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Topic: Social construction


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  Social constructionism Summary
Socially constructed reality is seen as an ongoing, dynamic process; reality is re-produced by people acting on their interpretations and their knowledge of it.
Within social constructionist thought, a social construction (social construct) is an idea which may appear to be natural and obvious to those who accept it, but in reality is an invention or artifact of a particular culture or society.
Social constructionism is dialectically opposed to essentialism, the belief that there are defining transhistorical essences independent of conscious beings that determine the categorical structure of reality.
www.bookrags.com /Social_constructionism   (3827 words)

  
  Social construction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A social construction, or social construct or a social concept is an invention or artifact of a particular culture or society which exists solely because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules.
Social constructionism is a school of thought that attempts, to varying degrees, to analyze seemingly natural and given phenomena in terms of social constructs.
The point, social constructionists argue, is that the very necessity of forcing these people into our scheme of sex categorization shows that this scheme cannot be a matter of biological fact, but must instead be a social construction.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_construction   (1112 words)

  
 Social construction of technology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Social construction of technology (also referred to as SCOT) is a branch of the Science and Technology Studies.
Its subtopics include Social Shaping of Technology, actor-network theory and sociotechnical System Theory (developed by Thomas P. Hughes among others), the last of which is a branch of the sociology of science and technology.
Social groups (and they may be any size from a handful of individuals to entire societies) have shared meanings about the technology.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_construction_of_technology   (780 words)

  
 FT May 2000: Appearances and Realities
Hacking’s second conclusion is about what is constructed: if X is in fact socially constructed, then X is not a hard, resistant, and inevitable reality but rather an idea/concept that merely expresses a certain social attitude toward some reality.
Only the ideas are socially constructed directly, but some ideas interact with people, who move in the world of objects; and when this happens there can be an indirect social construction of objects, including people.
Construction of some sort is clearly going on in all this: construction of a body of theory, construction of an immensely complicated apparatus stretching over vast tracts of land—an apparatus that may plausibly be regarded as part of the theory.
www.leaderu.com /ftissues/ft0005/reviews/pols.html   (1363 words)

  
 Social construction Info - Encyclopedia WikiWhat.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The first book with "social construction" in its title was Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann's The Social Construction of Reality, first published in 1966 by Doubleday, New York.
"Social construction" may also sometimes be used primarily to make friends or enemies; as Hacking says, "The phrase has become code.
Linguist Steven Pinker writes that "some categories really are social constructions: they exist only because people tacitly agree to act as if they exist.
wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/s/so/social_construction.html   (1409 words)

  
 SocioSite: THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY
Social order, needless to add, is also not given in man's natural environment, though particular features of this may be factors in determining certain features of a social order (for example, its economic or technological arrangements).
Both in its genesis (social order is the result of past human activity) and its existence in any instant of time (social order exists only and insofar as human activity continues to produce it) it is a human product.
In the early phases of socialization the child is quite incapable of distinguishing between the objectivity of natural phenomena and the objectivity of the social formations.
www.sociosite.net /topics/texts/berger_luckman.php   (2648 words)

  
 Social Construction Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Gergen, Kenneth J. "Social Construction and the Transformation of Identity Politics," New School for Social Research Symposium, April 7, 1995.
Harré, R. "Social Construction and Consciousness", forthcoming in Consciousness, edited by Max Velmans.
Harré, R. "An outline of the social constructionist viewpoint." in R. HarrĀŽ (Ed.) The Social Construction of Emotions.
www.philosophy.ucf.edu /sc.html   (1496 words)

  
 The Educators Manifesto   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Social construction is a meaningful form of practical action, particularly with respect to complex historical developments such as the uses of new media in education.
Social construction takes place in various domains as diverse individuals orient their activities with reference to shared ideas about what is feasible and desirable.
A willingness to engage in social construction brings educators to a third topic, that concerning the stakes of educational leadership.
www.ilt.columbia.edu /publications/manifesto/part1section2.html   (2226 words)

  
 Online Social Interchange, Discord, and Knowledge Construction
Social constructivism, sometimes referred to as symbolic social interaction, uses conversational language for negotiation of meaning and conceptual delimitations.
They theorized that the active construction of knowledge moves through five phases, and that although every instance of socially constructed knowledge may not progress linearly through each successive phase, they are nonetheless consistent with much of the literature related to constructivist knowledge creation.
Finally, implications for facilitating the construction of new knowledge in an online environment include (a) the provision of learning opportunities that capitalize on inconsistencies and contradictions between participants, and (b) the incorporation of activities that help participants become explicit about their own understanding by comparing it with that of other participants.
cade.athabascau.ca /vol13.1/kanuka.html   (6029 words)

