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Topic: Similarity

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In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

  Similarity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Similarity is some degree of symmetry in either analogy and resemblance between two or more concepts or objects.
Finding similarities or distinguishing between dissimilarities depends on the faculties of pattern recognition and disambiguation, respectively.
In bioinformatics, similarity matrices are used for sequence alignment.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Similarity   (148 words)

 Similarity (psychology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In social psychology, similarity refers to how closely attitudes, values, interests and personality match between people.
Similarities in opinions, interpersonal styles, amount of communication skill, demographics, and values have all been shown in experiments to increase liking.
For example, two people interested in literature are likely to run into each other in the library and form a relationship (involving the propinquity effect).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Similarity_(psychology)   (189 words)

 Similarity Tables
When Similarity Groups are enabled, GeneDoc assigns amino acids to substitution groups, groups of amino acids that are treated as if they are equivalent to each other, for the purpose of measuring the degree conservation in each column of the alignment.
Similarity scores used in GeneDoc are based on observed substitutions of one amino acid (or nucleotide) for another in homologous proteins or genes.
Similarity scores organize the observations into scores that contrast the observed pattern of substitutions in homologous proteins with the random pattern of substitutions we would expect to observe in unrelated proteins.
www.psc.edu /biomed/genedoc/gdsim.htm   (1866 words)

 Similarity searching
It is included for those new to the field who may not appreciate the importance of this technique in biology, who lack the vocabulary to understand the BLAST guide and tutorial or who require a basic rather than a sophisticated understanding of the methods involved.
Orthology and Paralogy are important concepts describing the relationship of members of a given protein family in one organism to the members of the same family in other organisms.
Each comparison is given a score reflecting the degree of similarity between the query and the sequence being compared.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /Education/BLASTinfo/similarity.html   (777 words)

 InfoVis CyberInfrastructure- Similarity Flooding Algorithm
Similarity flooding is a matching algorithm based on fix-point computation that is usable across different scenarios [Melnek, S., et.
For computing the similarities, the underlying principle used is that elements of two distinct models are similar when their adjacent elements are similar.
From the similarity results file, it can be infered that the resultant similarity between node 1 in the first network and that in the 2nd is 1.0, while that between 1 and 2 is 0.193, etc.
iv.slis.indiana.edu /sw/simflooding.html   (506 words)

 The Perception of Similarity
Similarity as perceptual resemblance is a psychological construct in somewhat the same way that such sensory attributes such as hue, brightness, or pitch are constructs or intervening variables.
Like such attributes, similarity depends heavily on the physical characteristics of stimulus objects, but this dependence is complex, and in the case of similarity the details of the physical-psychological relationship are usually unknown.
Fortunately, similarities may be specified independently of any physical measures of the stimuli involved; that is, one may determine the similarities among a group of objects from behavioral responses to the objects without specifying anything about them except which behavioral measures go with which object (see multidimensional scaling).
www.pigeon.psy.tufts.edu /avc/dblough/default.htm   (917 words)

The input to MDS routines may be similarity judgments, confusion matrices (a table of how often each entity is confused with every other entity), probabilities of entities being grouped together, or any other measure of subjective similarity between all pairs of entities in a set.
The similarity of two entities is assumed to be inversely proportional to the number of operations required to transform one entity so as to be identical to the other (Hahn and Chater, 1997; Imai, 1977).
Another complication to the explanatory role of similarity is that similarity may not be a unitary phenomenon.
cognitrn.psych.indiana.edu /rgoldsto/mitecs.html   (1179 words)

 Modeling Semantic and Orthographic Similarity Effects on Memory for Individual Words
In the first analysis, the similarity structure of low and high frequency is compared and it is shown that in WAS, high frequency words are more similar to other high frequency words than to low frequency words.
Because an inner product measure for similarity is used, the average similarity between the high frequency words that lie at the outskirts of the space is higher than between words that lie more in the center of the space.
Similarly, the between category similarity was calculated by averaging the similarities of all possible word pairs that fell in different categories.
psiexp.ss.uci.edu /research/papers/disshtml/dissertation_small2.htm   (8169 words)

