   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whoseoriginal constituents were clays or muds.
Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lake and lagoonal deposits, inriver deltas, on floodplains, and offshore of beach sands.
Shales that are subject to heat and pressure alter into a hard, fissile, and metamorphicmaterial known as slate that is often used in building construction.
www.therfcc.org /shale-2104.html   (174 words)

 Oil Shale
Included in most definitions of "oil shale", either stated or implied, is the potential for the profitable extraction of shale oil and combustible gas or for burning as a fuel.
Oil shales were deposited in a wide variety of environments including freshwater to saline ponds and lakes, epicontinental marine basins and related subtidal shelves.
One of the interesting oil shales is the Swedish alum shale of Cambrian and Ordovician age that is noted for its alum content and high concentrations of metals including uranium and vanadium.
emd.aapg.org /technical_areas/oil_shale.cfm   (1222 words)

 McClung Museum-Burgess Shale
The fossils of the Burgess Shale provide researchers with the most complete record of life at the time of the so-called "Cambrian Explosion" a biological "big bang," which began 600 million years ago.
Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the extraordinary creatures found in the Burgess Shale combine with the tales and methods of the paleontologists who have studied these fossils to engage the audience in an exciting and ever-changing adventure.
The exhibition curator, Douglas H. Erwin of the museum, is the co-author of The Fossils of the Burgess Shale.
mcclungmuseum.utk.edu /specex/burgess/burgess_shale.htm   (548 words)

 shale - definition by dict.die.net   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
shale n : a sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay
[G. shale.] (Geol.) A fine-grained sedimentary rock of a thin, laminated, and often friable, structure.
Life, in its upper grades, was bursting its shell, or was shaling off its husk.
dict.die.net /shale   (63 words)

 Greenpeace - climate change and renewable energy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Shale oil is a new experimental fossil fuel that has significant environmental impact, including extremely high greenhouse emissions.
Oil is produced from shale rock by crushing the rock and heating it to 500 degrees Celsius in a giant rotating kiln.
A call for the ASX to investigate the conduct of Southern Pacific Petroleum in respect of its carbon liability arising from the Stuart Shale Oil Project.
www.greenpeace.org.au /climate/causes/criminals/shaleoil/overview.html   (1038 words)

 Oilfield Glossary: Term 'shale'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Shale can include relatively large amounts of organic material compared with other rock types and thus has potential to become a rich hydrocarbon source rock, even though a typical shale contains just 1% organic matter.
Shale is the most common, and certainly the most troublesome, rock type that must be drilled in order to reach oil and gas deposits.
The characteristic that makes shales most troublesome to drillers is its water sensitivity, due in part to its clay content and the ionic composition of the clay.
www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com /Display.cfm?Term=shale   (247 words)

 Virginia - Potts Creek Shale Barren
A shale barren is a steep, south-facing, eroding slope of thinly bedded, weathered shale, having sparse tree cover and little soil.
Shale barrens support a unique plant community, found in the Ridge and Valley province, from southern Pennsylvania to southern Virginia.
Ownership of Potts Creek Shale Barren was transferred to The Nature Conservancy in December 1986 by Creative Investments of Covington, Virginia.
www.nature.org /wherewework/northamerica/states/virginia/preserves/art1241.html   (290 words)

 GeoFact No. 04, Ohio Shale Concretions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Along the outcrop belt of the Ohio Shale from Adams County on the Ohio River northward to Lake Erie, these orange-colored globes are a familiar sight as garden and yard ornaments and driveway markers.
Ohio Shale concretions are composed primarily of carbonate (limestone or dolomite) rock and are enclosed within a dark-gray to fl shale.
High cliffs of Ohio Shale along such streams as Scioto Brush Creek in Adams County, Paint Creek in Ross County, Deer Creek in Pickaway County, the Olentangy River in Delaware and Franklin Counties, and the Huron River in Erie and Huron Counties have concretions embedded in the shale.
www.dnr.state.oh.us /geosurvey/geo_fact/geo_f04.htm   (1932 words)

 The Origins of the Chattanooga Shale
Additionally, as previously cited, many of the radioactive shale and clay layers are found as laterally continuous units which extend over thousands of square miles [three references], and this clearly fits within a description of a volcanic ash fall.
Within the densest fl shale are microscopic layers, commonly less than 0.1 mm thick, composed of quartz grains ranging from 0.02 to 0.06 mm and averaging about 0.03 mm in greatest diameter.
Froede claims uranium concentrations in the Chattanooga Shale qualify it as an ore when Upham clearly states that it is short of ore quality by a factor of at least ten.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/ashfall.html   (3924 words)

