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Topic: Signal processing gain

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In the News (Mon 19 Aug 19)

  Gain control in signal processing with feed-forward gain correction patent invention
Once the signal has been algebraically compared, it is compared again with the values of previous comparisons in a second comparator or estimator module 112, which essentially is used to estimate the required receiver gain for future samples.
Once the signal has been algebraically compared with a target level, the result feeds into a second comparator/estimator module 212, and it is compared again with the value of the previous gain stored in a storage module 214.
Contrasting with the conventional method in which a gain compensation based on a previous set of signal samples are used to process a current set of signal samples, this feed-forward gain control loop provides a finer gain compensation because the same set of signal samples are used as a base to obtain the estimated gain.
www.freshpatents.com /Gain-control-in-signal-processing-with-feed-forward-gain-correction-dt20060810ptan20060176985.php   (2324 words)

  Bathymetric System Performance
The array gain for nine TR-109 transducers is obtained from Figure 3-5 (Section 3) and is 14.5 dB.
The signal processing gain provides an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio, thus improving signal excess or system performance.
For the CESP IV processor, a signal processing gain of 26 dB is realized for operation with a 100 ms pulse length.
www.oceandata.com /equations/bathymetric.htm   (505 words)

 Gain   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
A gain of 10 would imply that a property of the signal (usually voltage or power) had increased by a factor of 10.
In antenna design, gain is the logarithm of the ratio of the antenna's radiation pattern to that of some ideal antenna, typically the theoretical isotropic antenna.
Gain is calculated by fair market value or proceed from sale of the investment minus the sum of purchase price and all costs associated with it.
www.freecaviar.com /search.php?title=Gain   (528 words)

 IF Signal Processing Components and subsystems
This is achieved by controlling amplifier gain using a coupled linear detector to rectify the RF signal and amplify the detected signal, using one or more operational amplifiers to provide the appropriate DC-control voltage.
Gain control range can be measured using either a swept or CW source and the appropriate power-measuring device.
The modulated RF signal is applied to the amplifier input and adjusted until the detected video output voltage reaches the specified output voltage (typically 4 to 5 volts).
www.miteq.com /micro/ifsignal/c17b/definitionsappl.html   (1982 words)

 Signal Processors
A filter is a circuit that sharply reduces the amplitude of signals of frequency outside of specified limits.
A graph of the frequency response of the filter shows that the amplitude of a signal decreases as the frequency moves beyond the cutoff.
The measurements derived from each filter in the analysis bank are used to control the amplitude of the signal from the corresponding filter in the processing bank.
arts.ucsc.edu /ems/music/equipment/signal_processors/processors_intro/processors.html   (1491 words)

 Signal processing gain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In telecommunication, the term signal processing gain has the following meanings:
Note: Signal processing gain is usually expressed in dB.
In a spread-spectrum communications system, the signal gain, signal-to-noise ratio, signal shape, or other signal improvement obtained by coherent band spreading, remapping, and reconstitution of the desired signal.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Signal_processing_gain   (102 words)

 Humanistic Intelligence: `WearComp' as a new framework and application for intelligent signal processing
The wearable signal processing hardware, which began as a cumbersome backpack-based photographic apparatus of the 1970s, and evolved into a clothing-based apparatus in the early 1980s, currently provides the computational power of a UNIX workstation concealed within ordinary-looking eyeglasses and clothing.
Although the device may implement very sophisticated signal processing algorithms, the cause and effect relationship of this processing to its input (typically from the environment or the user's actions) should be clearly and continuously visible to the user, even when the user is not directly and intentionally interacting with the apparatus.
However, it may also be used to shield signal processing circuits from outside interference, or as a ground plane for various forms of conformal antennas sewn into the clothing[14].
www.wearcam.org /hi/index.html   (13174 words)

 Synthetic delta-K Arrays
The described signal processing methods favor the use of small numbers of sensors, which, through synthesis of additional data channels, give rise to a very high signal processing gain.
processing method, then the conventional signal processing methods can be used unmodified to further enhance and characterize the object of interest.
The method does not favor applications operating to the limit of signal detection capability but has its highest potential in applications with a positive S/N ratio after initial signal integration, in which case an improved signal processing gain is achieved.
home.online.no /~eldar-a/papers/sdkarray_rs0398.html   (3521 words)

 Signal Processing: Buying Guide
A slow attack time allows the beginning envelope of a signal (commonly referred to as the transient) to pass through the compressor uncompressed, whereas a fast attack time almost immediately subjects the signal to the ratio and threshold settings.
This is an insert jack found on some compressors that interrupts the signal that the compressor is using to determine the amount of gain reduction.
Since the signal entering the side chain is not heard, the processed signal does not affect the music.
www.sweetwater.com /shop/live-sound/signal-processing/buying-guide.php   (2790 words)

