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Topic: Sodium chloride

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In the News (Mon 17 Jun 19)

  Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University
Sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) are the principal ions in the fluid outside of cells (extracellular fluid), which includes blood plasma.
Sodium and chloride are electrolytes that contribute to the maintenance of concentration and charge differences across cell membranes.
Chloride, in the form of hydrochloric acid (HCl), is also an important component of gastric juice, which aids the digestion and absorption of many nutrients (2, 5).
lpi.oregonstate.edu /infocenter/minerals/sodium   (3199 words)

 sodium chloride (NaCl)
Sodium ions are shown in green and chlorine ions in blue.
Sodium chloride occurs in seawater and natural brines (along with other salts of sodium, calcium, magnesium, and other light metals) and as the mineral halite (rock salt).
Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/S/sodium_chloride.html   (572 words)

 Sodium chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl.
Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms.
Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant due to its hygroscopic properties, making salting an effective method of food preservation historically.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sodium_chloride   (1064 words)

 sodium chloride – FREE sodium chloride Information | Encyclopedia.com: Facts, Pictures, Information!
Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and insoluble or only slightly soluble in most other liquids.
When it is melted or dissolved in water the ions can move about freely, so that dissolved or molten sodium chloride is a conductor of electricity; it can be decomposed into sodium and chlorine by passing an electrical current through it (see electrolysis).
Poisoning: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate: Nicola Bates discusses the clinical effects and management of salt and sodium bicarbonate overdose in adults and children.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-sodiumch.html   (1573 words)

 Sodium in Whatcom County Water supply
Substantially higher levels of sodium and  chloride may also be due to contamination by activities of man including: use of road  de-icing salts, discharges from water softeners, human or animal waste disposal, leachate  from landfills and many other activities.
When considering the health importance of sodium and chloride, EPA  assumes that water users consume two liters of water per day and recognizes that, on  average, 20 percent of a person's daily sodium intake is from drinking water.
Sodium and chloride are costly to remove from  water.
www.co.whatcom.wa.us /health/environmental/drinking_water/sodium.jsp   (790 words)

 Sodium   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Sodium is the fourth most abundant element on earth, comprising about 2.6% of the earth's crust; it is the most abundant of the alkali group of metals of which it is a member.
The most common compound is sodium chloride, but it occurs in many other minerals, such as soda niter, cryolite, amphibole, zeolite, etc. It is a very reactive element and is never found free in nature.
Sodium is a soft, bright, silvery metal which floats on water, decomposing it with the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of the hydroxide.
www.scescape.net /~woods/elements/sodium.html   (410 words)

Chloride is an anion (a negatively charged ion), generally consumed as sodium chloride (NaCl) or table salt.
There is a high correlation between the sodium and chloride contents of the diet, and only under unusual circumstances do levels of sodium and chloride vary in the diet independently.
Depending on intake of "free" water, hyponatremia (deficiency of sodium in the blood) and hypochloremia may ensue, such as in water overload, wasting, and trauma with sequestration of extracellular fluid as in burns.
www.tjclark.com /minerals/chloride.htm   (595 words)

 Sodium Chloride   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Sodium chloride, NaCl, which is also known as Common Salt, occurs in nature in cubic crystals of rock salt, colorless when pure but often tinged yellow, brown, or sometimes blue, by impurities.
Sodium chloride has a relative density of 2.17, its melting point is 801 degC and its boiling point is 1413 degC.
Sodium chloride is used industrially as a starting point for a range of sodium based products, and is known universally as a preservative and seasoner of foods.
www.ucc.ie /ucc/depts/chem/dolchem/html/comp/nacl.html   (92 words)

 Salt (sodium chloride), what it is and how it affects your health
Whilst sodium and chloride are essential in the diet in small amounts, there is rarely any likelihood of shortage but in the case of sodium, too much can lead to health problems.
Sodium is also necessary in generating electrical impulses in nerve and muscle and in generating gradients across cells to enable uptake of nutrients.
Sodium is present in additives such as monosodium glutamate (a flavour enhancer), sodium saccharin (a sweetener), sodium nitrite (a preservative), sodium ascorbate (an antioxidant) and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), and in some medicinal products e.g.
www.medicalnewstoday.com /medicalnews.php?newsid=13273   (833 words)

 Common Salts
Sodium chloride is the most common salt, the common table salt used for the seasoning of food.
Sodium chloride exists on the earth in great abundance in sea water and is an important part of the fluid electrolytes of humans and other living organisms.
Sodium bisulfate is a salt which is used widely with potassium dichromate in bleach used for photographic purposes.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/chemical/saltcom.html   (554 words)

