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Topic: Sixth Crusade


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  Crusade - Wikipedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Fourth Crusade was initiated by Pope Innocent III in 1202, but ended up in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, as crusaders fought with Venetians and renegade Byzantines.
The vital crusading spirit was now dead, and the succeeding crusades are to be explained rather as arising from the efforts of the papacy in its struggle against the secular power, to divert the military energies of the European nations toward Syria.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta[?] in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate[?], Pelagius[?], they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction.
wikipedia.findthelinks.com /cr/Crusade.html   (979 words)

  
 Crusades. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Crusaders, led mostly by French and Flemish nobles and spurred on by Fulk of Neuilly, assembled (1202) near Venice.
The Sixth Crusade, 1228–29, undertaken by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, was simply a peaceful visit, in the course of which the emperor made a truce with the Muslims, securing the partial surrender of Jerusalem and other holy places.
The Ninth Crusade, 1271–72, was led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England).
www.bartleby.com /65/cr/Crusades.html   (2318 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Crusades
Crusaders were also granted indulgences and temporal privileges, such as exemption from civil jurisdiction, inviolability of persons or lands, etc. Of all these wars undertaken in the name of Christendom, the most important were the Eastern Crusades, which are the only ones treated in this article.
The honour of initiating the crusade has also been attributed to Peter the Hermit, a recluse of Picardy, who, after a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and a vision in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, went to Urban II and was commissioned by him to preach the crusade.
Meanwhile the crusaders, revictualled by the Armenians of the Taurus region, made their way into Syria and on 20 October, 1097, reached the fortified city of Antioch, which was protected by a wall flanked with 450 towers, stocked by the Ameer Jagi-Sian with immense quantities of provisions.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/04543c.htm   (11618 words)

  
 People's Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Pope Urban II planned departure of the crusade for August 15, 1096, but months before this, a number of unexpected armies of peasants and lowly knights organized and set off for Jerusalem on their own.
Eventually the crusaders were allowed to carry on to Nish where they were provided with food and waited to hear from Constantinople on their allowed passage.
The crusaders were completely routed, losing about a quarter of their number; the remainder regrouping further on at Bela Palanka.
www.lexington-fayette.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/People's_Crusade   (1463 words)

  
 Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
Such "crusades" continued into the 16th century, until the Renaissance and Reformation when the political and religious climate of Europe was significantly different than that of the Middle Ages.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
www.newlenox.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Crusaders   (3543 words)

  
 First Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims.
Alexius, fearing the crusaders would sack the city and destroy the wealth it would bring the Byzantine Empire, secretly negotiated the surrender of the city; the crusaders awoke on the morning of June 19, 1097 to see Byzantine standards flying from the walls.
On June 28 the crusaders defeated Kerbogha in a pitched battle outside the city, as Kerbogha was unable to organize the different factions in his army.
www.marylandheights.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/First_Crusade   (4805 words)

  
 Crusade - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
When the First Crusade was preached in 1095, the Christian princes of northern Iberia had been fighting their way out of the mountains of Galicia and Asturias, the Basque country and Navarre, with increasing success, for about a hundred years.
The crusaders' atrocities against Jews in the towns of Germany and Hungary, later also in France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria have passed into Jewish popular history as a dark legend.
Crusading imagery could be found even in the Crimean War, in which the United Kingdom and France were allied with the Muslim Ottoman Empire, and in the First World War, especially Allenby's capture of Jerusalem in 1917.
open-encyclopedia.com /Crusade   (3005 words)

  
 Fifth Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The message of the crusade was preached in France by ; however, unlike other Crusades, not many French knights joined, as they were already fighting the Albigensian Crusade against the heretical Cathar sect in southern France.
Innocent wanted this crusade to be under the full control of the papacy, as the First Crusade was supposed to have been, in order to avoid the mistakes of the Fourth Crusade, which had been taken over by the Venetians.
In June of 1218 the crusaders began their siege of Damietta, and despite resistance from the unprepared sultan Al-Adil, the tower outside the city was taken on August 25.
www.peekskill.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Fifth_Crusade   (835 words)

  
 ORB Bibliographies: Crusades
Latin Greece, the Hospitallers, and the Crusades, 1291-1440.
Papal crusading policy: the chief instruments of papal crusading policy and crusade to the Holy Land from the final loss of Jerusalem to the fall of Acre, 1244-1291.
The northern crusades: the Baltic and the Catholic frontier, 1100-1525.
www.the-orb.net /bibliographies/crusades.html   (2661 words)