 Analog Devices: Analog Dialogue: Integrated Solutions for CCD Signal Processing
Today, all of the signal processing steps required--from the output of the CCD through the digital output of the A/D converter--can be accomplished with a single integrated circuit.
DC offsets of this magnitude are generally not compatible with CMOS signal processing ICs, because most scanner and high end camera systems use 5-V supplies for the signal processors, while camcorders and digital cameras use supplies as low as 2.7 volts.
The distortion numbers are not of interest in imaging applications because CCD signals are not sinusoidal in nature, and the front-end of the ADC samples the CCD signal only during a relatively slow-moving portion of the waveform.
www.analog.com /library/analogDialogue/archives/32-1/signal_pro.html   (2184 words)

 Dynamics Signal Processing
Dynamic processing is one of the most effective tools that a recording engineer has to make sure all of those important parts that have been recorded will actually be heard in the final product.
When a different signal is put into the sidechain, the compressor operates according to the signal fed to the sidechain input rather than to the main input.
In other words the main signal (going into the regular input and output) is changed by the level variations of the signal plugged into the sidechain input.
www.recordinginstitute.com /da154/ARP/chap3Sig/asp2.html   (2667 words)

 Acute Adaptation of the Vestibuloocular Reflex: Signal Processing by Floccular and Ventral Parafloccular Purkinje Cells ...
Acute Adaptation of the Vestibuloocular Reflex: Signal Processing by Floccular and Ventral Parafloccular Purkinje Cells.
subsystem that conveys vestibular signals and in the nonfloccular
Gain of the VOR was measured as vertical eye velocity divided by head velocity.
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/85/5/2267   (6772 words)

 Signal Processing in OSW
Signals are usually transmitted in blocks (otherwise known as vectors) of 64 samples.
To send a signal to each of the channels individually, use the remaining inlets between the on/off inlet on the left and the mix on the right.
After AudioOutput, the most important signal-processing transform in OSW is Gain transform, which allows you to scale a signal up or down a factor, much like a volume knob on audio hardware.
osw.sourceforge.net /manual/signal_processing.htm   (2864 words)

 UMass Lowell Center for Atmospheric Research/ Digisonde DPS
The analog signal is digitized at a rate such that each sample is made an integer number of cycles apart (i.e., at the same phase point) and therefore looks like a DC level until the phase modulation creates a sudden shift in the sampled phase point.
This process is essentially the same as averaging, but since complex signals are used, signals of the same phase are required if the summation is going to increase the signal amplitude.
By processing every range bin first by pulse compression (12 to 21 dB of signal processing gain) then by coherent integration, all echoes from each range have gained 21 to 42 dB of processing gain (depending on the waveform used and the length of integration) before any attempt is made to detect them.
ulcar.uml.edu /digisonde_dps.html   (9712 words)

 Signal Processing Fundamentals
Usually the maximum output signal is restricted by the size of the power supplies (you cannot swing more voltage than is available), while the minimum output signal is fixed by the noise floor (you cannot put out an audible signal less than the noise).
This clever bit of processing is normally done using a VCA (voltage controlled amplifier) whose gain is determined by a control voltage derived from the input signal.
Expanders are signal processing units used to increase (expand) the dynamic range of the signal passing through it.
www.rane.com /note134.html   (5192 words)

 Digital Signal Processing
Digital Signal Processing (DSP), one of the hottest new fields in embedded design, has emerged as a very important technology for modern electronic systems.
Modern applications include biomedical signal processing, communications signal processing, imaging processing, speech processing, video signal processing, and multimedia signal processing.
This program is designed for individuals involved in the evaluation, design or development of systems employing digital signal processing, or as an introduction to DSP technology.
unex.uci.edu /certificates/engineering/digital_signal   (190 words)

 Matched Filtering and Timing Recovery in Digital Receivers - match filter, timing recovery
Certain parameters and gains for various adaptive algorithms, as well as boundaries for symbol decision regions at the slicer, are based on the signal being at a known power level.
By filtering the received signal with such a filter at the receiver, the frequencies containing the data signal are passed while the remaining frequencies are attenuated.
The sample to be used for later processing is the sample that lies in the middle of the early and late samples.
rfdesign.com /mag/radio_matched_filtering_timing/index.html   (3713 words)

Bottom: a simple signal processing step: gain adjestment, which is used as an example in the text.
In actual applications, the signal processing will certainly not consist of only a single processing step; many steps will be cascaded to a signal processing chain.
In current DSD signal processing approaches, the idea is therefore to limit the number of requantizations as much as possible.
www.opticaldisc-systems.com /2001JanFeb/SACD71.htm   (423 words)

 Digital Signal Processing Hearing Aids
After the signal processing is complete, the circuits convert the 20 bit wide data stream into a single pulse, direction-coded (+ or -) signal that is presented directly to the output transducer without any digital to analog conversion.
The fitting process requires the use of a fairly large soundproof room (such as is found at The Hearing and Speech Center) to adjust the circuitry to the user's ear and to the exact hearing aid shape.
The signals from the two microphones are processed in the dsp chip to enhance the sounds coming from the front.
www.hearingcenter.com /info_files/digitha.html   (1957 words)

