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# Topic: Shear

 Shear - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In physics and mechanics, shear refers to deformation in which parallel surfaces slide past one another (as opposed to compression and tension, in which parallel surfaces move towards or away from one another). In the skin shear is the movement of the epidermis over the underlying dermis producing friction, tearing and splitting of the layers. Wind shear is a difference in wind speed or direction between two wind currents in the atmosphere. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Shear   (308 words)

 Wind shear - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wind shear is a difference in wind speed and/or direction between two points in the atmosphere. Significant shear is observed, when the temperature difference across the front is 5 °C or more, and the front moves at 15 kt or faster. Between 1964 and 1985, wind shear directly caused or contributed to 26 major civil transport aircraft accidents in the U.S. that led to 620 deaths and 200 injuries. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Wind_shear   (306 words)

 Lecture 34   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Shear (V) is the tendency for one part of a beam to slide past another part. One way is to simply plot the shear as the algebraic sum of the loads and reactions acting perpendicular to the beam at the left side of each increment along the length of the beam. The shear force (V) at any point is equal to the algebraic sum of the external loads and reactions, perpendicular to the beam, to the left of that point. darkwing.uoregon.edu /~struct/courseware/461/461_lectures/461_lecture34/461_lecture34.html   (477 words)

 Concerted Efforts - Jules Shear Shear's lyrical and melodic gifts are as sharp as ever on his Zoë / Rounder debut Allow Me, a typically memorable collection that effortlessly embodies the singular blend of pop tunefulness and emotional insight that have established him as a songwriter's songwriter. Shear wrote the moving lament with pianist Stan Szelest, as a tribute to the late Richard Manuel, whom Szelest had replaced in the legendary group. Shear's uncanny ability to avoid repeating himself is all the more remarkable in light of the longevity of his recording career. www.concertedefforts.com /artists_jule.asp   (685 words)

 Shear group   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) When the shear is strong and across-track the rainfall pattern is relatively symmetric across the track of the storm, with peak values coinciding with the areas traversed by the center of the storm and smaller rainfall amounts at locations displaced from the storm track. When the shear vector has a component antiparallel to the storm motion the rainfall field is maximized on the right side of the storm track, but when the shear vector has a component parallel to the storm track the rainfall maximum switches to the left side of the storm track. For along-track shear parallel to the direction of motion of the storm, the rainfall is maximized on the left side of the storm track, while for along-track shear antiparallel to the direction of motion of the storm the rainfall is maximized on the right side of the storm track. www.aoml.noaa.gov /hrd/project2003/shear.html   (1624 words)

 Food Product Design: Dealing with Shear   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The shear force of a fluid system can be calculated using a number of factors, including the volume-to-surface ratio, the fluid density and viscosity, and the velocity of flow. An elbow in a pipe is estimated to produce as much shear as 10 feet of straight pipe because of the turbulence generated. When high shear is required to hydrate a particular hydrocolloid, for example, a slurry step not only aids dispersion and hydration, but reduces the shear that the rest of the ingredients must encounter. www.foodproductdesign.com /archive/1995/1195PE.html   (2014 words)

 SHEAR Homepage Established in 1977, the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic (SHEAR) is an association of scholars dedicated to exploring the events and the meaning of United States history between 1776 and 1861. SHEAR’s mission is to foster the study of the early republican period among professional historians, students, and the general public. SHEAR membership is open to all; most members are professional historians employed in colleges, universities, museums, and historical parks and agencies, as well as independent scholars and graduate students. www.shear.org   (156 words)

 Admiral Harold E. Shear Shear is survived by his wife, the former Elizabeth Perry of Falmouth, Maine, and two children, Kathleen Shear of New York City and Kenneth Shear, who divides his time between Groton and London, England. Shear had a significant influence on the development of the ballistic missile submarine force when, early in the Polaris program, he took part in a war game in which he commanded the Soviet Union's submarine fleet, and simulated an attack that eliminated the U.S. Strategic Air Command. Shear was promoted to rear admiral in 1967 and served as director of anti-submarine warfare, then promoted to vice admiral in 1971 and full admiral in 1974, when he was named commander-in-chief of the U.S. Naval Forces in Europe. www.ussvi.org /names/admshear.htm   (1546 words)

 Analyzing shear features Shear type is determined by many factors, including the material length that it can process and the thickness and type of material that it can cut. Shearing machines can be broken down into types by shear design and the drive systems that are used in the design. Foot shears are commonly used in sheet metal applications ranging up to approximately 16-gauge capacity and with lengths up to 8 feet, although 8-foot machines are not as common as those with shorter capacities. www.thefabricator.com /Articles/Fabricating_Article.cfm?ID=238   (2150 words)