  
 Eighth Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France in 1270.
The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade.
These events led to Louis' call for a new crusade in 1267, although there was little support this time; Jean de Joinville, the chronicler who accompanied Louis on the Seventh Crusade, refused to go.
www.lexington-fayette.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Eighth_Crusade   (454 words)

  
 Ninth Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Ninth Crusade is commonly considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades against the Muslims in the Holy Land.
Prince Edward of England had arrived in Tunis too late to contribute to Louis IX of France's Eighth Crusade, but along with Louis' brother Charles of Anjou he continued on to Acre, capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Venice then suggested a crusade be called against Constantinople, where Michael VIII had recently re-established the Byzantine Empire.
www.newlenox.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Ninth_Crusade   (429 words)

  
 The Crusader Period
The Latin Kingdom of the Crusaders was that of a conquering minority confined mainly to fortified cities and castles.
After the overthrow of the Crusaders by a Muslim army under Saladin (1187), the Jews were again accorded a certain measure of freedom, including the right to live in Jerusalem.
Crusader authority in the Land ended after a final defeat (1291) by the Mamluks, a Muslim military class which had come to power in Egypt.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/History/Crusader.html   (409 words)

  
 Sixth Crusade biography .ms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Sixth Crusade began in 1228 as an attempt to reconquer Jerusalem.
Gregory took this opportunity to excommunicate Frederick for breaking his crusader vow, though this was just an excuse, as Frederick had for years been trying to consolidate imperial power in Italy at the expense of the papacy.
The truce expired in 1239 and Jerusalem was taken by the Mamluks in 1244, but now that Frederick had set the precedent, further crusades would be launched by individual kings such as Louis IX of France (the Seventh and Eighth Crusades) and Edward I of England (the Ninth Crusade) without papal involvement.
sixth-crusade.biography.ms   (550 words)

  
 Crusades in the Levant (1097-1291)
Nor was the Church merely able, through the crusades, to direct the martial instinct of a feudal society; it was also able to pursue the object of its own immediate policy, and to attempt the universal spread of Christianity, even at the edge of the sword, over the whole of the known world.
But it would be a mistake to regard the crusades as a pure creation of the church or as merely due to the policy of a theocracy directing men to the holy war, which is the only war possible for a theocracy.
Crusaders ally with Damascus and are destroyed by Turks and Mamlukes at battle of Gaza.
www.xenophongroup.com /montjoie/crusade2.htm   (7678 words)

  
 ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Since this was the first crusade since the crusade of the kings in 1189 that actually tried to rescue the Holy Land, its defeat was a bitter blow.
Frederick had taken the crusading vow in 1215 when he was still a youth, evidently carried away by the moment during his coronation ceremonies at Aachen.
No crusade was immediately in the offing, and in any case he had to bring Germany to order, so there was no question of him setting out immediately.
www.the-orb.net /textbooks/crusade/sixcru.html   (458 words)

  
 Medieval Sourcebook: The Crusade of Frederick II, 1228-29
He had vowed to go Crusade as early as 1215, but the Crusader's vow for him seems to have been principally a method his precarious hold upon Germany and Sicily papal protection which was extended to Crusaders.
In view of Frederick's repeated postponements of the Crusade during the past twelve years, it is not surprising that Pope Gregory IX took this situation to be another attempt to delay the Crusade.
At the expiration of the treaty period, small Crusading armies journeyed to the East, one in 1239, led by King Thibaud of Navarre, and another one in 1240, led by Richard of Cornwall.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/source/1228frederick2.html   (3151 words)

  
 Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In a broader sense a "crusade" was any war fought for religious reasons.
His successor permitted the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it under stringent circumstances, and pilgrimage was again permitted, but many stories began to be circulated in the West about the cruelty of the Muslims toward Christian pilgrims, which played an important role in the development of the crusades later in the century.
image's Crusades In the popular imaginations of East and West, the complex phenomenon of the Crusades has resolved itself as a series of symbolic and instructive frozen vignettes.
www.yotor.com /wiki/en/cr/Crusade.htm   (2937 words)

