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Topic: Social choice

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In the News (Wed 20 Feb 19)

  Social Choice and Beyond - Papers
Social Choice is an important field because, if in fact Social Choice is impossible, there is no solid theoretical ground for a satisfactory version of political democracy and also any possible version of economic democracy would likewise be invalidated.
The possibility of Social Choice is proven by presenting an algorithm which represents a social welfare function that maps the domain of all possible combinations of individual choices into corresponding social choices.
A proof is presented that the algorithm provides a social choice solution for all values of m when individual and social choices are expressed in terms of the R (preference or indifference) operator, and for all values of n, the number of voters.
www.socialchoiceandbeyond.com /scabpage3.html   (2885 words)

 Quantitative Methods in Public Administration
Social choice theory is a subfield of political theory concerned with the logic of collective decision-making, whether voting or multicriterion decision-making.
The origins of social choice theory lie in voting under a single preference criterion, but the social choice model has been extended to multidimensional decision-making involving multiple decision criteria (see Arrow and Reynaud, 1986).
If an "agenda setter" is in a position to demand policy y (which is other than the median choice) or else the outcome goes to an undesirable "reversion point," r, then the worse r is, the more deviant y may be from the median choice and still have voters agreeing to y.
www2.chass.ncsu.edu /garson/pa765/socialchoice.htm   (968 words)

 Social Choice and Individual Values - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kenneth Arrow's monograph Social Choice and Individual Values (1951, 2nd ed., 1963) and a theorem within it created social choice theory, a rigorous melding of social ethics and voting theory with an economic flavor.
The social ordering for a given set of orderings as to the set of social states is analogous to an indifference-curve map for an individual as to the set of commodity bundles.
The social choice is associated with the sets of rankings for that subset, not with rankings of unavailable social states beyond the subset.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_Choice_and_Individual_Values   (3194 words)

 Social Security Choice
Last year, when President Bush was promoting Social Security reform -- a good and necessary thing -- he indicated he was open to increasing the level of income subject to the payroll tax as part of a reform package.
Social Security benefits were designed in the 1930s to protect traditional couples.
Dick Armey went to Iowa this week to make sure that Social Security plays a central role in the 2008 presidential race, and the former House Majority Leader should be commended for his efforts.
www.socialsecuritychoice.org   (2876 words)

 Social Choice and Beyond
Now the idea of the social welfare function (or of any function for that matter) is to connect each element of the domain (consisting of all possible combinations of individual choices) to an element of the range (consisting of all possible social choices).
Unlike socialism or communism which claim to right the wrongs of capitalism, unequal distribution of wealth being among them, a social choice based system or Preferensism would not necessarily be a panacea for the ills of society such as poverty, ecological destruction or unequal distribution of wealth.
A Social Choice economy has to be at least as workable as a capitalist economy in terms of the ease of use and the number of choices available.
www.socialchoiceandbeyond.com /scabpage9   (5113 words)

 EconLog, Social Choice Theory: A Case of Moral Blindness, Bryan Caplan: Library of Economics and Liberty
The main focus of social choice theory is to start with normatively appealling axioms for group decision-making, and then try to logically derive decision-making rules that satisfy those axioms.
So, yeah, it sounds like the social choice guys are trying to reason without the complications of morality, and then some of them sneak it in at the end (wittingly or unwittingly).
Social choice theorists want to have a method which would be accepted as fair as a voting system even if we were under a "Rawlsian veil of ignorance" as to what the choices would be.
econlog.econlib.org /archives/2005/10/social_choice_t.html   (1679 words)

 Project on Social Security Choice
The "social security" program is one of those things on which the tyranny of the status quo is beginning to work its magic....
Privatizing Social Security would give people the freedom to choose how to finance their retirements, the opportunity to save, the chance to accumulate wealth and the freedom to give it to the people and causes they love.
Social Security is one possible means to that end; preserving it is not the end, in and of, itself.
www.socialsecurity.org   (6035 words)

 Social Choice Theory
Social choice theory is the brance of decision theory concerning agents who all agree to be bound by the outcome of a social choice procedure, such as a vote.
It states that the socially chosen outcome should not change when unchosen options are eliminated from the preference profile.
These examples are instances of a more general problem, which is that it is impossible to find a social choice function which satisfies all the criteria we would like it to.
www.stanford.edu /class/symbsys150/social-choice-theory-5-8.html   (966 words)

 Social choice theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A fortiori he criticized interpersonal comparisons of utility, and the social choice theory on which it was based, for assuming that we could determine the amount of satisfaction other individuals derive from certain situations.
Kenneth Arrow's famous impossibility result spelled the second end to social choice theory, by proving the inconsistency of social preferences when held to very minimal standards, such as non-dictatorship and Pareto optimality.
Instead, social choice decisions should be based on variables that are not subject to such malleability as mental states.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_choice_theory   (952 words)