  
 Mallon: Social Construction, Social Roles, and Stability
For example, a social constructionist might try explaining racial difference by simultaneously undermining explanations of racial difference that appealed to biological differences among members of different races, and instead explaining what differences there are in terms of the different social roles occupied by members of different races in a racialized society.
Social roles, but not necessarily important niches, are conceptualized by those whose lives the social roles order, and it is because they are so conceptualized that the role has causal power.
On this interpretation, to say that x is socially constructed (where x is replaced by the term for a human kind) is to offer a substantive empirical hypothesis that the differential properties of instances of x are produced by the occupation of a social role.
www.philosophy.utah.edu /faculty/mallon/Materials/scsrs.html   (10886 words)

  
 Review of John Searle's book, The Construction of Social Reality
Examples of the second sort of fact, social facts, are that this piece of paper is a five dollar bill, that he is a citizen of the U. S., that the New York Giants won the 1991 superbowl, and that he owns a piece of property in Berkeley, CA.
Furthermore (2) for example, that the five dollar bill is a social construction requires that there be the piece of paper, or whatever, that is taken, by agreement, to be that piece of money.
Social realities are overlays on physical realities, requiring those physical realities for their own reality.
www.california.com /~rathbone/searles.htm   (1230 words)

  
 Catching The Phoenix: The Social Construction of Homosexuality
The phrase “social construction of reality”; doesn’t imply that there exists no reality independent of human perception, but instead describes the process through which our perception and interpretation of reality is inevitably colored by the assumptions of our culture as encoded in our language (Searle, 1997).
In essence, the social construction of reality is focused on how we arbitrarily choose certain things in the spectrum of reality and construct them as problems or points of interest out of the millions of equally viable candidates for those positions.
Tacit in every language is the construction of a social reality that frames individuals and concepts as inside or outside the boundaries of social norms.
www.nickyee.com /ponder/social_construction.html   (1951 words)

  
 social construction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Hacking distinguishes between "interactive" and "indifferent" concepts of "social construction." The former are drawn primarily from the social sciences, where the development of a concept in a matrix of institutions and practices, can effect changes on its very "object," particularly if the term is being applied to conscious human subjects.
According to Hacking, quarks themselves (the objects and not the concepts) are not constructs, are not social, and are not historical.
Hacking himself believes that something can be both socially constructed and real, and seems unimpressed by critiques of science, especially the physical sciences, that use the term of "social construction." Yet he is careful to acknowledge that the directions of scientific research reflect social values.
www.christianhubert.com /hypertext/social_construction.html   (466 words)

  
 Essay or Coursework - Social construction
This construction however is not 'set in stone' and may change in the future from the observation of society and from a historical perspective.
In relation to poverty social construction and the identification of it as a problem led to the eventual formation of the welfare system in the early years of the 20th century.
The problem was addressed by the development of a social market economy that makes provision for those that are unable to sell their labour, such benefits are provided by the compulsory contribution to a social insurance scheme in an attempt to redistribute wealth.
www.coursework.info /i/12528.html   (432 words)

  
 [No title]
social scientists may say that the science wars are about challenging a certain image of the scientist and may prefer to start there b.
Hacking's two exemplars of social construction are two authors who have already been mentioned: a.
Hacking replies 1.) that nobody denies that things that depend on social things are social 2.) although many constructionists dislike the sciences, they are not saying a.) that what science says is not true b.) or that the artifacts whose design depends on science do not work 7.
www.iit.edu /~schmaus/Philosophy_of_Science/lectures/Hacking/natural.txt   (3440 words)

  
 THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY
He says of the slices of the original male that when they are boys they love men and like to lie with them and be entwined in their limbs (*filou^si tou\s a'/ndras kai\ xai/rousi sugkatakei/menoi kai\ sumpeplegme/noi toi^s a'ndra/si*, 191e8); and then when they grow up they in turn love boys.
So, while it is true that the approved homosexual relations are not between social equals, it is also true that, in Aristophanes' modelling at least, there is a category of males who by nature (*fu/sei*, 192b1) prefer males all their lives.
Of course, it may still be the case that homosexuality is a social construct: but if so it is striking that the Greeks and we have constructed it so similarly.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/med/thorp.html   (3066 words)

