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Topic: Sino-Soviet split


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 Sino-Soviet split - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
After 1965, the Sino-Soviet split was an established fact, and the onset of Mao's Cultural Revolution severed all contact between the two countries, and indeed between mainland China and most of the rest of the world.
The opportunity of a split with the Soviets allowed Mao to portray his rivals as agents of a foreign power, mobilising Chinese nationalist sentiment behind his leadership.
The Chinese also chose to raise the issue of the Sino-Soviet border, which was the result of nineteenth century treaties imposed on the weakened Qing Dynasty by Czarist Russia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sino-Soviet_Split   (2877 words)

  
 The Colonial Revolution and the Sino-Soviet Split
The increasing power of the Soviet Union with its far faster tempo of industrial growth, together with the growth of the workers' states and the stabilisation of a mighty China, resulted in a new balance of forces on a world scale between the capitalist forces of the West and the workers' states of the East.
The viciousness with which the bureaucracy of the Soviet Union supported India in the conflict with China, withdrew their technicians and destroyed plans and blueprints in their endeavours to weaken China, is an indication of the real character of the bureaucracy in the Soviet Union.
The idea of soviets, of workers' control, of workers' democracy, of a transitional society, were understood by broad layers of the advanced workers in the West.
www.marxist.com /TUT/TUT4-3.html   (13603 words)

  
 The Sino-Soviet Split
Although the content of the split was national differences (the interests of the Chinese bureaucracy as opposed to the interests of the Soviet bureaucracy), the form was a struggle over differences in political perspective (the political line of Mao Zedong as opposed to the political line of Khrushchev).
But as the split became inevitable, the majority of the CPA leadership sided with the Soviet Communist Party.
For the Soviet Union, a degree of liberalisation, especially in science, education and technology, and decentralisation of planning was essential.
home.mira.net /~andy/bs/bs3-1.htm   (9092 words)

  
 art05.html
Mao, "Second Speech to Second Session, Eighth Party Congress," 17 May 1958, as cited in Allen S. Whiting, "The Sino-Soviet Split," in Roderick Macfarquhar and John K. Fairbank (eds.), The Cambridge History of China, Vol.
66, as cited by William Taubman, "Khrushchev vs. Mao: A Preliminary Sketch of the Role of Personality in the Sino-Soviet Split." Wilson Center (Issues 8-9, Winter 1996/1997), p.
For years, most senior US Kremlinologists and policymakers remained hesitant to accept intelligence judgments that Sino-Soviet discord was growing.
www.cia.gov /csi/studies/winter98_99/art05.html   (7429 words)

  
 DEADLY FAILURES IN INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS AND DEFENSE UNPREPAREDNESS
One, the Sino-Soviet split was genuine and irreversible, or two, the Sino-Soviet split was either a hoax or was reversible.
Neither the legitimacy of the Sino-Soviet split nor its irreversibility could be assured with sufficient confidence to not consider it a potential hoax.
The Sino-Soviet split payoff to the Communist World, as a hoax, is sufficiently great to make the deception a major foundation - - if not cornerstone of Sino-Soviet foreign policy.
www.ninehundred.net /~devvy/failure.html   (4331 words)

  
 [Marxism] Sino-Soviet Split
I am interested > in any books or articles that discuss the circumstances in which the > Sino-Soviet split took place, and an objective appraisal of the decisions > made by both of those governments.
However, it should also be noted that the roots of the split that took place in the early 1960s weren't exclusively ideological.
The earlier polemics should be read at face value.
lists.econ.utah.edu /pipermail/marxism/2005-May/025978.html   (291 words)

  
 The American Experience Nixon's China Game People & Events Sino-Soviet Border Disputes
In April 1960, Beijing publicly attacked the Soviet leadership as "revisionist," and Moscow responded in turn by recalling thousands of Soviet advisers from China and canceling economic and military aid to its erstwhile ally.
When the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968 and Moscow claimed the right to intervene in other Communist states to "protect" them from anti-Communist influences, the Beijing leadership began to fear that China would be next.
Soon the ideological differences took on national dimensions, as both the Chinese and Soviets vied for territory and control of Communist satellite states.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/amex/china/peopleevents/pande06.html   (614 words)

