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Topic: Socratic problem

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In the News (Thu 18 Apr 19)

  The Philosophy of Socrates, Vol. I
The philosophical implication of the daimonion of Socrates.
Socrates as an explorer of ergon and his successors.
The portrait of Socrates by Aristoxenus and Demetrius of Phaleron.
www.hri.org /iagp/books/vol05.html   (290 words)

 Socrates (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Socrates was usually to be found in the marketplace and other public areas, conversing with a variety of different people—young and old, male and female, slave and free, rich and poor—that is, with virtually anyone he could persuade to join with him in his question-and-answer mode of probing serious matters.
Socrates alone among the Prytanes was left standing for the law and the generals; his refusal to allow the vote had the effect of allowing one last, eloquent speech from the floor that proposed a preliminary vote to decide between sentencing the group and permitting separate trials (Xenophon, Hellenica 1.7.16-33).
Socrates had the right to challenge the admissibility of the accusation in relation to existing law, but he did not, so the charge was published on whitened tablets in the agora and a date was set for the pre-trial examination.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/socrates   (9779 words)

 Socrates - Crystalinks
Socrates himself attested that he, having learned to live with Xanthippe, would be able to cope with any other human being (supposedly), just as a horse trainer accustomed to wilder horses might be more competent than one not.
Socrates was found guilty as charged, and sentenced to death by hemlock.It is interesting to note that Socrates had every opportunity to escape, as his followers could have easily bribed the prison guards.
For this, Socrates is customarily regarded as the father of political philosophy and ethics or moral philosophy, and as a fountainhead of all the main themes in Western philosophy in general.
www.crystalinks.com /socrates.html   (2529 words)

 Zappen "Socrates"
The problem of reconstructing the historical Socrates--the so-called "Socratic problem"--arises because Socrates left no writings of his own and because the reports that do survive are a curious mixture: the personal and apologetic reminiscences of Xenophon, the biting satire of Aristophanes, the literary/philosophical dialogues of Plato, and the retrospective philosophical judgment of Aristotle.
Socratic dialogue exhibits these many voices both in the person of Socrates himself and in the person of the other parties to the dialogues, whose perspectives, from Bakhtin's point of view, are just as important as Socrates' own.
Socratic laughter (reduced to irony) and Socratic degradations (an entire system of metaphors and comparisons borrowed from the lower spheres of life--from tradespeople, from everyday life, etc.) bring the world closer and familiarize it in order to investigate it fearlessly and freely.
www.rpi.edu /~zappenj/Publications/Texts/socrates.html   (5955 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
The Socratic problem results from the inability to determine what, in the writings of Plato, is an accurate portrayal of Socrates' thought and what is the thought of Plato with Socrates as a literary device.
Socrates, often credited with founding western philosophy and who was put to death by the democracy of Athens in May, 399 BC, was Plato's teacher and mentor; Plato, like some of his contemporaries, wrote dialogues about his departed teacher.
Most of what we know about Socrates comes from the writings of Plato; however, it is widely believed that only some of Plato's dialogues are verbatim accounts of conversations or unmediated representations of Socrates' thought.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Socratic_problem   (440 words)

 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 95.10.25
Xenophon's Socrates believes justice is a form of benefaction and challenges the jury to judge him in that light.
Far from having a detached intellect, Socrates is described by Rue as a participant in city affairs and alert to worldly matters.
Socrates as philosopher therefore stands midway between the facile relativism of Protagoras and the self-isolating perspective of abstract knowledge.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/1995/95.10.25.html   (1898 words)

 Knowledge Products Audiobooks - Socrates
The "Socratic Problem" is to determine from those varying accounts what Socrates actually said and believed.
Socrates believed that even when we strive to lead the "examined life," we cannot definitively establish truth or absolute knowledge; we can only refute wrong thinking.
Socrates said we must simply live a life of reason in an effort to determine which views are better than others.
www.audioclassics.net /html/phil2_files/socrates.cfm   (318 words)

