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Topic: Sixteen Kingdoms


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In the News (Tue 18 Jun 19)

  
  Chinese History - Sixteen States 五胡十六國 (www.chinaknowledge.de)
With the sixteen year long crisis of the Jin court during the Rebellions of the Eight Princes, military leaders of Chinese settlers and Non-Chinese tribes saw their chance to become independent from the Jin Dynasty.
The Sixteen Kingdoms of the Five Barbarian Peoples (Di 氐, Jie 羯, Qiang 羌, Xianbei 鮮卑, Xiongnu 匈奴) are not enlisted among the acknowledged dynasties.
The period of the Sixteen Kingdoms (in fact, there were even a few more) can be divided into three stages: From 300 to 350, the Former Liang 前涼, the two Zhao 前後趙 and the Cheng-Han 成漢 empires rule the north and Sichuan.
www.chinaknowledge.de /History/Division/shiliuguo.html   (423 words)

  
  Three Kingdoms - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Three Kingdoms period (Simplified Chinese: 三国; Traditional Chinese: 三國; Pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the history of China.
The Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu.
The term "Three Kingdoms" itself is somewhat of a mistranslation, since each state was eventually headed by an Emperor who claimed legitimate succession from the Han Dynasty, not by kings.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Three_Kingdoms   (3071 words)

  
 Sixteen Kingdoms - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties.
Almost all rulers of the kingdoms were part of the Wu Hu ethnicity and claimed to be the emperors and wangs (kings).
The Northern Wei Dynasty is not counted as one of the Sixteen Kingdoms even though it was founded during the Period.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sixteen_Kingdoms   (212 words)

  
 16 (number) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sixteen is a composite number, the smallest number with exactly five divisors, its proper divisors being 1, 2, 4 and 8.
For its coming-of-age signification, it has inspired the titles of many songs, such as "Happy Birthday Sweet Sixteen", "You're Sixteen, You're Beautiful and You're Mine", "Sweet Little Sixteen" and "Sixteen Candles", the last of which was borrowed as the title of a John Hughes movie.
There are sixteen different personality types in all in the Myers-Briggs classification system.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sixteen   (405 words)

  
 Five Barbarians
The Hsiung-nu of Shansi adopted the name of the great Han dynasty, and ancient names from the period of the Warring States also reappeared in the fourth century: the Sixteen Kingdoms of the Five Barbarians bore the name of Ch'in in Shensi, of Chao in Shansi, and of T'en in Hopei and Shantung.
The only exceptions were the kingdoms established in Kansu, which took the name of Liang (the modern Wu-wei) in the centre of this province.
The greatest sovereign of this kingdom centred on Ch'ang-an, in the valley of the Wei, was Fu Chien (357-85), who succeeded in unifying North China during the years 370-76 into a powerful military state and even threatened the Western Chin empire in the valley of the Yangtze.
www.angelfire.com /co/leong/history1.html   (476 words)

  
 Station Information - Sixteen
Sixteen (16) is the natural number following fifteen and preceding seventeen.
Sixteen is a composite number, its proper divisors being 1, 2, 4 and 8.
Sixteen is the only integer that equals and, for some unequal integral m and n (m=4, n=2, or vice versa).
www.stationinformation.com /encyclopedia/s/si/sixteen.html   (223 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Han (sixteen kingdoms)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The Han Zhao (Simplified Chinese characters: 汉赵, Traditional Chinese characters: 漢趙, pinyin: Hànzhào) (304-329) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Although chronologically the Han Zhao was not the first of the kingdoms, its armies sacked the Jin dynastic capitals of Luoyang in 311 and Chang'an in 316.
Speculations had recounted that Liu Yuan was once considered the commander of the Jin forces in the conquest of the Kingdom of Wu; consideration was later dropped due to his Hunnic ethnicity.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Han-(sixteen-kingdoms)   (962 words)

  
 wikien.info: Main_Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese characters: 三國, Simplified Chinese characters: 三国, pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the History of China.
In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the rise of the Wei Empire (220) and the fall of the Shu Han Empire (263).
The term "Three Kingdoms" itself is somewhat of a mistranslation, since each state was eventually headed by an Emperor who claimed legitimate succession from the Han Dynasty, not by kings, so "Three Empires" would be more factually accurate.
www.hostingciamca.com /index.php?title=Three_Kingdoms   (2944 words)