 Technological Determinism and Social Choice
In this case the focus is on the manner in which a technology is deployed to further the political and economic interests of powerful groups of social actors.
The concern is with the social construction of technology at the point of initiation rather than at the point of use.
Thus technology is viewed as a social object whose meaning, defined by the context of its use, may change although its physical form remains fixed over time.
www-users.cs.york.ac.uk /~kimble/teaching/cis/cis4.html   (1187 words)

 Social Security Choice: Dirty Little Secrets
Bush’s Social Security plan provides younger workers their own accounts that they control, not the government.
What is worse, they are seeking a short-term political victory by pitting grandparents versus their grandchildren and purposely trying to confuse both on the facts of the Social Security crisis and the benefits of investing.
If we do not change the Social Security structure now, in 15 years the problem will be bigger, the taxes needed to prop up the system will increase, benefits will decrease, and true solvency will be an impossible goal.
www.socialsecuritychoice.org /archives/2005/03/dirty_little_se.php   (875 words)

 Public Choice Society 2005 Participants
In their analyses, Black and Arrow had assumed, more or less implicitly, that the alternatives for collective choice, among which the voting rule generates an outcome, are exogenous to the process itself, that is, that the motions, candidates, or proposals exist prior to the selection process itself.
Public choice then came along and provided analyses of politics, of the behavior of persons in public choosing roles whether these be voters, politicians, or bureaucrats, that were on all fours with those applied to markets and to the behavior of persons as participants in markets.
The public choice theorist should, of course, acknowledge that the strength, and predictive power, of the strict economic model of behavior is somewhat mitigated as the shift is made from private market to collective choice.
www.pubchoicesoc.org /about_pc.html   (5725 words)

 DIMACS Tutorial on Social Choice and Computer Science
The theory of social choice and voting has had a long history in the social sciences, dating back to early work of Condorcet and others in the 18th century.
Among the most famous social choice procedures are one person, one vote scoring, majority rule, the Borda score, Condorect scoring, plurality, Copeland scoring, approval voting and other scoring rules [Urken (1991), McLean and Urken (1995),Saari (1994),Saari (1995), Saari (1999)].
Recent work has investigated social choice behavior from a formal descriptive (behavioral) point of view [Regenwetter, Adams, and Grofman (2002), Regenwetter, Grofman, and Marley (2002), Regenwetter, Marley, and Grofman (2000), Regenwetter, Marley, and Grofman (2001)].
dimacs.rutgers.edu /Workshops/SocialChoice/announcement.html   (1401 words)

 TIAA-CREF Offers Two Social Investment Products   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The new Social Choice Equity Mutual Fund is a no-load, large-cap index fund, using the same social screens as the Social Choice Account offered to TIAA-CREF participants for ten years.
But while the Social Choice Account offered to participants has a balanced portfolio, including 40 percent bonds, the new Social Choice Equity Fund offered to the public is 100 percent stocks and is benchmarked to the S&P 500.
A national campaign, Social Choice for Social Change: Campaign for a New TIAA-CREF, is calling on the fund managers to invest 5-10 percent of the account's assets in companies that are positive models of social and environmental responsibility.
www.socialfunds.com /news/save.cgi?sfArticleId=208   (580 words)

 Coke no longer a social choice for kids
According to the Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood, Coke is no longer a social choice - at least not for children.
The Social Choice account is the world's largest socially screened fund for individual investors.
Josh Golin, program manager for the Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood, said the Social Choice account is supposed to exclude products that are harmful to society, such as weapons and tobacco companies.
www.commercialfreechildhood.org /news/cokenosocialchoice.htm   (611 words)

 Alumni at Williams - Giving to Williams
The Social Choice Fund was initiated by concerned students, alumni, and faculty in order to provide members of the Williams community with the opportunity contribute financially to the College without compromising their social concerns and beliefs.
The social issues motivating the creation of this fund include, but are not limited to, environmental health, human rights, weapons manufacturing, employment practices, unsafe working conditions, treatment of indigenous peoples, and the production of harmful consumer products such as tobacco.
The majority of the Social Choice Fund will be invested in a socially responsible mutual fund that excludes corporations with poor records in these areas of concern while securing a reasonable rate of return for the College.
www.williams.edu /alumni/giving/sc_fund.php   (416 words)

 Discrete Choice with Social Interactions
We study generalized logistic models of individual choice which incorporate terms reflecting the desire of individuals to conform to the behavior of others in an environment of noncooperative decisionmaking.
Multiplicity of equilibria in these models, which are equivalent to the existence of multiple self-consistent means for average choice behavior, will exist when the social interactions exceed a particular threshold.
The properties of the noncooperative economy are contrasted with the properties of an economy in which a social planner determines the set of individual choices.
www.brookings.edu /es/dynamics/papers/discrete/discrete.htm   (227 words)

 Social Choice For Social Change - Campaign for a new TIAA-CREF   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
These pages describe a campaign to call TIAA-CREF to invest a small percentage (still hundreds of millions of dollars) of Social Choice Account assets in companies and other institutions that are models of social and environmental responsibility.
The $8 billion Social Choice Account is TIAA-CREF's socially responsible fund that took five years of lobbying before it was established.
Click Here to download TIAA-CREF two-sided "socially responsible money" you print out on a green sheet and cut so they are approximately the size of real money.
www.maketiaa-crefethical.org /SocialChoiceForSocialChange.html   (468 words)