  
 Social Construction of Therapeutic Self   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The idea that reality is constructed rather than discovered, that reason is essentially an agency of invention that answers only to its own creativity and is untrammeled by any absolute set of independent criteria, is certainly not new in Western thought.
He adds to his often very perceptive and creative analysis of the construction of the self a prescription for therapy founded on the moral hermeneutics that is the methodological foundation of his entire discourse.
Were we to rewrite the DSM in its proper social dimension, we could trace this productive-consumptive contradiction into the personal being of individual life and discover there an anxious obsessive-compulsive character in conflict with impulsive disorder.
www.fortda.org /fall_00/socialconstruct.html   (5606 words)

  
 Communitarianism and the Social Construction of Morality
Certain values follow from locating the individual primarily in social space, and in connection with others; we must educate the next generation to have a sense of community (an identity), a sense of obligation to the community (responsibilities) and the personal attributes needed for effective performance of those responsibilities.
Fostering social identity means telling stories and narratives about the community and culture which give meaning to one's self, explanations for why things are as they are, and recognition that these stories and accounts are shared.
Social identity seems the most problematic of communitarian issues; the 'stories and narratives' that give the individual a history, can so easily be interpreted in terms of ingroup versus outgroup.
tigger.uic.edu /~lnucci/MoralEd/articles/haste.html   (3938 words)

  
 Brad Cox, Ph.D.
Social Text Afterward Alas, the editors of Social Text have discovered that my article, ``Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity'', which appeared in Social Text #46/47, is a parody.
But there is danger that it may resist the pressure too long and break suddenly, wrenching even the granite quays from their foundations, bringing desolation to a vast population, and leaving, after the subsidence of the flood, a widespread residue of slime, a fertile breeding-bed for the germs of disease.
Constructing a Logical Argument There is a great deal of argument on Usenet.
virtualschool.edu /mon/SocialConstruction   (6662 words)

  
 Brad Cox, Ph.D.
Social Text Afterward Alas, the editors of Social Text have discovered that my article, ``Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity'', which appeared in Social Text #46/47, is a parody.
Sokal's reply to the social text editorial I confess to amusement that one Social Text editor still doesn't believe my piece was a parody.
But there is danger that it may resist the pressure too long and break suddenly, wrenching even the granite quays from their foundations, bringing desolation to a vast population, and leaving, after the subsidence of the flood, a widespread residue of slime, a fertile breeding-bed for the germs of disease.
www.virtualschool.edu /mon/SocialConstruction   (6662 words)

  
 Social Research: Markets and their social construction
A theory is a hypothesis specified as a particular explanation, the social space to which it is applied, the evidence by which it will be tested, and the decision rule governing acceptance or rejection.
Markets are socially constructed, neither given and transcendental nor natural but organized to promote some interests rather than others; which interests and how they are chosen and structured, are issues to be determined.
Governance ultimately has to do with decisions about continuity versus change, freedom versus control, and hierarchy versus equality that are in each respect about the structures of opportunity sets and of mutual coercion, the legal and moral framework of markets and the structure of markets.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2267/is_2_71/ai_n6157398   (1330 words)

  
 Amazon.com: The Social Construction of What?: Books: Ian Hacking   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
In analyzing the social construction of X for many examples, he looks for those elements of X that were inevitable, and those that serve "extra-theoretical" purposes and could have been constructed differently.
One group uses social constructionism (or constructivism) to deflate the necessity and relevance of their pet peeves - science is sometimes one of the peeves.
On the other hand, Hacking suspects that much of the current vogue for the language of social construction is simply a case of bandwagon-jumping, and explicitly states that he has seldom found that language useful in his own work.
www.amazon.com /Social-Construction-What-Ian-Hacking/dp/0674004124   (3818 words)

  
 Social construction
It is a discourse, devised by and for one specialized interpretive community, under terms created by the complex met of social circumstance, political opinion, economic incentive and ideological climate that constitutes the ineluctable human environment of the scientist.
Thus a claim that gender is socially constructed probably means that gender, as currently understood, isn't an inevitable result of biology, but highly contingent on social and historical processes.
The term "social construction" is currently in vogue, and may sometimes be used less because it is apt and more because it attracts attention.
www.fastload.org /so/Social_construction.html   (1351 words)

  
 GIS, tools or social construction
Besides, they reveal that GIS are real social constructions, characterized by various forms of adoption of the associated technologies, as well as of the geographical information that arised from them.
It is therefore necessary to analyse the social adoption of GIT in a geographical perspective.
The impoverishment of the central areas of Quebec, the saturation of the municipal territory of Charny, the social and economical destabilisation of the town of Mayenne or else the "disorganization" of the urban areas of Nantes deeply impresses the spatial perceptions of the stake-holders of these towns.
www.socsci.umn.edu /~bongman/gisoc99/new/roche.htm   (4713 words)

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