 Applications (3): Plane-Shear Measurement The standard specifies measurement of the shear strain by tee rosettes installed on the horizontal centerline of the specimen, while the shear stress is calculated from the load divided by the cross-sectional area between the notches. Moreover, the nonuniformity in shear stress distribution varies markedly according to whether the length of the specimen is parallel or perpendicular to the major principal material direction (i.e., a 0-degree or 90-degree specimen). When these special shear gages (Micro-Measurements C032 and C085 patterns) are employed with the Iosipescu specimen, the observed shear modulus is the same for the 0-degree and 90-degree specimens (without correction factors), as it should be for the validity of the mechanics of orthotropic materials. www.vishay.com /company/brands/measurements-group/guide/tn/tn512/512g.htm   (296 words)

 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Wraps Shear repair of reinforced concrete beams using externally bonded materials is not a new concept. An innovative method of beam shear repair involves the use of FRP externally bonded to the faces of the member where shear capacity is deficient. Beams fitted with a fiberglass wrap, however, nearly doubled the beams' shear capacity, and this increase was sufficient to produce a flexural (i.e., not shear) mode of failure. www.cecer.army.mil /techreports/marshear2.flm/marshear2.flm-02.htm   (1079 words)

 Shear Bonding Strength of Grouts Used in Pipe-in-Pipe Application Generally the shear strength was in the range of 40 to 450 psi. Single Shear test was used to determine the shear bonding strength of grouts to steel surfaces. The shear bonding strength of the grouts tested was affected by curing time, curing temperature and addition of aggregates. gem1.cive.uh.edu /content/conf_exhib/02_poster/13.html   (518 words)

 Rheology primer The effect (shear strain) is quantified by the displacement per unit height (D/H) and the rate of this effect (strain rate) is the velocity per unit height (V/H), where the height is the distance to a relatively unaffected position. The shear modulus (resulting from changing strain) is the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain. An example is uncooked corn starch paste where shear stress squeezes the water from between the starch granules allowing them to grind against each other. www.lsbu.ac.uk /water/hyrhe.html   (2105 words)

 SHEAR - Definition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) To cut, clip, or sever anything from with shears or a like instrument; as, to shear sheep; to shear cloth. To separate or sever with shears or a similar instrument; to cut off; to clip (something) from a surface; as, to shear a fleece. {Shear steel}, a steel suitable for shears, scythes, and other cutting instruments, prepared from fagots of blistered steel by repeated heating, rolling, and tilting, to increase its malleability and fineness of texture. www.hyperdictionary.com /dictionary/shear   (369 words)

 Hodo's, Wind Shear, and Tornadoes Robert Davies- Jones indicates that the difference is tightly related to the vertical shear of ambient winds relative to the motion vector of the storm. Varying strengths and configurations of the vertical wind profile and resulting shear determine the nature of the storms that form, whether they are single cells, multicells or supercells. If this shear exists to the middle levels of the storm (4 - 6 km), then a vertical pressure gradient is induced increasing the updraft strength. weather.cod.edu /sirvatka/hodo.html   (730 words)

 Shear Mixing/Demixing of Polymer Blends The shear rate and temperature dependence of droplet break-up in a solution of a polymer blend [polystyrene (PS) and polybutadiene (PB) in dioctyl phthalate] and a low molecular weight polymer blend (PS and PB) have been examined by phase contrast optical microscopy and light scattering (Fig.4). At high shear rates and temperatures well into the two-phase region, small ellipsoidal domains with the long axis oriented normal to the flow direction instead of parallel to the flow direction have been also observed. The phase separation kinetics of a pure polymer blend during shear as a function of quench depth is in progress. www.msel.nist.gov /structure/polymers/techactv95/shrmixplblnd.html   (763 words)

 About Sue Shear She was tireless in her advocacy and left a legacy that included safety and health standards for day care facilities, “circuit-breaker” protection for senior apartment renters, new women’s prison and the use of gender-neutral terminology in state statutes. When she retired 26 years later, the number of women legislators had grown to 40 and Sue was a mentor and role model to many of them, as well as to many of her male colleagues. In conjunction with Shear’s retirement, the Missouri Legislature and the University of Missouri Board of Curators approved naming the Institute in her honor. www.umsl.edu /~iwpl/aboutss.html   (304 words)

 Definition and Mathematics of Pure Shear During pure shear the sides of the cube that are parallel to the z-axis are shortened, while the lengths of the sides that are parallel to the x-axis increase. Pure shear like simple shear also describes the change of points in a body relative to each other, and therefore they are described through an internal reference frame (Ferguson, 1994; Davis and Reynolds, 1996; van der Pluijm and Marshak, 1997). During pure shear only lines that are parallel to the maximum and minimum principal strain directions will remain parallel before and after a pure shear event, while all other lines will be either shortened or lengthened. www.geology.sdsu.edu /visualstructure/vss/htm_hlp/pure_s.htm   (795 words)

 Meet the Jumbuck Barbers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Shear Outback is a new and exciting Interpretive Centre devoted to the culture, stories, passion and language of Australian shearing, - past, present and future. Shear Outback is an innovative and exciting new interpretative centre devoted to these colourful characters of the bush, and follows the technology of ‘getting the wool’ off, - past, present, and future. Located in Hay, New South Wales, the Shear Outback facility is a multi-faceted award-winning tourist and educational attraction comprising several complementary experiences. www.shearoutback.com.au   (259 words)