  
 Wu Hu   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
As the Eastern Han Dynasty slowly disintegrated into an era of "warlords", battles for predominance eventually ushered in the Three Kingdoms; however years of war generated a severe shortage of labor, a solution to which was encouragement of immigration of Wu Hu herdsmen.
These families were so powerful that founders of the three kingdoms had to rely on them to establish their kingdoms.
First of the Sixteen Kingdoms was found by the group of Di refugees fled into Sichuan.
www.theezine.net /w/wu-hu.html   (3163 words)

  
 Tsin Dynasty in Chinese History
China split into two regions: the North and South Kingdoms at the end of the Wu Era (220-258), which was part of the Three Kingdoms.
First, an anarchy by rule presided in the north, known as the Sixteen Kingdoms had occurred.
The settlers were invaded by several tribes or confederations from the west and the north.
www.dynastiesofasia.com /asian-history-references/tsin-dynasty-period-in-chinese-history.htm   (630 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Three Kingdoms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The Kingdom of Shu (蜀; shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Simplified Chinese: 三国演义; Traditional Chinese: 三國演義, Pinyin: sān guó yǎn yì), written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel about the turbulent period often referred to as the Three Kingdoms (220-280).
Between 225 and 230, the Kingdom of Shu (a Chinese state that existed during the Three Kingdoms period) undertook a military campaign in its southern territories after incidents of rebellion by local governors (Zhu Bao, Gao Ding and Yong Kai) and intrusions by the Nanman (southern barbarians).
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Three-Kingdoms   (6813 words)

  
 History of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Jin, Sixteen Kingdoms, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties: The Chinese Dark Ages
Though these three kingdoms were reunited temporarily in 280 by the (Western) Jin dynasty (晉朝;), the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu) ethnic groups ravaged the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Yangtze River.
As China was ruled by two independent dynasties, one in the south and the other in the north, this is called the era of Southern and Northern Dynasties (南北朝;).
www.secaucus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/History_of_China   (6124 words)

  
 Wu Hu biography .ms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Tribes founded by Wu Hu were coined the Sixteen Kingdoms.
Refer to the Sixteen Kingdoms for history of each of the Wu Hu tribes.
Yuán Shào (袁紹, 140s–202) and Gōngsūn Zàn (公孫瓚, 140s–199), celebrated two of the "warlords" in the era of the Three Kingdoms, also exploited Wuhuan and Xianbei respectively for their own quests for predominance.
wu-hu.biography.ms   (3092 words)

  
 History of China   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
China is one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization.
In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms (三国), a time that has since been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
The emperor Xizong fled to Chengdu and Huang established a new dynasty.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Chinese_antiquity   (6066 words)

  
 Wu Hu   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
These non-Chinese tribes, which the Han had fought to a standstill along the border, seized the opportunity afforded by the weakness of the central government to extend their settlement of pastoral lands into the fertile North China Plain.
The Hunnic Kingdom of Han-Former Zhao captured and executed the last two Jin emperors as the Western Jin Dynasty collapsed in 317.
These families were so powerful that founders of the Three Kingdoms had to rely on them to establish their domains.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/W/Wu-Hu.htm   (3163 words)

  
 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty.
The period was a direct result of the political disintegration at the end of the Tang Dynasty, which saw power shifting away from the imperial government and into the hands of regional military governors (jiedushi).
In 960, the general Zhao Kuangyin staged a coup and took the throne for himself, founding the Northern Song Dynasty.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ten_Kingdoms   (1628 words)

  
 Three kingdoms dynasty
The kingdom of Wei occupied the north and northwest along the Yellow River basin.
Founded by a Chinese prince amid the ruin that became the Three Kingdoms, Eastern Chin was the guardian of Chinese civilization and attained “…the highest refinement of culture in the Far East…” according to historian Rayne Kruger.
Nestled in the Yangtze Valley, the kingdom was rich in merchant trade, and it built magnificent water-cooled state buildings flanked by exquisite landscapes.
www.ford.utexas.edu /museum/exhibits/China_exhibit/three%20kingdoms.htm   (396 words)

  
 Han - the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Han, one of the Chinese Sixteen Kingdoms, founded by the Liu family.
Han, another of the Sixteen Kingdoms, founded Li family.
The Northern Han, a kingdom during during the Chinese
www.free-web-encyclopedia.com /?t=Han   (174 words)