 The Socratic Problem
In studying Socrates as an educator, we must first come to grips with the sources of our information about Socrates and their methodological complexities, which are known as the "Socratic problem." Because we have no writing whatsoever by Socrates himself, we must rely on the extant literature of other people who wrote about him.
Socrates was certainly a man of great complexity who apparently taught and discussed many issues for several hours almost every day for a period of at least twenty-five years and perhaps for forty or more.
Although Xenophon may have missed and censored some of Socrates' more philosophical skills and interests, the wisdom and educational skill of Socrates is described for us at length in various situations and encounters that bring out his practical side and concern for individual counseling that is less often treated in the works of Plato.
www.san.beck.org /SocraticProblem.html   (4447 words)

 Plato, The Apology Part I
Abstract: Plato's account of Socrates' defense elucidates some main principles of the Socratic philosophy: (1) the Socratic paradox, (2) the Socratic method, (3) tending one's soul, and (4) death is not to be feared.
Socrates states that the charge of corruption of the youth is a "stock charge" against all philosophers.
Socrates is trying to arouse drowsy, apathetic people to realize that they do not know themselves and do not know what they claim to know.
philosophy.lander.edu /intro/apology1.shtml   (2878 words)

 Classical World Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Socrates (c.470-399 B.C.) of Athens, was perhaps the most original, influential and controversial thinker in the history of Greek thought.
Before Socrates, Greek philosophy is referred to as pre-Socratic -- Socrates is the lynch pin, or orientation point for most philosophers who followed him, but especially his student Plato.
Ironically, Socrates claimed to be a wise man because he himself knew nothing.
www.historyguide.org /europe/socrates.html   (214 words)

Socrates goes on to say that this Protagorean doctrine might contain a reference to another doctrine, a doctrine that comes from the philosopher Heraclitus (the thinker, remember, who said that "All things are in flux," and who represented the Principle of Becoming).
Socrates will rigorously reject the extension of these doctrines, and the next stage of the dialogue is devoted to a criticism of the extreme formulations.
Furthermore, there's another problem, and this problem revolves around the Sophist's theory about thinking that which "is not." Suppose that one were to define false judgement as thinking of something that is not (e.g., the judgement that there is a table in a certain room when in fact there is no table in the room).
caae.phil.cmu.edu /Cavalier/80250/Plato/Theatetus/Theat.html   (5024 words)

 Socratic Seminars
Socrates was convinced that the surest way to attain reliable knowledge was through the practice of disciplined conversation; he called this method dialectic.
Socrates believed that through the process of dialogue, where all parties to the conversation were forced to clarify their ideas, the final outcome of the conversation would be a clear statement of what was meant.
Socrates would feign ignorance about a subject and try to draw out from the other person his fullest possible knowledge about it.
www.greece.k12.ny.us /instruction/ELA/SocraticSeminars/faqsaboutss.htm   (316 words)

 Lindsay Judson, Vassilis Karasmanis (eds.) - Remembering Socrates: Philosophical Essays - Reviewed by Andrew Mason, ...
In any case, Natali shows that Xenophon's Socrates has an interest in refutation, though it is not for him the main purpose of dialectic; and that he resembles Plato's Socrates in drawing premises for his arguments from his interlocutors' own views, and in relying on an intellectualist position.
When Socrates uses language which seems appropriate to the second question, he may, therefore, simply be asking the first question in the formal mode.
But if Socrates was already convinced of this principle for other reasons, it may itself explain why he sees no need to distinguish between the kinds of definition.
ndpr.nd.edu /review.cfm?id=8523   (1389 words)