  
 Untitled-6   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In addition to the large armies that attacked Egypt in 1218 and 1248 (the Fifth and Sixth Crusades), smaller armies (such as that of Frederick II) also campaigned in the mideast.
The Sixth Crusade was led by Louis IX of France.
In 1289, Qalawun, a Mamluk sultan, seized Tripoli, and in 1291, Qalawun's son, the sultan Khalil, retook Acre, the last stronghold of the crusaders in the mideast.
www.umich.edu /~eng415/timeline/summaries/end_crusades.htm   (368 words)

  
 Articles - Seventh Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
However, Egypt was the object of his crusade, and he landed in 1249 at Damietta on the Nile.
His crusade was a failure, but he was considered a saint by many, and his fame gave him an even greater authority in Europe than the Holy Roman Emperor.
www.gaple.com /articles/Seventh_Crusade   (851 words)

  
 Seventh Crusade
Upon their approach to Damietta the inhabitants of the city fled, and the crusaders had but to occupy the city unopposed.
In their advance toward Cairo, the Crusaders snuck across the river and wreaked a surprise early morning rout upon the Egyptian camp.
The Crusaders could not defend themselves; many, indeed, found themselves in alleys so narrow they could not even turn their horses around.
jmgainor.homestead.com /files/PU/Cru/7cr.htm   (507 words)

  
 Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Fourth Crusade can be difficult to understand, so take your time with it and try to keep all the players clear in your mind.
The Fifth Crusade was in many ways a re-issuing of the Fourth, and the Sixth Crusade, in turn, was in a sense a re-issuance of the Fifth.
Led by Emperor Frederick II, who was supposed to have joined the crusaders in Egypt, the Sixth Crusade did not exactly liberate Jerusalem, but at least it got the city declared to be neutral ground and open to Christians.
crusades.boisestate.edu /Admin/unit4/intro.html   (332 words)

  
 CRUSADE - Definition
[v] exert oneself continuously, vigorously, or obtrusively to gain an end or engage in a crusade for a certain cause or person; be an advocate for; "The liberal party pushed for reforms"; "She is crusading for women's rights"; "The Dean is pushing for his favorite candidate"
Any one of the military expeditions undertaken by Christian powers, in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries, for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Mohammedans.
{Crusading}.] To engage in a crusade; to attack in a zealous or hot-headed manner.
www.hyperdictionary.com /dictionary/crusade   (244 words)

  
 1100 - 1300
Urban II at the Council of Clermont in southern France near the end of 1095, preached the First Crusade to recapture the Holy Land.
Pope Gregory VIII preached a crusade, which was lead by several of Europe's most important leaders: Richard I of England, Philip II of France and Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire.
Frederick drowned in Cicilia in 1190, leaving a unstable alliance between the English and the French.
faculty.ucc.edu /egh-damerow/1100_-_1300.htm   (806 words)

  
 The Sixth Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
He had taken the crusading vow when he was young during his coronation ceremonies.
When the Fifth Crusade started, the pope reminded him of the crusading vow he had taken, so he capitulated and took part in the crusade.
After repeated urgent messages from the crusaders, he sent a fleet with a small force to take part in the crusade but it was not enough.
members.tznet.com /donjuan/sixth.htm   (342 words)

  
 Sixth Crusade
Upon the failure of the Fifth Crusade, when the victory had been so nearly within reach, the call to crusade began to go forth once again.
At the Council of Ferentino in 1223, Frederick renewed his Crusader vow in the presence of the Pope, the King of Jerusalem (John of Brienne, at the time), and the Grand Masters of the Military Orders.
Gregory was incensed at Frederick's presumption in leading a crusade while under ban of excommunication.
jmgainor.homestead.com /files/PU/Cru/6cr.htm   (360 words)

  
 Articles - Sixth Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In 1225 Frederick married Yolande of Jerusalem (also known as Isabella), daughter of John of Brienne, nominal ruler of the kingdom of Jerusalem, and Maria of Montferrat.
On February 18, 1229, al-Kamil signed a ten-year truce with Frederick, allying with him against al-Nasir in return for handing over Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa, Bethlehem, and all of Jerusalem except the Dome of the Rock, which was sacred to Islam (although Christians were permitted to pray near the site of Solomon's Temple).
Legally, however, he was actually regent for his son Conrad II of Jerusalem, only child of Yolande and the grandson of Maria of Montferrat and John of Brienne, who had been born shortly before Frederick left in 1228.
www.gaple.com /articles/Sixth_Crusade   (735 words)

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