  
 Dunhuang Art During the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Northern Dynasties...
Dunhuang Art During the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Northern Dynasties...
Particularly in the case of the tomb murals of the period of the Sixteen Kingdoms which have been discovered at Dingjiazha at Jiuquan in recent years, the ceilings are shaped like an inverted dipper and in the centre are caissons with open-petalled lotus designs.
The early caves of Dunhuang were virtually the domain of lonicera designs, a phenomenon which lasted from the Sixteen Kingdoms until the early Tang when it was gradually replaced by new designs.
www.ignca.nic.in /ks_19014.htm   (3355 words)

  
 Dunhuang Art During the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Northern Dynasties...
During the period of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the early years of Northern Wei, Mogao art is simple in content, crude in characterization, unsophisticated in colouring, forceful in line drawing, proportionate to the physiology of figures, with roundish and plump faces, and solemn, calm and indifferent moods.
Although we do not see such figures at Dunhuang, the early figures of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the early years of the Northern Wei have maintained the principal features of characterization and sentiments of the Buddhist art of the Western Regions.
During the last years of the Sixteen Kingdoms, Liangzhou was the centre of Buddhist activities in Hexi.
www.ignca.nic.in /ks_19015.htm   (4121 words)

  
 The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors Chapter XIV: The Saviors' Kingdoms Not of this World   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The first practical evincement of it was exhibited by retiring from the world; that is, they retired from the noise and commotion, from the busy scenes of life, into some sequestered spot excluded from human observation.
Christ is reported to have withdrawn from society, and to have spent some forty days in the wilderness fasting and being tempted by Satan -- a man of straw conjured up in order to furnish the hero God something to combat with, that he might thereby exhibit practical proof of his divine power and prowess.
It was simply the two kings or rulers of two hostile kingdoms (heaven and hell) contending for the mastery.
www.talkaboutreligion.com /group/alt.religion.buddhism.nichiren/messages/287953.html   (406 words)

  
 Wikipedia: Han
Later Han Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Northern Han during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
One of the Samhan or three tribes in southern Korea before the Three Kingdoms Period.
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/h/ha/han.html   (101 words)

  
 Wu Hu   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
These non-Chinese tribes which the Han had fought to a standstill along the border, seized the opportunity afforded by the weakness of the government to extend their search for pastoral lands into the fertile North China Plain.
See Sixteen Kingdoms for history of each of the Wu Hu sovereignities.
Notable tribes under Tan Shi Huai's command were the Mu Rong (see Sixteen Kingdoms), Haui Tou (see Sixteen Kingdoms) and Tui Yin (see Tuoba).
www.city-search.org /wu/wu-hu.html   (3358 words)

  
 Articles - List of extinct states   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Kingdom of Holland (1806 - 1810) (Koninkrijk Holland/Royaume d'Hollande) Ruled by Louis Bonaparte, annexed by France 1810.
In 1918, the empire was split into Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929).
The Kingdom of Hawaii was unified in 1810 under Kamehameha I, and was recognized by the United States as an independent nation from 1826 until January 17, 1893.
lastring.com /articles/List_of_extinct_states?...   (3056 words)

  
 Fitzwilliam Museum: Coins and Medals - Between East and West exhibition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Kingdom in present day northern Afghanistan formed when its Seleucid governor, Diodotos, declared independence and made himself king in about 250 BC.
A nomadic people who established kingdoms in areas of Afghanistan and northern India, around the 1st century BC.
The empire formed when Seleucus won virtually all the eastern provinces of Alexander’s empire in 281 BC, at the end of the Wars of the Diadochi.
www-cm.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk /coins/east-west/glossary.html   (1172 words)

  
 han   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The Later Han Dynasty of the Chinese Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
The Northern Han, a kingdom during during the Chinese Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
One of the Samhan or three tribes on the Korea peninsula before the Three Kingdoms Period
www.yourencyclopedia.net /han.html   (270 words)

  
 Encyclopedia article on History of China [EncycloZine]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms, a time that has since been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
Though these three kingdoms were reunited temporarily in 280 by the (Western) Jin dynasty, the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu) ethnic groups ravaged the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Chang Jiang.
Agricultural advances such as triple cropping of rice and the introduction of new crop types discovered in the New World (in particular corn) enabled the population of China to more than double from between 100 million in 1700 to 220 million in 1800.
encyclozine.com /History_of_China   (4105 words)

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