 PBL Background Explanation
The problems are truly ill-structured - There is not meant to be one solution, and as new information is gathered in a reiterative process, perception of the problem, and thus the solution, changes.
Problems provide clues, context, and motivation; they are the maps which guide learners to useful facts and concepts.
While it is difficult to establish a concrete format for questioning within a variety of circumstances, Socratic questioning includes a taxonomy of questions that may be utilized diagnostically as the teacher/facilitator moderates discussion and verbal inquiry.
ed.fnal.gov /trc/tutorial/pbl.html   (1305 words)

 Socratic Dialogues
By asking leading questions, students can gently be directed to solving problems, clarifying and justifying their thinking, and learning how to problem solve during the process.
Socratic dialogues might be thought, then, as a type of focusing pattern mixed with a bit of imposed structure.
Remember, the general goals of a Socratic dialogue are to hold students accountable for learning, make students’ conceptual understanding and thinking processes clear to the teacher, help students understand how knowledge is constructed from experience, and build autonomy and self-confidence in students’ own thinking in relation to a particular question that is undertaken in common.
mysite.verizon.net /res8tnca/whiteboardsusa/socratic_dialogs.htm   (3071 words)

 Socrates > Early Attempts to Solve the Socratic Problem (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Proposed solutions to the Socratic problem that could address inconsistencies in Plato's dialogues were ready at hand as far back as the eighteenth century (Thesleff 1982).
The problem was to find a non-circular way to determine which dialogues were early.
Apart from the problem of Aristotle's unreliable record as a historian of philosophy, the further difficulty arises that forms appear to be implicit even in the dialogues that, by all other criteria, would be considered early (e.g., Euthyphro, cf.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/socrates/supplement.html   (672 words)

 Chapter 4 - The Bridge to Rhetoric (Continued)
In this dialogue, Socrates debates the issue of names with Hermogenes, a follower of Parmenides, and Cratylus, a philosopher who, legend tells us, "came to mistrust language so profoundly that eventually he renounced speech altogether and communicated to others by means of gesture only" (Harris and Taylor 1-2).
We must not forget that throughout Plato's dialogues Socrates is constantly engaged in verbal battles with the Sophists...and is especially concerned to discredit the Sophistic view, associated in particular with Protagoras, that truth is an illusion.
Socratic inquiry is nothing else but a relentless pursuit of truth by the method of question and answer: if truth were an illusion this inquiry would be worthless.
www.public.iastate.edu /~honeyl/bakhtin/chap4b.html   (2303 words)

 SOCRATIC SEMINARS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Socrates, a Classical Greek philosopher, was convinced that the surest way to attain reliable knowledge was through the practice of disciplined conversation.
The Socratic method of teaching is based on Socrates' theory that it is more important to enable students to think for themselves than to merely fill their heads with "right" answers.
A Socratic Seminar is a method to try to understand information by creating a dialectic in class in regards to a specific text.
www.teachnlearn.org /socratic_seminars.htm   (1793 words)

 Socratic Definitions
Socrates was opposed to the moral relativism of the Sophists.
Socrates insists that merely citing an instance, or a list of instances (rather than giving a general formula, or description) is inadequate.
Socrates’ method is to examine particular cases, reworking his definition as he goes, until (if ever) he gets it right.
faculty.washington.edu /smcohen/320/socdef.htm   (1842 words)

 [No title]
In the first place, he questions Vlastos' characterization of Socrates' epistemological paradox: It is not that Socrates is singular in knowing that he knows nothing but that Socrates, unlike other men, does not get his values wrong.
He helpfully disabuses us from believing it would be possible to discover a univocal type of Socratic definition and provocatively points out what must be assumed about the state of mind of anyone uniformly motivated to do the good.
What Fitzpatrick then says about the Socrates of Rousseau, Hegel, Nietzsche and Kierkegaard is certainly interesting but especially instructive is what is constant in the temporal tapestry Fitzpatrick has woven for us: namely, Socrates' ability to resist assimilation by any philosopher or philosophical tradition.
www.infomotions.com /serials/bmcr/bmcr-9405-west-socratic.txt   (1856 words)