  
 [Marxism] Sino-Soviet Split
My memory tells me there was a classic example of Chinese and Soviet power politics in the early 1960.
Cuba had negotiated a large rice-for-sugar long-term contract with China and everything was humming right along when Cuba publicly refused to side with China as against the USSR on some point of dispute.
lists.econ.utah.edu /pipermail/marxism/2005-May/025993.html   (121 words)

  
 RUSSIAN KGB - Spetsnaz - Russian Special Forces Training /KGB vs CIA
Some of them, most prominently James J. Angleton, head of the CIA’s counterintelligence department, tenaciously denied the reality of the Sino-Soviet split as a “hoax” designed to lull the West into complacency.
Golitsyn even maintained, contrary to all evidence and logic, that the political and military split between China and the USSR after 1959 was a fake, just a facet of Shelepin’s diabolical master plan.14 There was no such “master plan” in the KGB.
But under Shelepin the Committee indeed hatched several schemes of strategic and tactical deception: to conceal Soviet intentions and weak spots from the West, as well as to disrupt consensus in Western societies and alliances on policies, means, and goals for waging the Cold War.
www.kgb-militaryschool.com /view/KGB_vs_CIA   (121 words)

  
 The Class Character of the USSR (1977) : THE HISTORY OF USSR-CHINA RELATIONS
This vulgar splitting tactic seemed realistic to both the liberal and reactionary imperialists based on their knowledge of previous Chinese experience with the "imperialist attitudes" of the Soviet leaders.
It is not necessary in our view to jettison the social conquests of the October Revolution of 1917 in order to say that the present Soviet leaders are not revolutionary communists and that they treated the Chinese comrades in an insensitive, reprehensible manner.
And this grew until it reached the stage of absolute split and national enmity.
www.workers.org /marcy/cd/samclass/class/pcnvrt04.htm   (121 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Warsaw Pact
Albania stopped supporting the alliance in 1961 as a result of the Sino-Soviet split in which the hard-line Stalinist regime in Albania sided with the People's Republic of China, and officially withdrew from it in 1968.
(Chinese poster, 1969) The Sino-Soviet split was a major conflict between the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China, beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a...
All people of the world unite, to overthrow American imperialism, to overthrow Soviet revisionism, to overthrow the reactionaries of all nations!
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Warsaw-Pact   (121 words)

  
 National Review: New lies for old: the communist strategy of deception and disinformation. - book reviews
but this may be disinformational disinformation--there is a real Sino-Soviet split but the USSR, desperately trying to prevent Western military and economic aid to the PRC, has assigned Golitsyn to cast doubt on the authenticity of the split, despite the 1969 battle on the Ussuri River, despite all the polemics between the two countries.
Specifically, if Golitsyn is correct that the Sino-Soviet split is an elaborate deception--and James Burnham in this magazine ("Bear and Dragon: What Is the Relation between Moscow and Peking?" Nov. 5, 1960) said as much--then playing the "China card" may really be playing the "Kremlin card." Aha!
If Golitsyn is correct, it means that some of the work of Sovietologists since 1958, much of it based on Soviet documentation and information from former Soviet citizens, is misleading and, therefore, hazardous to our health.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1282/is_v36/ai_3423788   (121 words)

  
 Chronology of Political Events, 1954-1992
Khrushchev also attacks Albanian Party, Zhou Enlai walks out of the Congress, full dimensions of Sino-Soviet split become apparent to U.S. communists.
Communist Party of India (CPI) splits into CPI and Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M), somewhat but not completely along the lines of the Sino-Soviet split.
by the Chinese Communist Party, opening public ideological salvo in the emerging Sino-Soviet split.
www.revolutionintheair.com /chron/chron1.html   (121 words)

