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Topic: Social Darwinism

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  Social Darwinism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
While Social Darwinism applies the concept of evolution and natural selection to human cultural systems, the extent to which the ideologies related to it are a part of Darwin's biological theory of evolution or Spencer's classical liberal philosophy is arguable.
Darwin's unique discussion of evolution was distinct in several ways from these previous works: Darwin argued that humans were shaped by biological laws in the same way as other animals, particularly by the pressure put on individuals by population growth, emphasizing the natural over the supernatural in human development.
Social Darwinist theory itself does not necessarily engender a political position: some Social Darwinists would argue for the inevitability of progress, while others emphasise the potential for the degeneration of humanity, and some even attempt to enroll Social Darwinism in a reformist politics.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_Darwinism   (2728 words)

 Social Darwinism - MSN Encarta
Social Darwinism, term coined in the late 19th century to describe the idea that humans, like animals and plants, compete in a struggle for existence in which natural selection results in “survival of the fittest.” Social Darwinists base their beliefs on theories of evolution developed by British naturalist Charles Darwin.
The term social Darwinist is applied loosely to anyone who interprets human society primarily in terms of biology, struggle, competition, or natural law (a philosophy based on what are considered the permanent characteristics of human nature).
Social Darwinism characterizes a variety of past and present social policies and theories, from attempts to reduce the power of government to theories exploring the biological causes of human behavior.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761579584/Social_Darwinism.html   (751 words)

 Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism is a belief, popular in the late Victorian era in England, America, and elsewhere, which states that the strongest or fittest should survive and flourish in society, while the weak and unfit should be allowed to die.
Social Darwinism was used to justify numerous exploits which we classify as of dubious moral value today.
Social Darwinism applied to military action as well; the argument went that the strongest military would win, and would therefore be the most fit.
library.thinkquest.org /C004367/eh4.shtml   (1067 words)

 ISAR - Review: Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Social conservatives, according to these historians, argued that any amelioration of the struggle for existence would only result in the survival of the unfit and the demise of civilization.
Bannister contends that social Darwinism was primarily a myth created by liberal reformers who were both enamored with Darwinian theory and troubled by its implications.
Darwinism was used by reformers to condemn competition and defend combination just as post-Civil War conservatives used natural law arguments to justify laissez faire.
www.ferris.edu /ISAR/archives/mehler/social.htm   (1251 words)

 Social Darwinism - Brkfst @ Tiffany's
Darwin viewed Spencer's idea with some skepticism, so social Darwinism could be more accurately termed social Spencerism.
Social Darwinism is a theory that applies natural selection to the evolution of individuals and society.
Surprisingly, the tenets of social Darwinism are still evident in today’s society.
www.angelfire.com /tn/tifni/misc/socialdarwinism.html   (354 words)

 BBC Evolution Weekend: Darwin - the Man And His Legacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Darwin was converted to evolutionism by the results of his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle (1831-36) several years before he discovered the principle of natural selection.
This insight taught Darwin that evolution is a branching process, not the ascent of a ladder of progress toward humanity.
Darwinism in Science In science, the general idea of evolution helped to explain a number of facts, including the relationships between species, their geographical distribution, and the trends shown in the fossil record.
www.bbc.co.uk /education/darwin/leghist/bowler.htm   (1975 words)

 Herbert Spencer [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
('Social statics'--the term was borrowed from Auguste Comte--deals with the conditions of social order, and was preliminary to a study of human progress and evolution--i.e., 'social dynamics.') In this work, Spencer presents an account of the development of human freedom and a defense of individual liberties, based on a (Lamarckian-style) evolutionary theory.
He denied (as Darwin had argued) that evolution was based on the characteristics and development of the organism itself and on a simple principle of natural selection.
He believed that social life was an extension of the life of a natural body, and that social 'organisms' reflected the same (Lamarckian) evolutionary principles or laws as biological entities did.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/s/spencer.htm   (3489 words)