Mudstone is made of the same stuff as shale, but it has been distrupted by something that destroyed the laminations.
Shale shows up in many environments in many tectonic situations, but out of context of other rocks with which it was deposited nothing can be confidently said about tectonic associations.
Aside from this it is hard to say anything definitive about the environment of a shale since most environments have periods and places of quite water deposition.
csmres.jmu.edu /geollab/Fichter/SedRx/Rocks/shale.html   (242 words)

 DOE - Fossil Energy: Oil Shale Activities   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Addition of shale oil to the country's proved oil reserves could occur in a manner similar to the addition of 175 billion barrels of oil from Alberta tar sands to Canada's proved oil reserves.
Oil shale in the United States, which is as rich as tar sand, could similarly be developed and become a vital component in America's future energy security.
The program is also involved in characterizing the oil shale resource, assessing oil shale technology, summarizing environmental and regulatory issues, and reviewing tar sand commercialization in Canada as an analog for oil shale development in the United States.
www.fossil.energy.gov /programs/reserves/npr/NPR_Oil_Shale_Program.html   (477 words)

 eagle ford shale   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Eagle Ford Shale underlies Austin Chalk - the contact between the two rocks is exposed at the western edge of the Austin Chalk outcrop (site 3 on Fig.
The rock is subject to severe erosion, mainly because of slaking (swelling and shrinking of the clay).
Mountain Creek Lake, which occupies the Eagle Ford Shale strike valley, is just visible near the center of the photo.
courses.unt.edu /hwilliams/GEOL_1610/fieldtripsites/eagle_ford_shale.htm   (222 words)

 Shale oil.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Shale is a sedimentary rock composed of very fine particles.
The volatile content of oil shale was limited so that 75% of the shale mined remained as waste after distillation.
Shale oil was (is) a mixture of alkanes.
members.optushome.com.au /scottsoftb/ShaleOil.htm   (319 words)

 Kingdom sitting on 40b tones of shale oil — experts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The meeting, organized by the research centre, was a forum for discussion on research and applications in the energy and renewable energy (RE) fields, as well as conservation.
The centre's president, Malek Kabariti, demonstrated methods of shale oil exploitation and its importance as an energy source, which could become a major element in energy conservation in the country.
It is found primarily in the middle and southern regions of the Kingdom,” said Ziyad Abu Hatmeh from Tafileh College.
www.jordanembassyus.org /09162003004.htm   (175 words)

 Shale Framework - Shale Framework
Thus, Shale is a proposal for a modern web application framework, fundamentaly based on JavaServer Faces, and focused on improving ease of use for developers adopting JSF as a foundational technology in their own development environments.
At the same time, the architecture of Shale is a set of fine grained services (and service options) that can be combined as needed to meet particular application requirements, rather than a monolithic request processor that is hard to customize and extend.
Shale's architecture, on the other hand, is based on the principle that we should fundamentally divide the notion of a web application framework into solid individual layers, much as we see geologically in shale deposits around our volcanoes and coastlines.
struts.apache.org /struts-shale   (1007 words)

 Shale oil victory | Greenpeace International
With the announcement today that QER was ending oil development of the Stuart Shale near Gladstone, the Australian government must now decide whether to give up entirely on the ill-fated project.
Shale oil should not be developed at any price.
So lets let this be a lesson to other governments which think they can develop oil at any cost, and to companies like Exxon which continue to fund phony science and political lobbyists to convince us that global warming is not a problem: we're not going to let you win.
www.greenpeace.org /international_en/news/details?item_id=542667   (600 words)

 11/27/01 -- Shale Oil Shipment Targetted by Environmentalists in Sydney   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Greenpeace, along with many other environment groups and concerned individuals, has been campaigning against the development of a shale oil industry in Australia since 1998 because of its heavy greenhouse gas emissions and the increasingly obvious need to phase out fossil fuels to stop climate change.
He said extraction of oil from the shale rock required massive amounts of energy at a time when development of greenpower was needed.
He said any companies which took part in the shale oil project would be targeted by Greenpeace.
www.climateark.org /articles/2001/4th/shoilshi.htm   (391 words)

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