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Topic: Social contract

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In the News (Mon 21 Jan 19)

  Social contract - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Social contract theory (or contractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members, or between individuals.
All members within a society are assumed to agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society without violating the contract; such violation would signify a problematic attempt to return to the state of nature.
The first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed contract theory was Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), who contended that people in a state of nature ceded their individual rights to create sovereignty, retained by the state, in return for their protection and a more functional society, so social contract evolves out of pragmatic self-interest.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_contract   (2868 words)

 Social contract - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibility of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members.
In the same way that implicit contracts in these circumstances standardize interactions to make them simpler and cheaper to support, enhancing the value of capital, social contract can likewise increase the social capital (a formal term for trust), and what's more this is measurable.
The Social Contract is also a term used to by both the Labour government of Harold Wilson in 1970s Britain and the New Democratic Party government of Bob Rae in 1990s Ontario to describe attempts to impose austerity measures on the labour movement.
www.encyclopedia-online.info /Social_contract   (501 words)

 Social contract - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
However, it is also true that the ambiguity persists, and that Hobbes' polemic conception of the state of nature (opposed to Rousseau's irenical conception of it) approach it from the realist description of civil war.
All of these groups were lead to articulate notions of popular sovereignty by means of a social covenant or contract: all of these arguments began with proto-“state of nature” arguments, to the effect that the basis of politics is that everyone is by nature free of subjection to any government.
Social contract is a violation of contract theory
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_contract_theories   (2868 words)

 Social contract (Malaysia) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Instead, the social contract is typically taken to mean an agreement that provides the non-Malay and other non-indigenous peoples of Malaysia (mostly the Chinese Malaysians and Indian Malaysians) with citizenship, in return for their granting special privileges to the Malays and indigenous people of Malaysia, collectively referred to as the Bumiputra (sons of the soil).
Another description of the social contract declares it to be an agreement that "Malay entitlement to political and administrative authority should be accepted unchallenged, at least for the time being, in return for non-interference in Chinese control of the economy".
In the 2004 general election, the DAP ran on a platform of defending the "social contract" by combatting an Islamic theocracy, which the Constitution forbids, but was endorsed by former Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad, Lim Keng Yaik and by PAS, the second-largest Malay-based political party in the country.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_contract_(Malaysia)   (2177 words)

 Social Contract Theory [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Social Contract Theory, nearly as old as philosophy itself, is the view that persons' moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement between them to form society.
Locke’s arguments for the social contract, and for the right of citizens to revolt against their king were enormously influential on the democratic revolutions that followed, especially on Thomas Jefferson, and the founders of the United States.
The normative social contract, argued for by Rousseau in The Social Contract (1762), is meant to respond to this sorry state of affairs and to remedy the social and moral ills that have been produced by the development of society.
www.iep.utm.edu /s/soc-cont.htm   (9316 words)

Hypothetical contract contractarians such as Gauthier counter that the point of the contract device is not to directly bind the contractors, but rather to provide a kind of thought experiment by which to discover the requirements of practical rationality.
Social contract theories take individuals to be the best judges of their interests and the means to satisfy their desires.
The social contract then can be seen as a justification by the parties to the contract of their interaction, and of their exploitation of those who are not parties to the contract, but only if the fundamental division of in-group and out-group is accepted.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/contractarianism   (2814 words)

The essentials of a contract are as follows: (1) mutual assent; (2) a legal consideration, which in most instances need not be pecuniary; (3) parties who have legal capacity to make a contract; (4) absence of fraud or duress; and (5) a subject matter that is not illegal or against public policy.
The contract of a minor, usually a person under the age of 18, is not void, but voidable, and it may be affirmed by that person on attainment of full age.
The social contract must be understood as a philosophical construct and a philosophical construct only; that is, a way of understanding society and the place of individuals within society.
hometown.aol.com /menick/contract.html   (2653 words)