Socratic Seminars are the result of the work of Mortimer Adler, Director of the Institute for Philosophical Research in Chicago.
Adler published The Paideia Proposal (1982) and Paideia Problems and Possibilities (1983) in which he argued that education should be rooted in three goals: the acquisition of knowledge, the development of intellectual skills, and the enlarged understanding of ideas and values.
Explain that the conversation is theirs, and that your question is a starting point which they can move away from as they pose ideas and questions that are more interesting to them as long as the new ideas and questions can be discussed in terms of the text.
curriculumfutures.org /instruction/a06-07.html   (2234 words)

 Ethics Syllabus: Methods Used
Socratic lectures are used to focus on principles and methods appropriate to our study of ethics.
A Socratic lecture is a series of carefully framed questions followed by considered responses.
We are seeking to solve problems (or at least devise methods to go about solving problems): non-directed or street-corner conversations are out of place.
philosophy.lander.edu /ethics/methods.html   (797 words)

 Dr. Dobb's | Unmanaged Pointers in C++: Parameter Evaluation, auto_ptr, and Exception Safety | April 15, 2003
The Greek philosopher Socrates taught by asking his students questions — questions designed to guide them and help them draw conclusions from what they already knew, and to show them how the things they were learning related to each other and to their existing knowledge.
This code attempts to "throw [2] auto_ptr at the problem." Many people believe that a smart pointer like auto_ptr is an exception-safety panacea, a touchstone or amulet that by its mere presence somewhere nearby can help ward off compiler indigestion.
This guideline is easy to understand and remember; it neatly avoids all the exception-safety problems in the original problem; and by mandating the use of manager objects, it helps to avoid many other exception-safety problems as well.
www.ddj.com /dept/cpp/184403851   (2555 words)

 The Socratic Method
That is a problem, not with tracking as such, but with teacher expectations of students (and their ability to teach).
One of the problems with not tracking is that many teachers have almost as low expectations of, and plans for, students grouped heterogeneously as they do with non-high-end tracked students.
For the Socratic method to work as a teaching tool and not just as a magic trick to get kids to give right answers with no real understanding, it is crucial that the important questions in the sequence must be logically leading rather than psychologically leading.
www.garlikov.com /Soc_Meth.html   (4407 words)

 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 96.8.1
Like them, her ultimate interest is in philosophical truth, but unlike them she recognizes that an acceptable answer must be consistent not only with logical possibility, but also with the philological and contextual evidence.
Part III investigates an alternative proposal: if the Socratic problem can't be solved by segregating "early" dialogues and reading off the "Socratic" doctrine in them, perhaps it could be solved along the lines of Havelock's orality-literacy thesis, by making Socrates an oral philosopher, as distinguished from Plato the literate philosopher (Ch.
The former disconfirms Havelock's notion that Socrates was illiterate because literacy only became widespread in the fourth century (Ch.9); the latter disconfirms his idea that an 'oral state of mind' prevents the achievement of certain cognitive skills (Ch.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/1996/96.08.01.html   (1193 words)

 Project Renaissance, Winsights, Part 72, Effective Problem-Solving: Using What We Know (January 2004)
You really need to (1) notice when a situation becomes a problem for you; (2) identify and specify the problem; and (3) deliberately use a formal problem-solving process to solve it - unless you are more comfortable lying stalled where you are.
They may be very good at coaching other people through THEIR problems, but seemingly helpless once confronted with their own problems.
But noticing, specifying, and solving problems are much or most of what it takes to move ahead.
www.winwenger.com /part72.htm   (1321 words)

 Socratic Teaching
We can probe into the nature of the question, problem, or issue that is on the floor.
As a tactic and approach, Socratic questioning is a highly disciplined process.
The Socratic questioner acts as the logical equivalent of the inner critical voice which the mind develops when it develops critical thinking abilities.
www.missico.com /personal/tidbits/socratic_teaching.htm   (402 words)

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