  
 Summary
Common wisdom within the administration held that the Sino-Soviet split, Soviet-American strategic parity, and certain challenges facing the Kremlin within its own sphere of influence had combined to create a situation in which a lessening of Cold War tensions was in the interest of both nations.
The communist world had split between the Soviet Union and China, a burgeoning power.
The Soviet Union, having occupied a position of inferiority since the dawn of the nuclear age, finally had achieved rough strategic parity with the United States.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ho/frus/nixon/i/21100.htm   (2910 words)

  
 Romania - Gheorghiu-Dej's Defiance of Khrushchev
The Sino-Soviet split, which Khrushchev announced at the PMR's 1960 congress, and the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis increased Gheorghiu-Dej's room to maneuver without risking a complete rupture with Moscow.
In subsequent months, the Romanian and Albanian media were the only official voices in Eastern Europe to report China's attack on Soviet policy.
At a Comecon meeting in February 1963, Romania revealed its independent stance by stating publicly that it would not modify its industrialization program for regional integration.
countrystudies.us /romania/29.htm   (2910 words)

  
 New Lies for Old
With few exceptions, those Western officials who were aware of the views expressed in the manuscript, especially on the Sino-Soviet split, rejected them.
It rejects conventional views on subjects ranging fro Khrushchev's overthrow to Tito's revisionism, from Dubchek's liberalism to Ceausecu's independence, and from the dissident movement to the Sino-Soviet split.
...Traces of Chinese communist thinking about splits can be found in the Chinese press.
www.premier1.net /~barkonwd/golitsyn.htm   (2910 words)

  
 library
Despite Suslov's hopes that the situation could be rectified and that public polemics could be avoided, the Sino-Soviet split continued to widen.
This policy had been foreshadowed as early as February 1964, when Suslov warned the CPSU Central Committee that China was redoubling its efforts to split the Soviet bloc:
Although the Romanians never went as far as the Albanians in pursuing outright alignment with China, the Romanian leader Nicolae Ceausescu refused to endorse Moscow's polemics or to join in other steps aimed at isolating Beijing.
wwics.si.edu /index.cfm?topic_id=1409&fuseaction=library.document&id=46   (2910 words)

  
 Sino-Soviet border conflict - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China, occurring at the height of the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s.
On March 2, 1969 a Soviet patrol was ambushed on Zhenbao by Chinese forces.
The Soviet forces claimed that the Chinese suffered 800 casualties while the Soviets only had 60 killed or wounded.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sino-Soviet_border_conflict,_1969   (489 words)

  
 Sino-Albanian split - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Albania (the only Eastern European nation to side with China in the Sino-Soviet split of the early 1960s).
anti-revisionist groups choosing to side with Albania's more hardline stance, and other groups splitting over the issue.
Although of little importance in world politics, it produced a major split in the Maoist movement, with many
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sino-Albanian_split   (489 words)

  
 SEVEN LETTERS EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE CENTRAL COMMITTEES OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA AND THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION
In your letter to us of November 29, 1963, you agreed that conditions should be created so that the meeting "will lead not to a split in the world communist movement but to the genuine unity and solidarity of all the fraternal Parties and all the forces of peace and socialism".
Under the guise of "deep concern for the settlement of the differences and for the unity of the international communist movement", you were diligently preparing a new onslaught against the Chinese Communist Party and other fraternal Marxist-Leninist parties and hatching a big plot for openly splitting the socialist camp and the international communist movement.
As for the meeting of representatives of all Communist and Workers' Parties, we hold that it must be a meeting of unity on the basis of Marxism-Leninism and that it should definitely not become a meeting for a split.
www.etext.org /Politics/MIM/classics/mao/polemics/sevenlet.html   (489 words)

