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Topic: Siege warfare

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 Siege - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sieges usually involve surrounding the target and blocking the provision of supplies, typically coupled with siege engines, artillery bombardment or sapping (also known as mining) to reduce fortifications.
The legionary armies of the Roman Republic and Empire are noted as being particularly skilled and determined in siege warfare.
Battering rams and siege hooks could be used to force through gates or walls, while catapults, ballistae, trebuchets, mangonels, and onagers could be used to launch projectiles in order to break down a city's fortifications and kill its defenders.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Siege   (4718 words)

 Siege -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Sieges usually involve surrounding the target and blocking the provision of supplies, typically coupled with, (Large but transportable armament) artillery bombardment or (Click link for more info and facts about sapping) sapping (also known as mining) to reduce (Defensive structure consisting of walls or mounds built around a stronghold to strengthen it) fortifications.
On the first night while sieging a city, the leader of the Mongol forces would lead from a white (A portable shelter (usually of canvas stretched over supporting poles and fastened to the ground with ropes and pegs)) tent: if the city surrendered, all would be spared.
Siege warfare dominated in Western Europe for most of the (Position 17 in a countable series of things) seventeenth and (Position 18 in a countable series of things) eighteenth centuries.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/si/siege.htm   (4386 words)

 Siege Warfare
If a place could not be overcome by the initial assaults or the inhabitants persuaded to surrender, it was practice of the Roman army to surround the whole area with a defensive wall and ditch and spread their units around these fortifications.
Siege weapons were varied and ingenious inventions, their main object being to effect an entrance through the gates or walls.
At the siege of Marseille the defenders countered attempts to tunnel under their walls by digging a large basin inside the walls which they filled with water.
www.roman-empire.net /army/leg-siege.html   (1252 words)

 Trench warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fortification is almost as old as warfare itself; however, because of the relatively small size of the armies and the lack of range of the weapons, it was traditionally not possible to defend more than a short defensive line or an isolated strongpoint.
Since the troops were often not adequately equipped for trench warfare, improvised weapons were common in the first encounters, such as short wooden clubs and metal maces, as well as all sorts of short knives and even brass knuckles (see trench raiding).
The fundamental purpose of the aircraft in trench warfare was reconnaissance and artillery observation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Trench_warfare   (8530 words)

 To Capture a Castle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Sieges, likewise, involved much more than bombarding a fortress until either the garrison surrendered or the defenses were overcome.
Consequently, the full-out siege was normally a last resort, unless, of course, the attacking king or lord had a particular investment in breaking his opponent.
Given the huge effort involved in coordinating a siege and assembling an army, potential besiegers made at least cursory efforts to convince the garrison, the constable, or the lord of the castle to surrender peaceably.
historynet.com /mhq/blcaptureacastle   (1439 words)

The siege was the most common form of battle in the Middle Ages.
It was reported that during the siege of Odruik in 1377, 200 pound stone balls were fired.
It was reported by Froissart that earlier that year at the siege of Ardes, the French canon pierced the walls.
www.hyw.com /Books/History/Sieges.htm   (1121 words)

 Medieval Warfare
The form of warfare in Medieval Europe was that which developed out of the military traditions and practices of the German tribes that overran the Roman empire in the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries.
Sieges were the most common for of large scale combat in the Middle Ages.
The English had an advantage in sieges for most of the war (until the French developed superior cannon) because their yeomen were more effective at siege warfare.
www.hyw.com /Books/History/Medi0000.htm   (3917 words)

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The techniques of siege warfare were directed toward the accomplishment of these aims, singly or simultaneously, and the techniques of fortification were aimed at preventing such accomplishment.
A humane individual, he developed an etiquette for siege warfare in which it became customary for the besieger, having breached the rampart, to summon the commander of the fortification to surrender; such surrender was considered no disgrace when further resistance would lead only to needless loss of life.
The raising of the siege of Stalingrad by Soviet counterattack became the historical symbol of the German defeat.
autocww.colorado.edu /~blackmon/E64ContentFiles/MilitaryWeapons/FortificationSiegeWarfare.html   (1998 words)

 USS Clueless - Bethlehem siege
Traditionally there were only two ways to finish a siege: you either prepare an assault, or you surround and wait until the besieged decide to come out (or they all die).
The largest siege which I can think of right off the top of my head was Napoleon's attempt to besiege the UK through his "continental system" which amounted to closing all the ports and harbors on continental Europe to the use of British shipping.
Like all aspects of warfare, siege was the subject of a great deal of innovation over the centuries.
denbeste.nu /cd_log_entries/2002/04/Bethlehemsiege.shtml   (1785 words)