 Social Contract - dKosopedia
Social Contract theory can be divided in two ways: early (around 17-19th centuries) and more modern (think Rawls).
Early social contract theory is noted for its attachment to natural law, legal theory premised on the belief that, whether divine or secular, there is a law that everyone ought to aspire to, including governments.
I could choose not to follow the contract, but, to paraphrase Hume, it is the alternative of being locked in a ship, or swimming in the middle of the ocean — it is a false choice.
www.dkosopedia.com /wiki/Social_Contract   (1287 words)

Social order is a sacred right which is at the foundation of all other rights.
Again, social order is not based on force, for the strongest is not strong enough to retain at all times his supremacy unless he transforms force into right, and obedience into duty.
These degrees of authority, however, in the social organization are not by nature the exclusive possession of anybody, but accessible to the capacities and the efforts of all.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/04335a.htm   (2244 words)

 There's no such thing as a "social contract."
Therefore, our social contract is an agreement between the owner of property (society, as represented by government) and a constituent who wants to make use of that property.
The decision to reside on U.S. territory is the fundamental agreement to abide by its social contract.
The social contract, with its periodic democratic elections, is the only system that gives newcomers the chance to voice their agreement and help shape the contract.
www.huppi.com /kangaroo/L-contract.htm   (2580 words)

We negotiated the social contracts in the spring and summer of 2004 and are now working to implement them throughout the City.
Social Contracts are gaining increasing acceptance in Philadelphia as an innovative approach to defining who government and citizens can work together to achieve comprehensive strategies for neighborhood improvement.
These include a contract between homeowners and residents of public housing; a contract between local businesses and community residents for economic development; and a contract between a school and the civic associations in the surrounding neighborhood.
neighborhoodsonline.net /socialcontract.html   (578 words)

 Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract
The idea of the social contract goes back, in a recognizably modern form, to Thomas Hobbes, but is most notably embodied, in our times, in the work of John Rawls.
Important issues associated with the social contract include the binding force of hypothetical agreements, the reduction (or not) of ethico-political to instrumental reasoning, and the compatibility of contract reasoning with fairness and liberty.
Contemporary contract theorists tend to be constructivists in the sense that they recognize no independent and determinate external standard of legitimacy that the contractual device is intended to approximate, but, rather, make the truth-maker for "S is legitimate" that S was the object of an agreement (for stakeholders or their surrogates).
plato.stanford.edu /entries/contractarianism-contemporary   (2038 words)

 20th WCP: The Social Contract Tradition
But the social contract tradition poses challenges that must be accepted on various counts, with new insights and interpretations, given the fluxed reality in contemporary socio-political universe that at once impels extreme nationalism and unavoidable globalism.
The social contract, once formed, engenders minor inconvenience for those who may not realize that it is in their interest to be obedient to its authority.
Another, similar but not the same, criticism has been the argument that the "social contract" indicated in the contractarian theory is simply a hypothetical one, designed as an analogical apologia to justify the legitimacy of democratic principles and practice on which Western societies have sought to found governmental systems and nothing more.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Soci/SociBewa.htm   (4841 words)

 Self-Sovereignty Documents - Interim Social Contract (Annotated)
However, the nature of compossible social relationships and their place in the reality of human lives is such that each Adult can only do such a thing for himself.
As is made clear by stipulations within the Natural Social Contract, this empirical fact of Adulthood is not practically open to fraud because it requires certain responsibilities that, if not met, in effect result in the loss of such de facto status (of being a Freeman).
A Social Imperative is a required action of this Agreement, the non-fulfillment of which within a time stipulated herein is grounds for a Charge of Breach of this Agreement and for the potential Revocation (forced termination of the Agreement by a Trial) of the status of Freeman with respect to this Agreement.
selfsip.org /solutions/socialcontract_annotated.html   (16013 words)

 social contract. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The theory of such a contract, first formulated by the English philosophers Thomas Hobbes (in the Leviathan, 1651) and John Locke, assumes that men at first lived in a state of anarchy in which there was no society, no government, and no organized coercion of the individual by the group.
Hobbes maintained that by the social contract men had surrendered their natural liberties in order to enjoy the order and safety of the organized state.
Locke made the social contract the basis of his advocacy of popular sovereignty, the idea that the monarch or government must reflect the will of the people.
www.bartleby.com /65/so/socialco.html   (321 words)