 Lecture 39 For small members in shear, it is customary to assume shear is uniformly distributed over the entire area. The vertical shearing stress at any point in a beam may be determined from the horizontal shearing stress at that cross-section. V is always the absolute value of the total shear (from the V diagram) on the beam at the section being investigated (this is usually the point where the shear is greatest). darkwing.uoregon.edu /~struct/courseware/461/461_lectures/461_lecture39/461_lecture39.html   (822 words)

 Shear Thickening   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Shear thickening is the name given to the phenomena where the viscosity of a fluid increases with increasing shear rate (or equivalently, stress). In the Wagner group, the study of the shear thickening effect is an on going process that spans many past and present projects. Prankul is studying the effect of surface absorbed poly (vinyl alcohol) on shear thickening, whereas Sudhir is conducting studies on the control of shear thickening with an electric field. www.che.udel.edu /research_groups/wagner/research/shearthickening.html   (271 words)

 Wood Beams - Design - Shear In addition to horizontal shear stresses, vertical shear stresses of the same magnitude simultaneously occur. This reduced value is the shear at a distance "d" from face of support, which is called V'. The shear strength of wood parallel to grain, (horizontal), is generally much weaker than the shear strength perpendicular to the grain, (vertical). jan.ucc.nau.edu /~dsl/egr437/class/woodbeams/design/shear.html   (318 words)

 SHEAR WAVES AND COMPRESSION WAVES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Shear Wave: A wave in which the disturbance is an elastic deformation perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave. Observe that for shear waves, the motion of the medium is up and down, perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving. Since the compression waves outdistance the shear waves and arrive first at distant earthquake detectors, geologists call them 'primary waves' (or p-waves). einstein.byu.edu /~masong/HTMstuff/C13A4.html   (162 words)

 USATODAY.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) On a larger scale, wind shear describes a wind pattern with winds blowing from the south at ground level, from the southwest a few thousand feet above the ground, and from the west at higher altitudes. Such large-scale shear is one of the conditions needed for strong or widespread tornadoes. Finally, during the hurricane season, you'll hear forecasters talking about "wind shear" being likely to weaken a storm, or maybe the lack of wind shear giving a tropcial storm or hurricane a chance to grow. www.usatoday.com /weather/tg/wshear/wshear.htm   (218 words)

 Wind Shear:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Severe weather usually occurs when the change in horizontal winds (wind shear) is significant. In speed shear, the wind increases in speed from the surface to the upper levels, as shown in this diagram by the arrows. This vertical shear creates horizontal rotation which can best be visualized by placing a paddle wheel in the environment. ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu /(Gh)/wwhlpr/modl_shear.rxml?hret=/wwhlpr/modl_convective_matrix.rxml&prv=1   (264 words)

 Definition and Mathematics of Simple Shear A cube subjected to a simple shear event is converted into a parallelogram resulting in a rotation of the finite strain axes. As the top of the deck is moved to the right the lengths of the sides of the deck that are parallel to the Y and X axes do not change, while the lengths that start out parallel to the Z axis increase. Simple shear describes the change of points in a body relative to each other, and therefore they are described through an internal reference frame (Ferguson, 1994; Davis and Reynolds, 1996; van der Pluijm and Marshak, 1997). www.geology.sdsu.edu /visualstructure/vss/htm_hlp/simpl_s.htm   (763 words)

 Vertical Wind Shear: change of winds with height Vertical wind shear is the second critical factor in the determination of thunderstorm type and potential storm severity. Vertical shear, or the change of winds with height, interacts dynamically with thunderstorms to either enhance or diminish vertical draft strengths. Such vertical shear often destroys all but the strongest storms by literally blowing the updraft away from its base. ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu /(Gh)/guides/mtr/svr/comp/wind/home.rxml   (220 words)

 What causes wind shear?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) As we have mentioned earlier, wind shear is a natural phenomenon which involves abrupt changes in wind speed and/or direction over short distances. However, the dangerous wind shear we're interested in is generally associated with a frontal system, especially one which includes a thunderstorm. As the air in the valley heats in the morning, a weak rising motion is induced and air flows down the downwind slope to replace it. www.geo.mtu.edu /department/classes/ge406/jmedward/windsheer/how.htm   (544 words)

 WFO SHV - Rotational Shear Nomogram for Tornadoes We used rotational shear because it takes into account both the rotational velocity and the diameter of a mesocyclone, and it is readily available to the operational forecaster using the WSR-88D. The VR shear function on the WSR-88D display was used to calculate rotational shear (Sr) on each mesocyclone in the database. Rotational shear is a relationship between rotational velocity and diameter of a mesocyclone, and is calculated by: www.srh.noaa.gov /shv/shear.htm   (1259 words)

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