 Siege Warfare in Ancient Egypt
Yet some recorded sieges were prolonged affairs going on for months and even years, and a few of them are important markers in Egyptian history: For example, the successful siege of Hatwaret (Avaris) by Ahmose I signalled the end of the Hyksos presence in Egypt.
When sieges were called for, depictions of such campaigns, such as those in Merenptah's campaign in Palestine recorded in the annals, display soldiers assaulting the fortifications by scaling ladders, sometimes on wheels and by infantry using axes to break into the wooden gates, all backed up by a hail of arrows from Egyptian archers.
Early siege warfare was undoubtedly a costly affair from the standpoint of human life, though in some situations the king's may have looked upon this as simply a loss of resources.
www.touregypt.net /featurestories/siegewarfare.htm   (2446 words)

 Glossary of Siege Warfare terms - part 1
Siege engines used during the medieval period date back to the glorious days of the Roman Empire and required a special cadre of engineers to construct, transport and operate them.
By the twelfth century, siege engines were used in groups, or batteries, with engineers working in shifts to keep them operating 24 hours a day.
With the rapid development of gun powder weapons in the late middle ages, siege warfare took a new path -- no longer were fortifications able to withstand bombardment.
www.suite101.com /article.cfm/5650/73333   (492 words)

 Miniatures for siege warfare   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Siege warfare was predominant in the middle ages.
Miniatures are tailored to the end of the Roman Empire with different forms of catapult, or to the latter part of the medieval era when gunpowder first appeared (Edward I used gunpowder at Stirling in 1304, and guns were later used against the Scots by the English in1327).
The siege engines on offer include the usual penthouse and ram as well as a general purpose penthouse, scaling ladders, a wheeled siege tower (this one is 6" high), a stone thrower, a large counter-weighted trebuchet, organ gun, and a bombard.
www.suite101.com /article.cfm/wargaming/72105   (401 words)

 Ancient Siege Warfare
The first chapter of the book provides an explanation of most of the equipment and tactics of siege warfare and supplies an explanation of how devices such as battering rams, towers, ramps and ladders were employed.
In each of the chapters he emphasizes the point that siege warfare was war on the entire population rather than simply war between opposing military forces.
He vividly describes the effect of such warfare on women and children, and although he never explicitly makes the point that the treatment of the population did not change over time, the examples he provides indicate that such was the case.
www.ess.uwe.ac.uk /genocide/reviewstr29.htm   (948 words)

 Amazon.com: Ancient Siege Warfare: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Ancient siege warfare was a form of total war that often ended in the sack of a city and the massacre or enslavement of entire populations.
Here Paul Bentley Kern examines the reasons siege warfare could unleash such unrestrained violence--and why we today are reminded of our terrible vulnerability even in the age of modern war, when fortification and formal siege are thought to be long over.
siege capabilities, passive siege, siege methods, shooting catapults, logistical position, siege ships, siege commanders, stone throwing catapults, assault methods, open pregnant women, his siege, casemate walls, most strongly fortified, relief army, siege works, divided his army, scale siege, siege equipment, fearful slaughter, siege towers, siege tactics, arrow shooting, light armed troops, siege operations
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0253335469?v=glance   (1268 words)

Siege warfare was the most brutal form of war in the ancient world.
Typically involving whole urban societies, ancient siege warfare often ended in the sack of a city and the massacre or enslavement of entire populations.
This book pays major attention to their role in sieges, as both participants and victims, and to the way their presence affected the nature of siege warfare.
www.shop.com /op/aprod-p26471502   (300 words)

 Osprey Publishing - Ancient Siege Warfare
Classical Greek warfare was based on the punitive raid, designed to provoke the adversary into pitched battle; the accepted code of conduct obliged the two sides to meet in the ritualised clash of hoplite armies.
Unfortunately, the town proved surprisingly stubborn; in the second year of the siege, fresh forces from Athens made a vain attempt to storm the place using ‘machines’ (a word which Thucydides often uses to mean ladders), but their failure was compounded by an outbreak of plague and, after 40 days, they withdrew again (Thuc.
Here, the surrounding siege wall incorporated strongpoints for the Athenian garrison, but their blockade failed to prevent a Spartan agent from slipping into the town by way of a dry river bed.
www.ospreypublishing.com /title_detail.php?title=S7700&view=spread&view=extract   (1904 words)

 amcgltd: Siege Warfare
However, the events of 9-11 have revealed in horrifically beautiful detail that this stability also allows psychopaths to claw their way to the top of organizations powerful enough to cause serious trouble yet organized in such a way as to be expensive, even impossible to remove.
To some extent Iraq has been under siege since the Gulf War, but it's not a siege in the sense that if the defenders falter Iraq won't be invaded by the 'beseiging' forces.
Siege warfare did give way to quicker types of warfare - mobility, etc. And given today's weapons, that will likely continue to be the major portion of large scale wars.
www.amcgltd.com /archives/000897.html   (2651 words)

