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Topic: Social determinism


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In the News (Wed 1 Oct 14)

  
  CSE 275: Chapter 2. Technological Determinism
Social determinism is the theory that society is an autonomous force that changes technology.
Social theories of science and technology do not in general attempt to be predictive, like physical theories; they play a different kind of role.
For example, one important role of recent social science theories of technology, such as Actor-Network Theory, is to serve as an antidote, or vaccine, against naive theories such as technological determinism; if you achieve a better understanding of the social aspects of technical work, then you are less vulnerable to confusion, deception and manipulation.
www.cs.ucsd.edu /users/goguen/courses/275f00/s2.html   (1865 words)

  
 The “Ism” That Isn't (Why Social Determinism Cannot Mean What it Says): Publications: The Independent Institute
Social determinism parallels what economist Thomas Sowell calls the "unconstrained vision": the idea that the human self is infinitely plastic, allowing humanity to be changed--and ultimately, perfected.
The fact that the apologists for social determinism are typically quite far from poor themselves may not be unrelated to the extent to which they feel responsible for such problems as poverty.
The extreme selectivity of social determinism is most apparent in the failure of its adherents to apply its premises in the one area where it would hold the most promise.
www.independent.org /publications/article.asp?id=245   (2598 words)

  
 Social determinism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Social determinism is the hypothesis that social interactions and constructs alone determine individual behavior (as opposed to biological or objective factors).
A social determinist would look only at social phenomena, such as customs and expectations, education, interpersonal interactions, and memes, to decide whether or not a given person would exhibit any of these behaviors.
Social determinism is the opposite of biological determinism.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_determinism   (138 words)

  
 Sociology of the Qur'an
If we accept the first theory regarding the nature of society, and consider social structure to be merely a hypostatized notion, and believe in the absolute independence of the individual, then there will be no place for the idea of social determinism.
The notion of social determinism is rooted in the misconception that society in its real composition needs complete merger of its constituent parts into one another and dissolution of their plurality into the unity of the `whole'.
The individual human being or the individual spirit is not determined by the social spirit; it rather preserves its right to think and act freely.
www.al-islam.org /al-tawhid/sociology/6.htm   (1063 words)

  
 Technological Determinism: Theoretical Stances
Strong (or hard) technological determinism is the extreme stance that a particular communication technology is either a sufficient condition (sole cause) determining social organization and development, or at least a necessary condition (requiring additional preconditions).
Weak (or soft) technological determinism, more widely accepted by scholars, claims that the presence of a particular communication technology is an enabling or facilitating factor leading to potential opportunities which may or may not be taken up in particular societies or periods (or that its absence is a constraint) (Finnegan 1988, p.
Close studies of particular social contexts by historians, anthropologists, sociologists and others have suggested that social change is too complex and subtle to be explained solely in terms of changes in the media of communication.
www.aber.ac.uk /media/Documents/tecdet/tdet11.html   (1656 words)

  
 Essay: The social shaping of technology
Although social determinism does not and could not deny that technology has an effect on society, its emphasis is more on the social forces behind the development and implementation of technology.
The first is the 'social constructivist' approach, where a technological field is studied to discover where there have been ambiguities, such as different ways a product could have been designed, and studies are made to determine why one design should have succeeded rather than another.
The second approach to the 'social shaping' of technology is the 'neo-Marxist' approach, where rather than a particular field being studied, a social context where a technological change has occurred is studied to see what happened to cause such a change.
www.geocities.com /CollegePark/9349/social.htm   (1597 words)

  
 Nikolai Bukharin: Historical Materialism - a System of Sociology - 2: Determinism and Indeterminism (Necessity and Free ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The theory of determinism in the field of social phenomena, and of the possibility of scientific prediction, has called forth a number of replies, of which we shall consider one, from the mouth of R. Stammler.
Socialism will come inevitably because it is inevitable that men, definite classes of men, will stand for its realization, and they will do so under circumstances that will make their victory certain.
Social determinism, i.e., the doctrine that all social phenomena are conditioned, have causes from which they necessarily flow, must not be confused with fatalism, which is a belief in a blind, inevitable destiny, a "fate", weighing down upon everything, and to which everything is subjected.
www.marxists.org /archive/bukharin/works/1921/histmat/2.htm   (7240 words)

  
 Social constructionism vs. technological determinism @ infosophy: Socio-technological Rendering of Information
Or, when an attempt is made to explain an issue or a research problem either by the technological determinism or by the social constructionism theoretical and methodological frameworks independently, the resulting analysis and conclusions would not be complete.
For example, if one is to research the usability of collaboration tools in an organizational settings, the social constructionism for most part takes the view that the information and communication technologies are just tools to be used by the employees to perform their assigned tasks and that these tools do not effect...
It is almost obvious that in real life both the social structures affect the development and the design of information technology, and information technology on the other side affect the social structures and how we use them.
www.kmentor.com /socio-tech-info/archives/000010.html   (648 words)