 Introduction to Public Choice Theory
The social phenomena discussed in this series of essays all center around the problem of individuals in groups faced with the choice of doing what is best for themselves or what is best for the group.
At the heart of all public choice theories then is the notion that an official at any level, be they in the public or private sector, "acts at least partly in his own self- interest, and some officials are motivated solely by their own self-interest." (Downs, Anthony, Inside Bureaucracy (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1967)).
Public Choice has much to say about the use of rent-seeking, which is the act of obtaining special treatment by the government at the expense of the rest of us.
perspicuity.net /sd/pub-choice.html   (2665 words)

 The Social Dilemmas
It turns out that the "rationally" best choice of the individual is to "free-ride" if she can share in the group rewards regardless of her contribution.
This problem, which is very representative of Social Dilemmas which generally do not have a technical solution, is related to the game of "Chicken" and the game of "Take it or Leave it".
In particular, the Nash Equilibrium for the Social Dilemma prototype, the "Prisoner's Dilemma", is for both parties to defect.
perspicuity.net /sd/sd.html   (5458 words)

 School Choice and Social Controversy
In this important new volume, distinguished legal and public policy scholars address issues that are critical to the successful drafting and implementation of school choice programs, yet are usually overlooked in the choice debate.
They explore whether school choice is a threat or an opportunity to the many children who are largely deprived of choice today and they offer a variety of perspectives, with some authors enthusiastic, others more skeptical.
It then focuses on three important public policy issues: how school choice can revolutionize the way schools are financed, what policy interventions are necessary to increase the supply of choice schools, and how choice programs can be held accountable to parents and the state without undermining institutional autonomy.
www.brookings.edu /press/books/social_controversy.htm   (290 words)

 Social Choice: The Impossible Dream
That is, only the top choice in the preference list is the vote for each voter.
The winner candidate does not necessarily have to receive half of the votes to be considered the winner.
The first choice for each voter is their choice or vote.
www.math.okstate.edu /~millerd/Socialchoice.htm   (1758 words)

 Students' Social Choice
The usual math sequence taken by a liberal arts major is two courses long: some sort of intermediate algebra and one more course that is expected to fulfill the aims of liberal arts education with regard to mathematics.
There are many more methods used to combine individual preferences of the voting population into the Social Choice of the population as a whole.
Unfortunately, the method came out to be a dictatorship: one fellow's social preferences become the choice of the whole population (with or without an election).
www.maa.org /editorial/knot/LiberalArts.html   (2696 words)

 SSRN-Social Choice, Crypto-Initiatives and Policy Making by Direct Democracy by Thad Kousser, Mathew McCubbins
We begin with a survey of the basic social choice and public choice critiques of the initiative process.
We argue that, despite recent rigorous scholarly attention as to the effects of initiatives, we find little reason yet to reject the social and public choice criticisms of policy making via direct democracy.
We then offer a series of anecdotes about the rise of crypto-initiatives, which are initiatives that use direct democracy as an instrument to achieve non-policy related goals.
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=672664   (497 words)

 Social Security Choice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
On all questions involving Social Security, there are tremendous differences by age and party affiliation.
On the question of whether workers should be allowed to invest for their own retirement, 62% of those under 30 say yes.
From a political perspective, the key to increasing support for Social Security Choice is providing a guarantee that anyone who wants to remain in the program can do so.
www.rasmussenreports.com /SocialSecurityChoice.htm   (520 words)

 Student's Social Choice
It's our choices, Harry, that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities.
There is nothing perfect where there is no choice: two qualities are required, the power to choose, and the power to choose better.
Unfortunately, the method came out to be a dictatorship: one fellow's social preferences become the choice of the whole population (with or without election's routine.)
www.cut-the-knot.org /ctk/LiberalArts.shtml   (2862 words)

 Life With Alacrity: Systems for Collective Choice
When developing social software it is important to understand the difference between these broad categories of systems and to use lessons already learned from the appropriate category in your own social software designs.
Life with Alacrity has an excellent post on collective choice, covering various choice domains as well as options among them, and even a discussion of how to game them (of course, rigged voting is obvious, but some of the other systems need to be studi...
Posted by: Ping at Dec 14, 2005 1:33:04 AM The problem of choice is outline very well in the book 'The Paradox of Choice' by Bary Schwartz.
www.lifewithalacrity.com /2005/12/systems_for_col.html   (4702 words)

 Tips on Taking Multiple-Choice Tests
When studying for an examination, the most effective approach is to closely simulate the behavior you'll ultimately be required to perform.
For example, if you're studying for a difficult closed-book exam in Social Psychology, it's important that you practice answering difficult social psychology questions without access to your notes or textbook.
For introductory courses like Social Psychology, one of the best study strategies is a two-tiered approach in which you study alone at first and study with others afterward.
www.socialpsychology.org /testtips.htm   (1510 words)

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