 Military Technology
First, warfare was central to the history of the period.
Second, we have illustrated sources for the military arts of the period, in particular, The Essentials of the Military Arts, published in the eleventh century.
Warfare in this period usually aimed to capture cities, which were the centers of both commerce and government.
depts.washington.edu /chinaciv/miltech/miltech.htm   (277 words)

 Osprey Publishing - Siege Warfare in the Roman World
No fewer than 17 sieges are known to have been prosecuted by Caesar himself, and many involved the constructional skills of his soldiers.
When he besieged the town in 52 BC, Caesar had to construct a great embankment so that he could bring overwhelming numbers of men across the gully and up to the walls; in 25 days, the massive structure, 330ft wide (98m) and 80ft high (24m), was complete.
Similarly, ‘when [the Atuatuci] saw a siege tower erected in the distance, after shelters had been brought up and an embankment constructed, they at first jeered from their walls and ridiculed why such a machine had been built so far away’ (Caes., BGall.
www.ospreypublishing.com /title_detail.php?ser=ELI&title=S7824&view=extract   (1061 words)

 Articles - Siege   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Combined with a primitive flamethrower, it proved an effective offensive and defensive weapon.
Moreover, if an attacking army had a reputation of killing and pillaging regardless of a surrender, then other cities'; defensive efforts would be redoubled.
the short-lived siege of Minas Tirith by the armies of Mordor in The Return of the King, the prelude to the Battle of the Pellenor Fields
www.xgrey.com /articles/Siege   (4564 words)

 Amazon.com: Medieval Siege Weapons: Western Europe Ad 585-1385 (New Vanguard, 58): Books: David Nicolle,Sam Thompson   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The Medieval era was a period of huge variety and invention in the field of siege warfare.
Medieval military engineering was equally inventive in terms of mining, counter-mining, the breaking of walls, the use of noxious and chemical fumes and in the use of fire-weapons.
Siege warfare dominated military operations in most of western Europe throughout the Middle Ages, so it is no surprise that the medieval period was amongst the most inventive and varied when it came to the development of non-gunpowder military machines.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1841762350?v=glance   (760 words)

 Amazon.com: Medieval Siege Warfare (Elite Series, Vol 28): Books: Christopher Gravett   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Ancient Siege Warfare: Persians, Greeks, Carthaginians and Romans 546—146 BC by Duncan B. Campbell
Sieges were far more numerous than pitched battles, ranging from small-scale affairs against palisaded earthworks to full-scale assaults on vast strongholds.
Needless to say, the art of siege warfare assumed a unique importance to both invader and defender alike.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0850459478?v=glance   (963 words)

 The Glory That Was Rome: Siege Warfare Artillery and Fortifications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
While the details of the end of the siege are debatable it's clear that the fortress fell to the Romans despite the heroic resistance of the defenders.
At the siege of Jerusalem 300 ballista and 40 catapults were deployed.
Sometimes a siege tower was mounted on two ships which had been lashed together, giving the Romans greater water based firepower.
www.infohistory.com /rome2.html   (2670 words)

 Amazon.ca: Books: Medieval Siege Warfare   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Siege tactics an weaponry are discussed and illustrated.
Sieges were far more numerous than pitched battles.
Henry V won the French crown not by the famous victory at Agincourt, but by the series of sieges which followed.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/1855329476   (327 words)

 The Siege of Port Hudson--"Forty Days and Nights in the Wilderness of Death"
So wrote a soldier who had been inside the Confederate defenses at Port Hudson, Louisiana, during one of the longest sieges in American military history.
For 48 days in 1863, he and his fellow troops defended a fort that stood on top of a bluff above the Mississippi River; for all of those 48 days, Federal soldiers pummeled the Southerners with cannon shot and rifle fire.
Though the Civil War would rage on for almost two more years, the siege at Port Hudson, and the battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg--which all occurred the same week--together struck a blow from which the South never recovered.
www.cr.nps.gov /nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/71hudson/71hudson.htm   (214 words)

 The Medieval City under Siege
The chronological period of study goes from the XIIth to the XVth century, although Eric McGeer´s "Byzantine Siege warfare in Theory and Practice (X-XIth centuries)" and Paul E. Cheveden´s "Artillery in late Antiquity: Prelude to the Middle Ages" escape from that time band.
The subjects studied here are the best example of these new tendencies on the research on siege warfare.
For example, the well known use of siege and military images by clerics and laymen in their sermons or books about morality and true love do not appear here[1].
www.deremilitari.org /REVIEWS/review10.htm   (512 words)

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