  
 Technological Determinism and Social Choice
In this case the focus is on the manner in which a technology is deployed to further the political and economic interests of powerful groups of social actors.
The concern is with the social construction of technology at the point of initiation rather than at the point of use.
Thus technology is viewed as a social object whose meaning, defined by the context of its use, may change although its physical form remains fixed over time.
www-users.cs.york.ac.uk /~kimble/teaching/cis/cis4.html   (1187 words)

  
 SOC100 Chapter Outline
However, this does not imply a total social determinism (the assumption that human behavior is explained exclusively by social forces).
Determined the prevailing ideology created false consciousness (believing in ideas that are not in their objective interests but rather in the best interests of the capitalist class) which contributed to the oppression of the working class.
Sociologists as social scientists are obligated to study society in a detached and dispassionate manner.
www.bradley.edu /las/soc/soc/classes/soc100/01v01ot1.html   (1213 words)

  
 Social Shaping of Technology
They are united by an insistence that the `fl-box' of technology must be opened, to allow the socio-economic patterns embedded in both the content of technologies and the processes of innovation to be exposed and analysed (MacKenzie and Wajcman 1985, Bijker and Law 1992).
Alongside narrowly `technical' considerations, a range of `social' factors affect which options are selected - thus influencing the content of technologies, and their social implications.
Thus from the outset SST was influenced by a desire to democratise technological decision-making (or, at least, to subject it to forms of social accountability and control).
www.rcss.ed.ac.uk /technology/SSTRP.html   (1491 words)

  
 INF5010: Technological Determinism
Social scientists today almost universally reject determinist and reductionist explanations of complex social phenomena, despite their appeal.
Technological determinism is a prime example of such a simplistic principle.
So the conclusion here is that if we look more carefully into real social systems, we will see that, insofar as there is lawfulness, the laws tend to be like the laws of physical science, that is, acausal relationships among variables, rather than assertions of cause/effect relationships.
heim.ifi.uio.no /~almira/in-sats/1.shtml   (1646 words)

  
 [No title]
The second, rooted in social determinism, suggests that women's career and educational pursuits are socially determined; higher mathematics and computer science are not one of them.
Underlying this model is the notion that a woman’s place in society is determined by the norms, values, and priorities of that society in conjunction with her own natural traits.
One reason for this deficiency is that social determinism is still a convenient model to undertake on the subject.
people.csail.mit.edu /hammond/publications/2002HammondFIE.doc   (5391 words)

  
 George Herbert Mead: Review of Du Role de l'individu dans le Determinisme Social and Le Problem du Determinisme Social, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Social relationships are real, objective, and according to the author the source of all states of consciousness which lie above the barest sensation and impulse.
The simpler unreflective phases of consciousness would thus be dependent upon the physiological determinism of the physical body, while the higher processes out of which the conscious individual arises would arise out of and be dependent upon the social complex and its determinism, a determinism which is teleological while the former is mechanical.
On the one side this is peculiarly a problem of social psychology, for the question at once arises as to whether the individual with whom the psychologist deals is the same as the individual of the sociologist.
spartan.ac.brocku.ca /~lward/Mead/pubs/Mead_1905.html   (2279 words)

  
 [No title]
Determinism means that all social phenomena are the result of prior causes and that these causes themselves are the product of prior causes.
However, social scientists do not believe all human actions and thoughts are determined.
That is, scientists speak in terms of Y being more likely in the presence of X rather than saying that Y always follows X. Social scientists typically employ a model by which they discover the most important factors causing a given type of behavior or attitude, known as the “nomothetic” model of explanation.
www.uky.edu /~jkerr0/Criteria_for_causality.doc   (727 words)

  
 Technological Determinism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
However soft determinism still suggests that once a technology is introduced to society that that technology as the power to determine the future shape of that society.
Social shaping of technology perspective - little in the history of technology to indicate that significant technological changes have not been accommodated by existing social formations.
Thus SCOT posits a model which implicitly suggests that the social sphere is a primary influence on technological development not just in the prototype and invention phase but thereafter, when the product has reached the market.
www.comms.dcu.ie /flynnr/Technological_Determinism_-_Overhead.htm   (644 words)

  
 Genetic Determinism by Miranda Ericsson
There are those in the scientific community who would argue that my son's path was already determined at the moment of his birth, that his fate could be deciphered from his genetic make-up.
Social Darwinists believed that helping the lower classes would interfere with the evolution of society (Henslin 4).
A child's test score determines how the child will be grouped within his or her class, which has a profound effect on how much a child learns (Samuda 102).
www.washburn.edu /Beyond-A/issue02/ericsson.html   (2711 words)

  
 Technological Determinism: Introduction
Students need to be aware that the term 'deterministic' tends to be a negative one for many social scientists, and modern sociologists in particular often use the word as a term of abuse.
For instance, biological (or genetic) determinism seeks to explain social or psychological phenomena in terms of biological or genetic characteristics.
Then there is linguistic determinism, according to which our thinking is determined by language, a theory which links it to certain forms of technological determinism.
www.aber.ac.uk /media/Documents/tecdet/tdet01.html   (368 words)