 Social Security Contract
I understand that Social Security Administration (SSA) must approve any fee my attorney charges or collects from me for legal services before SSA in connection with my claim(s) for benefits.
For disability insurance benefits claims under Title II, I understand that Social Security past-due benefits are the total amount of money that I and any auxiliary beneficiaries (including my children and surviving spouse if any) become entitled through the month before the month SSA makes a favorable Title II decision on my claim.
I will advance all costs to be paid by my attorney directly related to this Social Security claim to include the cost of medical records, physician and expert fees, telephone calls, copying costs, labor costs for reproduction of my file (not to exceed $50.00), travel expenses at $.35 per mile and other such actual expenses.
www.hughcox.com /sscontract.htm   (502 words)

 The Social Contract
If we can only be fully human under the auspices of the social contract, then that contract is more important than the individuals that agree to it.
The contract is not affirmed by each individual separately so much as it is affirmed by the group collectively.
We could borrow from social theorist Jurgen Habermas the distinction between the public sphere and the private sphere, and suggest that Rousseau does not give careful enough attention to the latter.
www.sparknotes.com /philosophy/socialcontract/analysis.html   (700 words)

 Modern History Sourcebook: Jean Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract, 1762
Being able to regard itself in only one capacity, it is in the position of an individual who makes a contract with himself; and this makes it clear that there neither is nor can be any kind of fundamental law binding on the body of the people -- not even the social contract itself.
In order then that the social compact may not be an empty formula, it tacitly includes the undertaking, which alone can give force to the rest, that whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body.
If then there are opponents when the social compact is made, their opposition does not invalidate the contract, but merely prevents them from being included in it.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/rousseau-contract2.html   (3871 words)

 Social Contract
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, however, radically revised Hobbes' social contract; in Rousseau's view, the people agreed to cede authority to some group in order to gain the benefits of community and safety.
is that modern human society is built on an imperfect social contract, since it fosters inequality and servitude.
All government is fundamentally flawed—Rousseau was calling for a rebuilding of the social contract from the ground up in order to ensure equality and freedom.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/GLOSSARY/SOCCON.HTM   (438 words)

 Social Contract Theory
According to social contract theory (SCT), “morality consists in the set of rules governing how people are to treat one another, that rational people will agree to accept, for their mutual benefit, on the condition that others follow those rules as well.” 
  For this reason, conservative social contract theorists sometimes argue that a social safety is not part of the contract.
·  The social contract is an implicit agreement among self-interested, rational agents.
www.csus.edu /indiv/g/gaskilld/ethics/SCT.htm   (2564 words)

 Social Contract Encyclopedia Article @ HandOverFist.com (Hand Over Fist)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
This page contains quite a lot of relevant information about Social contract.
Real social contract skips what GM can't promise
It being nearly Labor Day, commentators are indulging in a version of we-had-a-deal, the sweet, sad whine about the "social contract.".
handoverfist.com /encyclopedia/Social_contract   (3064 words)

 Self-Sovereignty Documents - Interim Social Contract
A Freeman with respect to one social contract is ipso facto a Freeman with respect to all mutually Acceptable Social Contracts.
All social contracts which do not have the minimum features described above are Unacceptable Social Contracts to the executors of this Agreement and executors of such Unacceptable Social Contracts are treated as non-Freemen.
Where a Social Imperative relates to a positive action to be taken, any Freeman who is in Voluntary non-compliance with any Social Imperative beyond the time Stipulated in this Agreement or 30 days, where no time is Stipulated, is open to a Charge of Breach of this Agreement.
selfsip.org /solutions/socialcontract.html   (6593 words)

 Debian Social Contract
The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) part of the contract, initially designed as a set of commitments that we agree to abide by, has been adopted by the free software community as the basis of the Open Source Definition.
The concept of stating our "social contract with the free software community" was suggested by Ean Schuessler.
This document was drafted by Bruce Perens, refined by the other Debian developers during a month-long e-mail conference in June 1997, and then accepted as the publicly stated policy of the Debian Project.
www.debian.org /social_contract   (983 words)

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