 What is a lock-in amplifier?
It is this part of the instrument which demodulates the frequency of interest and it should be noted that its output is also a function of the relative phase angle between the input signal and the associated reference signal.
The signal path of a lock-in amplifier is gain adjusted to achieve a specific input sensitivity when the output of the instrument is displaying full scale.
However, the input circuits are designed to handle signals that are many hundreds of times larger than these calibrated input maxima thus giving the instrument the capability to make reliable measurements even when the signal of interest is dwarfed by other unwanted stimuli.
www.signalrecovery.com /lockinex.htm   (503 words)

 ATI's Sonar Signal Processing course
Processing techniques applicable to bottom-mounted, hull-mounted, towed and sonobuoy systems will be discussed.
Advanced techniques such as high-resolution array-processing and matched field array processing, advanced signal processing techniques, and sonar automation will be covered.
He is currently a senior physicist investigating improved signal processing systems, APB, own-ship monitoring, and SSBN sonar.
www.aticourses.com /sonar_signal_processing.htm   (417 words)

 Lectrosonics-Transmitter Audio Gain-Signal to Noise
If the input signal is noisy at the transmitter, there is nothing else that can be done later to restore it to its original quality.
The audio level is adjusted with the gain control on the transmitter, with some sort of level metering on either the transmitter or receiver.
Occasional limiting is desirable, indicating that the gain is correctly set and the transmitter is fully modulated for optimum signal to noise ratio.
www.lectrosonics.com /service/txgain.htm   (721 words)

The goal of the signal processing is the extraction of information from our signals identifying, isolating features and conditioning the signal.
This is usually done with methods of mathematical analysis, which is the key part of signal processing.
The pulse oximetry signal is a slow signal with means it has a low spectral range but its frequency content is time varying.
www.ee.ryerson.ca /~jsantarc/html/signals_.html   (371 words)

 ipedia.com: Filter (signal processing) Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
its gain or attenuation depends on the signal's frequency.
A digital filter is an algorithm for processing digital signals, which may be implemented in software, by a dedicated digital circuit, or a digital signal processor.
An audio filter is a filter for processing audio signals; it is used in appliances such as CD playerss, in synthesizers, and for sound effects.
www.ipedia.com /filter__signal_processing_.html   (249 words)

 Signal Processing Group
Kliewer and A. Mertins, “Error-resilient transmission of waveform signals using overcomplete expansions and soft-input source decoding,” in Proc.
European Signal Processing Conference, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2004, vol.
Mertins and N. Fliege, ``Multiple parameter estimation of composite signals in uncharacterized impulsive noise,'' in Proc.
www.uni-oldenburg.de /sigproc/publications.html   (2995 words)

 Understanding ADC Noise for Small and Large Signal Inputs for Receiver Applications - Maxim/Dallas
As a result, less gain is needed in the receiver line-up to achieve the receiver noise figure thereby reducing the need for an AGC circuit when higher-level blockers are present.
Intermediate signals levels are not a major focus of this application note since they are between the sensitivity and blocking signal level extremes.
With only 29dB of gain in front of the ADC and an effective noise figure of 28.3dB, the cascaded receiver noise figure is 5.3dB in the 'blocked condition', which is a 1.6dB degradation from 3.7dB noise figure calculated for receiver sensitivity.
www.maxim-ic.com /appnotes.cfm/appnote_number/1929   (1708 words)

 Signal processing gain -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
In ((often plural) systems used in transmitting messages over a distance electronically) telecommunication, the term signal processing gain has the following meanings:
The (The relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient)) ratio of (a) the (The ratio of signal intensity to noise intensity) signal-to-noise ratio of a processed signal to (b) the signal-to-noise ratio of the unprocessed signal.
Note: (Click link for more info and facts about Signal processing) Signal processing (The amount by which the revenue of a business exceeds its cost of operating) gain is usually expressed in (A logarithmic unit of sound intensity; 10 times the logarithm of the ratio of the sound intensity to some reference intensity) dB.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/si/signal_processing_gain.htm   (140 words)

 [Prosig.com] Dynamic Range and Overall Level: What Are They?
In a very simple sense suppose we have an artificial signal which consists of a sinewave at a large amplitude A for the first half and that this is followed by a sinewave with a small amplitude a for the second half.
Typically the ratio between the peak of a signal and the rms level, which is called the crest factor, is rarely above 4 for steady state conditions.
In summary then setting the overall level (the gain) determines the maximum signal input level and the dynamic range specifies the amplitude range of the signals we measure.
www.prosig.com /signal-processing/DynamicRangeOverallLevel.html   (838 words)

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