  
 Environmental Sociology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Environmental sociology is the study of the reciprocal interactions between the physical environment, social organization, and social behavior.
In a broad sense, sustainable agriculture implies a concern with the economic, environmental, and social or community dimensions of farming within a local and regional context (Beus and Dunlap, 1990).
It is interesting to note that these guidelines parallel some of the early challenges and aims that led to the emergence of environmental sociology in the 1970s and that remain broader challenges to the discipline as a whole.
www.socialresearchmethods.net /gallery/Neto/Envsoc1.html   (2217 words)

  
 [No title]
SST research investigates the ways in which social, institutional, economic and cultural factors have shaped: i) the direction as well as the rate of innovation ii) the form of technology: the content of technological artefacts and practices iii) the outcomes of technological change for different groups in society.
The analysis proceeds `inwards': the social processes, interests and goals typical of the context are identified, and attempts are then made to trace their influence on evolving technology.
It is therefore clearly unhelpful to treat technologies and their social contexts as separate phenomena in the way that traditional conceptions have tended to do; the definition of technology itself must incorporate the social arrangements within which it emerges and becomes embedded (Hill 1981, Clark et al.
www.rcss.ed.ac.uk /technology/SSTRPfull.doc   (18934 words)

  
 THE ORDER OF TIME: POLITICS: A NEW DUALITY
This problem of determinism is an old theme of philosophy and the social sciences.
The reality is that we are with God again as the social scientist learned to understand from the scriptures and are thus liberated from impositions of time and eventual economic duties like paying taxes or working for a material result.
If it is just the social scientist that realizes the alignment with the original order, it is not difficult to see things running out of hand in a populistic hunt for the sensation of intruding into the private sphere of others.
theorderoftime.com /politics/anewdualism.html   (2075 words)

  
 Social problems and Sociology
The recognition that social theory is interconnected with social practice, such that what is to count as truth is partially determined by the specific ways in which scientific theory is supposed to relate to practical action.
Cultural determinism as an explanation of human behaviour is in retreat.
social problems, can also be used as a resource to control that problem.
www.homestead.com /rouncefield/files/as_soc_method_36.htm   (1659 words)

  
 Educational Psychology Interactive: Social Cognition
Social cognition has its roots in social psychology which attempts "to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others" (Allport, 1985, p.
Festinger's (1957) cognitive-dissonance theory, Bem's (1972) self-perception theory (see Greenwald, 1975), and Weiner's (1985) attribution theory are additional examples of how the perspective of social cognition has been applied to the study of the learning process.
A major implication of this perspective is that effective teaching must be grounded in an appropriate social environment (e.g., Hannafin, 1997).
chiron.valdosta.edu /whuitt/col/soccog/soccog.html   (683 words)

  
 Social Determinism
For social determinists, technological determinism is a theory which is difficult to support when this question is asked:
In this way, “The person who designs is remaking the world” is a statement which is difficult to justify, for the reality is that we use what knowledge and technology we have to meet society’s needs.
That is to say, social factors are in control of technology.
atschool.eduweb.co.uk /trinity/social.html   (304 words)

  
 hakank.blogg: Teknisk/teknologisk determinism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
From where i stand, there are some amazing tools for social scientists to use to study technology, but rarely are they used to help create technology.
Their work is certainly affected by the social environment.
Social constructionism vs. technological determinism (blogg att kolla på: infosophy: socio-technological rendering of information)
www.hakank.org /webblogg/archives/000423.html   (145 words)

  
 [No title]
According to Faris & Dunham (1965), "Social disorganization is correlated with _____ and ____ generally and _____ in particular.
A. a Marxist, anti-intellectual; B. a cultural relativist, social engineer; C. "do gooder", committed to the middle class Christian order, D. social psychologist, lacking in a sociological perspective; E. philosopher and highly impractical.
Evaluating the research on social control theory, Thio reports that studies generally show ____ have weak social bonds but ____.
www.unm.edu /~dbogart/s213/q13s024a.doc   (427 words)

  
 PhilSci Archive - When is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility Abstract I argue here that critics of biological explanations of human nature are mistaken when they maintain that the truth of genetic determinism implies the end of critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions.
Such claim erroneously presupposes that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what makes biological explanations troublesome.
What constitutes a problem for those who are concerned with social justice is not the fact that particular behaviors might be genetically determined, but the fact that our value system and social institutions create the conditions that make such behaviors problematic.
philsci-archive.pitt.edu /documents/disk0/00/00/10/62/index.html   (131 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Life at the Bottom: The Worldview that Makes the Underclass: Books: Theodore Dalrymple   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
As he points out early on, if a person's fate in life is pre-determined by his social and physical environment, then we should all still be living in caves...
Certainly in a modern and liberal society, citizens have the right to pursue their own lives and their own visions (and versions) of 'happiness.' But whether the rest of us should subsidize the layabouts is another question.
The trickling down of these academic theories, biological determinism, Marxism and the post modern theory that there are no levels of hierarchical values, only difference, has created an underclass of victims who believe they should get something for nothing and commit crime because society has created them as victims as self-determinism does not exist.
www.amazon.com /Life-Bottom-Worldview-Makes-Underclass/dp/1566633826   (2524 words)

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