 Project MATHEMATICS!--Similarity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Similarity preserves angles and ratios of lengths of corresponding line segments.
Similarity is discussed for more general polygons and for three-dimensional objects.
Similarity helps explain why a hummingbird's heart beats so much faster than a human heart, and why it is impossible for a small creature such as a praying mantis to become as large as a horse.
www.projectmathematics.com /similar.htm   (224 words)

 Gene Similarity: Some Definitions
Similarity is a quantitative term that defines the degree of sequence match between two compared sequences.
For example, two aligned genes or segments of sequence that are homologous may have varying degrees of similarity based upon identical base matches in the alignment.
Homologs look similar to each other and appear to share common ancestry but they may or may not display the same activity.
www.msu.edu /~jhjacksn/Reports/similarity.htm   (925 words)

 Similarity Calculations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
At the heart of a cased-based reasoning (CBR) system is the computation similarity between a new case - the user’s input - and previous cases stored in a case base.
The CBR algorithm calculates the similarity between cases based on feature-value pairs between the new and each historical case.
Similarity between two cases is based on the local similarity between each the cases’ features.
www.diagnosticstrategies.com /similarity.htm   (405 words)

 Math Forum - Ask Dr. Math
One of the most important things that you need to know about similarity is what it means for two figures to be similar.
Similarity means that: (i) the two figures have congruent angles and (ii) the sides are in proportion.
To assist you making a determination as to whether two triangles are similar, you might remember from geometry class some theorems about similar triangles.
mathforum.org /library/drmath/view/54677.html   (791 words)

 Structural Similarity
The percent similarity is calculated from the ratio of the intersection to the union volumes, multiplied by 100.0.
The percent similarity and percent identicality is calculated for these three pairs of structures, along with the RMS error, for three different groups of atoms.
A plot of the percent similarity versus RMS error for these 45 pairs of structures shows that there is a general correlation between these methods of comparison, though a fair degree of scatter exists in the central region of the plot.
members.aol.com /btluke/similar.htm   (3147 words)

 2200 Similarity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The focus of this unit will be on the recognition of similar triangles, utilizing the properties of similar triangles to solve numerical problems and proving the similarity of triangles.
The connection between similar polygons and architecture will also be explored so that the students can see the relevance of geometry in real life.
Similarity is involved in architecture since the polygons that are used in scale drawings are similar to the polygons in the actual structure when it is built.
plato.acadiau.ca /courses/educ/reid/up/2200/2200-1-Similarity.html   (2413 words)

 A Case of Similarity
Synthetic proofs were given by Bankoff, Erdös and M. Klamkin for the variant 2 and by Bankoff for the variant 4, and hence 3.
The proof differs from the known proofs of the variants 1 and 2, in that the latter were specifically designed to demonstrate that the "midpoint" triangle is equilateral.
The four given triangles are similar to a generic triangle with sides 1, k, and (1-k), where k is a complex number.
www.cut-the-knot.org /ctk/Similarity.shtml   (1196 words)

 SparkNotes: Congruence: Similarity
Similarity is much like congruence, except in order for polygons to be similar, they only need to have the same shape.
Formally speaking, two triangles are similar when their corresponding angles are equal and their corresponding sides are proportional.
An easy to way to create similar triangles is by drawing a line through a triangle such that it intersects with two sides and is parallel to the third side.
www.sparknotes.com /math/geometry2/congruence/section4.rhtml   (253 words)

 String Similarity Metrics for Information Integration
Again similar to the to Levenshtein distance, this was developed to identify optimal allignments between related DNA and protein sequencies.
Dice coefficient is a term based similarity measure (0-1) whereby the similarity measure is defined as twice the number of terms common to compared entitys divided by the total number of terms in both tested entities.
This approach again works in vector space similar to the matching coefficient and the dice coefficient, however the similarity measure is not judged from the angle as in cosine rule but rather the direct euclidean distance between the vector inputs.
www.dcs.shef.ac.uk /~sam/stringmetrics.html   (3865 words)

The number of these changes and, therefore, their degree of similarity are correlated with the number of generations that have passed since the two sequences diverged.
Amino acids are different from nucleotides in that similarity and identity are differentiated due to the fact that amino acids can be grouped according to their physicochemical properties such as size, charge, hydrophobicity etc.
The amount of similarity between two sequences can be used to estimate the point in time when they split from each other: the more different two related sequences are the longer ago they split.
www.dnalc.org /bioinformatics/2003/similarity_5.htm   (819 words)