  
 ALBANIA AND CHINA
He was in fact bringing pressure to bear on the Albanians by means of economic blackmail to force them to accept his new friendship with Tito as well as to agree to the establishment of a Soviet naval base on the Adriatic.
Instead of giving thought to changing this erroneous practice, the leaders of certain fraternal parties have intensified it and gone further along the road towards a split, and as a result this erroneous practice recently occurred at four successive congresses of fraternal parties in Europe."
The Albanian Communists and people who are bound by an unbreakable friendship with the Chines Communists and people, immeasurably rejoice at the great victory of the Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China and they regard it as their own victory.
www.oneparty.co.uk /html/km_alban.html   (489 words)

  
 Sino-Albanian split - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Albania (the only Eastern European nation to side with China in the Sino-Soviet split of the early 1960s).
anti-revisionist groups choosing to side with Albania's more hardline stance, and other groups splitting over the issue.
Although of little importance in world politics, it produced a major split in the Maoist movement, with many
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sino-Albanian_split   (489 words)

  
 Albanian History
Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia was abrogated; Hoxha began purging high-ranking party members accused of "Titoism"; Soviet Union began economic aid to Albania.
Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula.
Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skander Beg in Kruja.
www.albanian.ca /datehistory.htm   (489 words)

  
 Sino-Soviet split - China-related Topics SI-SL - China-Related Topics
Soviet military forces along the border were greatly reduced, normal economic relations were resumed, and the border issue was quietly forgotten.
In 1961, the Soviet Union had around twelve half-strength divisions and 200 aircraft on the border; by the end of 1968 there were 25 divisions, 1,200 aircraft and 120 medium-range missiles.
During 1968, the Soviets massively increased their troop deployments along the Chinese border, particularly the border with Xinjiang, where a Turkic separatist movement could easily be fostered.
www.famouschinese.com /virtual/Sino-Soviet_split   (2900 words)

  
 Decline of the West
Back in the 1960s the Sino-Soviet split was a life raft to innumerable Cold Warriors like Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.
But their split grew slowly and only gradually became apparent." McNamara has never been one to let conventional wisdom pass by without his giving noisy and vigorous assent to it.
All the ingredients for a major war are there: ancient grievances, struggling democracies, and in the center of it all a dictator in Serbia who has done nothing since the Cold War ended but start new wars and pour gasoline on the flames of ethnic and religious division.
www.antiwar.com /szamuely/sz050400.html   (2900 words)

  
 Yugoslavia_Info_22;_1-4
The problem here is not public relations, but a deep split not only within NATO, but within each individual country over the future course of the war.
What united China and Albania in the 1950s was their communist leaders' unwavering adherence to the Stalinist line, their common fight against the imperialist West and resentment of revisionists like Soviet leader Nikita Krushchev and Yugoslav President Tito.
The Sino-Albanian friendly relationship became even firmer after the Albanians sponsored a resolution at the United Nations to give China a seat there and its permanent membership in the Security Council.
www.blythe.org /nytransfer-subs/99eeu/Yugoslavia_Info_22;_1-4   (2900 words)

  
 Adi Schnytzer
"The Impact of the Sino-Albanian Split on the Albanian Economy", East European Economic Assessment, 1981, U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee, Washington.
"China and the Soviet Union as Major Trading Partners - The Impact of Aid on Albanian Industrial Development", Compendium on the Chinese Economy, 1978, U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee, Washington.
"Albanian", in H. Hohmann, ed., (with M.C. Kaser), Die Wirtschaft Osteuropas und der VR China zu Beginn der achtziger Jahre, 1983, Stuttgart.
www.biu.ac.il /SOC/ec/schnytzer/publications.htm   (2900 words)

  
 Sino-Soviet split - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
After 1965, the Sino-Soviet split was an established fact, and the onset of Mao's Cultural Revolution severed all contact between the two countries, and indeed between mainland China and most of the rest of the world.
The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s.
It led to a parallel split in the international Communist movement, although many say it was as much about Chinese and Soviet national interests as it was about the two countries' respective communist ideologies.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sino-Soviet_split   (2855 words)

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