 Social Darwinism. New Preface
Darwinism's long-term impact, so Talcott Parsons first argued in The Structure of Social Action (1937), was less to bolster classical economics ("conservative" social Darwinism) or to inspire evolutionist reformism than it was to foster the behaviorist, statistical, and objectivist tendencies in social science that flowered after 1920.
To establish their authority, and to legitimate the social programs associated with it, this younger generation of professionals (and the battle was largely generational) attacked as immoral or worse a panoply of mid-century attempts to make social policy "scientific" whether classical economics, utilitarianism, positivism, or Spencerian evolutionism.
In The Descent of Darwin (1981) Alfred Kelly distinguishes "moderate" from "radical" social Darwinism (a distinction corresponding to that between "conservative" and "reform" in the American case), But the former turn out to be social organicists (Paul von Lilienfeld and Albert Schaffle) or liberal humanists such as the "struggle school" sociologist Ludwig Gumplowicz.
www.swarthmore.edu /SocSci/rbannis1/SD.preface.html   (7189 words)

 Social Darwinism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Social Darwinism is the general term which applies to several different ways in which people (not biologists) tried to apply a distorted and narrow interpretation of the concept of natural selection to human cultural systems.
The seeds of Social Darwinism were actually planted before the publication of The Origin of Species (though of course the name didn't originate until after).
Darwin knew of — and rejected — the notion that his description of natural processes had any useful application in shaping human culture.
www.cod.edu /people/faculty/fancher/SocDarw.htm   (366 words)

 Of Darwinism And Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism was developed some thirty years after Darwin’s famous book by a social thinker named Herbert Spencer.
It was Spencer, not Darwin, who coined the phrase "survival of the fittest." Social Darwinism thereby offered a perfect moral justification for America’s Gilded Age, when robber barons controlled much of American industry, the gap between rich and poor turned into a chasm, urban slums festered, and politicians were bought off by the wealthy.
Social scientists have long understood that one’s economic status in society is not a function of one’s moral worth.
www.robertreich.org /reich/20051201.asp   (728 words)

Darwinism and forms represented by ethology, sociobiology, behavioral genetics, are seen as an appropriate target for people who are in opposition to the liberal consensus and feel that Keynesianism, the United Nations, Trilateralism, meritocracy, and expertocracy are undermining traditional values and threatening the moral fabric of society.
Darwin and Darwinism are important because humanity is part of the history of life at the same time that human history is an open prospect.
Darwinism is social because science is. And of all science the theory that links humanity to the history of nature is likely to be most so.
human-nature.com /rmyoung/papers/paper60h.html   (11961 words)

 Evolution: Darwin: In the Name of Darwin
Eugenics was rooted in the social Darwinism of the late 19th century, a period in which notions of fitness, competition, and biological rationalizations of inequality were popular.
Many social Darwinists insisted that biology was destiny, at least for the unfit, and that a broad spectrum of socially deleterious traits, ranging from "pauperism" to mental illness, resulted from heredity.
Nevertheless, Darwin's theory of evolution taught that species did change as a result of natural selection, and it was well known that by artificial selection a farmer could obtain permanent breeds of plants and animals strong in particular characteristics.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/evolution/darwin/nameof   (422 words)

 World Socialism, Now!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Darwin meant by this the most capable of surviving and reproducing in the environment they found themselves having to live in.
Darwin, however, must take some at least of the blame for the distortion of his theory by some of his followers.
Darwinism, or the theory of selection, is thoroughly aristocratic; it is based upon the survival of the best.
groups.msn.com /worldsocialismnow/yourwebpage4.msnw   (2115 words)

 Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism is a quasi-philosophical, quasi-religious, quasi-sociological view that came from the mind of Herbert Spencer, an English philosopher in the 19th century.
In these years, when Darwin's Origin of Species, popularized by Herbert Spencer as "the survival of the fittest, " and applied to races as well as species in a vulgarized form, Social Darwinism, the coming Christian triumph was presented as an Anglo-Saxon Protestant one.
Social Darwinism is by no means dead, for vestiges of it can be found in the present.
www.ioa.com /~shermis/socjus/socdar.html   (1171 words)

 The Religion of Nature: Social Darwinism by David Menton
Darwin himself seemed to approve of the application of his evolutionary ideas to moral and social issues.
The feature of Darwinism most often cited by those who attempt to justify their moral and social views with "science" (evolution), is the concept of the "survival of the fittest." This application of Darwinian dogma to human society and behavior is known as Social Darwinism.
Social Darwinism thus came to serve as a "scientific" justification for racism.
www.gennet.org /facts/metro15.html   (1117 words)

 Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer, American Laissez-faire Capitalism, lesson plans
In 1859, Charles Darwin published Origin of Species, which explained his theory of animal and plant evolution based on "natural selection." Soon afterward, philosophers, sociologists, and others began to adopt the idea that human society had also evolved.
Sumner argued that social progress depended on the fittest families passing on their wealth to the next generation.
Social reformers demanded a tax on large incomes and the breakup of monopolies.
www.crf-usa.org /bria/bria19_2b.htm   (2274 words)

 Social Darwinism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
An element of Darwinism is that competition and natural selection results in survival of the fittest.
Another fraud of social Darwinism is the underlying implication that people have an innate and underlying worth that can be brought out through the aggregate effects of Darwinism.
The underlying principle to that ideology is social Darwinism.
nov55.com /sdw.html   (693 words)

 Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism Social Darwinism was a late nineteenth-century social theory that was based on the theories of evolution of scientist Charles Darwin.
The ideas and behind Social Darwinism came directly from his theories of evolution and, “survival of the fittest.” The theory was used to explain how the economic growth of America was coming along.
The way that social Darwinism has changed the views and realities of the economy has allowed it to be able to advance and provide a good, competitive place for people to make money and offer their goods and services.
www.freeessays.cc /db/26/hmd365.shtml   (398 words)

 Fact Sheet-Social Darwinism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Social Darwinism holds that the principle of the "survival of the fittest" applies to human ethics and politics just as it does to biological evolution.
Social Darwinism extends from Charles Darwin's 1859 Origin of Species in which the theory of evolution was set forth.
The social sciences were the most important areas of development while English grammar and literature were believed to be outdated.
www.rmfc.org /fs/fs0068.html   (940 words)

 Marketing Social Darwinism: Emergency Services
A perfect case of “survival of the fittest” portrayed as necessary, admirable, and socially or politically inevitable.
Social Darwinism was nowhere to be seen in Newfoundland when American travelers were in need.
This is the Social Darwinism that is being forced on everyone as rescuers are stopped from giving the help that springs from caring.
www.greaterthings.com /News/daily/2005/09/09/6600917_Katrina_Darwinism   (3415 words)

 The Gene Letter by GeneSage - Archives   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Darwin’s evolutionary dictum, “survival of the fittest”, was interpreted by many 19th-century social theorists to justify the class structure of society in the late 1800’s.
Darwin’s theory did not establish criteria for superiority and inferiority except in terms of specific (often micro) environments.
Darwin actually annoyed most Church leaders by suggesting that humans were not necessarily “superior” and were not the goal and end-point of the entire creation.
www.genesage.com /professionals/geneletter/archives/briefhistory.html   (1074 words)

 Social Darwinism
The stratification of the society in this society was illustrated by Norris using the concept of Social Darwinism.
Social Darwinism is an extension of biological evolution to human social systems.
The crucial point to be understood in social Darwinism is that the poor and homeless classes represent a biologically or inherently inferior group of individuals.
www.bobhuang.com /essays/essay53.htm   (697 words)

 H102 Lecture 06: The Social Philosophy of American Businessmen
Although theories of evolution had existed for centuries, Darwin's theory of "natural selection" was an innovative hypothesis that captured the attention of scientists and philosophers around the world.
Spencer, not Darwin, was the first person to coin the phrase "survival of the fittest." He believed that government intervention in the "natural" processes of human evolution, such as welfare for the poor, public education, and government healthcare, helped weak humans survive and, in the process, undermined the health of the entire race.
Along with Social Darwinism, many nineteenth-century businessmen accepted the idea that the American economy was "self-adjusting." This idea traced its roots back to Adam Smith and his conception of the "invisible hand" of capitalism.
us.history.wisc.edu /hist102/lectures/lecture06.html   (2057 words)

 Sirotablog: Shared Risk vs. Social Darwinism
The debate over whether to privatize Social Security is really one about whether, when it comes to basic safety net issues, there should be shared risk, or survival of the fittest.
Private accounts are in the spirit of Social Darwinism - everyone has to hope their individual accounts do well, or they are screwed, a casualty of a surival-of-the-fittest system.
Jerry Nadler (D-NY), for instance, previously proposed to have an independent Social Security oversight board "invest a small portion of Social Security assets in broad index funds which track the market based on a fixed formula." In other words, a part of the big pool of money would be invested in the market.
www.davidsirota.com /2005/03/shared-risk-vs-social-darwinism.html   (764 words)

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