 Practice with Similarity
Find the length of the longest side of a similar triangle whose shortest side is 15.
Similar triangles are exactly the same shape and size.
In the diagram, DE is parallel to AC.
regentsprep.org /Regents/math/similar/PracSim.htm   (199 words)

 Miquel's Point of a 4-line Via Spiral Similarity
Spiral similarity is a combination of central similarity and rotation with the same center.
Two circles are always similar and there is a continuum of spiral similarities that map one onto the other.
Observe that triangles AOB and COD are similar iff triangles AOC and BOD are similar.
www.cut-the-knot.org /Curriculum/Geometry/SpiralSim.shtml   (425 words)

 Pairwise Sequence Alignments
In fact, sequences that have a very high degree of similarity can easily be inferred to be homologous, but this is not always the case.
So it follows that similar sequences may result in similar structures, and this is usually the case.
So, we will usually stick to "sequence similarity" and talk about "protein homology" only when we know something special about the protein sequences, or we find similarity scores that warrant it.
www-bioeng.ucsd.edu /research/research_groups/compbio/workshop/Lab_3/Alignment_Top.htm   (675 words)

 Domain Specific Features and Similarity Space
Cosine similarity is widely used in text clustering because two documents with the same proportions of term occurrences but different lengths are often considered identical.
A detailed discussion of the properties of various similarity measures can be found in chapter 4.
Since, for general data distributions, one cannot avoid the `curse of dimensionality', there is no similarity metric that is optimal for all applications.
www.lans.ece.utexas.edu /~strehl/diss/node32.html   (448 words)

 Similarity Dissimilarity
You may say that star A is similar to star C. Star A, B and C has the same size, while star A, C and D has the same color.
Similarity is quantity that reflects the strength of relationship between two objects or two features.
exactly similar), the dissimilarity is zero and when the similarity is zero (i.e.
people.revoledu.com /kardi/tutorial/Similarity/WhatIsSimilarity.html   (303 words)

 Relations and sizes - Similar figures - In Depth   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Figures that are the same shape but not necessarily the same size are called similar figures.
You encountered similar figures in the Pre-Algebra unit about ratios and proportions.
In a pair of similar figures, the measures of corresponding angles are equal, and the
www.math.com /school/subject3/lessons/S3U3L2GL.html   (52 words)

 Similarity Scores - Basketball-Reference.com
The similarity scores were calculated using a method that is basically a hybrid of John Hollinger's similarity scores method in
Although all players were used to determine the league means and standard deviations, similarity scores were only computed using players who played at least 25 percent of possible minutes played in the given season (in most seasons this will be roughly 1000 minutes played).
The similarity score for these two seasons is 1000 - 52.755 = 947.245 (this figure actually rounds up to 948 when all of the decimal places are carried).
www.basketball-reference.com /about/similar.html   (454 words)

 Self Similarity
The self similarity may be exact, this normally only occurs in mathematically defined fractals where the realities/constraints on structures by the physical world don't apply.
A far more common type of self similarity is an approximate one, that is, as one looks at the object at different scales one sees structures that are recognisably similar but not exactly so.
In the case of the self similarity found in the fern, not only is there a limit to the range of scales at which the self similarity occurs but it also occurs at only at a few discrete scales.
astronomy.swin.edu.au /~pbourke/fractals/selfsimilar   (453 words)

 Geometry Session 8: Similarity
Similarity is one of the "big ideas" in geometry.
Note that two things may be similar in colloquial English, but it is a much stronger statement to say that they are mathematically similar.
In addition to these excerpts, you may choose to watch the full-length video of this session.
www.learner.org /channel/courses/learningmath/geometry/session8/index.html   (120 words)

 Similarity Scores Explanation - Baseball-Reference.com
Willie Mays over his first three seasons - just that their numbers are similar.
I've then gone through and for each season a player played computed who was the most similar player at that point in his career.
I only have room to show the most similar player, but it can show players who peaked at early or late ages.
www.baseball-reference.com /about/similarity.shtml   (609 words)

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