 Sources of Sodium and Chloride in the Scituate Reservoir Drainage Basin, Rhode Island
Sodium and chloride may enter the Scituate Reservoir drainage basin in precipitation, including wet and dry deposition, in salt applied during winter deicing of roads, highways, sidewalks, and parking lots, in leachate from unprotected road-salt supplies, and in leachate from individual sewage-disposal systems (ISDS) (fig.
When sodium and chloride are deposited in a drainage basin in precipitation or during road deicing, a portion of the salt enters the tributaries directly in runoff, whereas the remainder infiltrates into the soil and then to ground water.
The effects of road density on sodium and chloride concentrations in streams that contribute water to the Scituate Reservoir were examined by the use of sodium- and chloride-concentration data collected at regular intervals from January 1983 through December 2000 at each of the 31 the PWSB monitoring stations.
pubs.usgs.gov /wri/wri024149/introduction.htm   (4149 words)

 Serum Chloride
When the serum chloride determination by the autoanalyzer is out of proportion to the determination by the chloride titrator technique, the presence of bromide is highly probable, and a serum bromide analysis should be performed.
The virtual absence of chloride in the urine in the presence of a metabolic alkalosis is a strong indication that total body chloride depletion is present.
Conditions causing an elevation of the serum chloride concentration and a concomitant elevation of the serum sodium concentration result primarily from disorders associated with loss of electrolyte-free fluids (pure water loss); hypotonic fluids (water deficit in excess of sodium and chloride deficits); or administration of NaCl-containing fluids.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?rid=cm.chapter.5559   (2714 words)

 Sodium chloride: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Halite is the mineral of sodium chloride, nacl, commonly known as rock salt....
Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula sodiumnachlorinecl....
The chemical compound potassium chloride (kcl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/so/sodium_chloride.htm   (6080 words)

 Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Cats
Sodium and chloride are often thought of as a pair.
Sodium and chloride help maintain the balance between fluids inside and outside individual cells of the body.
Sodium and chloride may also be bound to minerals or molecules such as Vitamin K or Potassium (K).
www.peteducation.com /article.cfm?cls=1&articleid=685   (342 words)

 SSE #78: Sodium: The Forgotten Nutrient   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Importantly, a deficit in total body sodium is often not reflected in measurements of sodium concentration in blood serum or plasma (Vaamonde, 1982).
During and immediately after exercise, serum sodium concentration might be normal or slightly elevated, owing to secretion of sweat that has a relatively low concentration of sodium, reduced sodium excretion by the kidneys, and only small reductions in plasma volume.
Optimal concentrations of sodium in body fluids are critical for many bodily functions, including transmission of nerve impulses and contraction of the heart and skeletal muscles.
www.gssiweb.com /reflib/refs/247/SSE78.cfm?pid=38   (3320 words)

 Chemical of the Week -- Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide
In spite of this, chloride ions are oxidized at the anode, not water.
However, in the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride, the overvoltage for the oxidation of water, which is a neutral molecule, is large enough to make it more difficult to oxidize than chloride ions.
Sodium hypochlorite is the active ingredient of "chlorine" laundry bleach, and calcium hypochlorite is used as a disinfectant in swimming pools.
scifun.chem.wisc.edu /chemweek/Cl2&NaOH/Cl2&NaOH.html   (1083 words)

 Typical contaminants and problems sodium chloride -
Sodium, a mineral found naturally in most drinking water, is added to water when it is softened.
The level of sodium in water is particularly important to people who have to watch their sodium intake for health reasons.
Sodium chloride is common table salt and also is the primary salt found in seawater.
www.wca-infonet.org /id/132530   (395 words)

 Electrolytes, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Bicarbonate by MedicineNet.com
Sodium: Sodium is the major positive ion (cation) in fluid outside of cells.
Chloride: Chloride is the major anion (negatively charged ion) found in the fluid outside of cells and in blood.
Increased chloride (hyperchloremia): Elevations in chloride may be seen in diarrhea, certain kidney diseases, and sometimes in overactivity of the parathyroid glands.
www.medicinenet.com /electrolytes/article.htm   (713 words)

 What is Salt?
Sodium chloride (1 2 3 4 5 6) or common salt is the chemical compound NaCl, composed of the elements sodium and chloride (1 2 3).
Sodium chloride is sold in several different particle sizes (gradation) and forms, depending on the intended end use.
Sodium and chloride occur naturally in soils and waters, and are added by residential, commercial and industrial activity.
www.saltinstitute.org /15.html   (1151 words)

 Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate - Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for ...
Sodium and chloride are required to maintain extracellular fluid volume and serum osmolality.
The Al for sodium for older adults and the elderly is somewhat less, based on lower energy intakes, and is set at L3 g (55 mmol)/day for men and women 50 through 70 years of age, and at 1.2 g (50 mmol)/day for those 71 years of age and older (see Table S-4).
The rise in blood pressure from increased sodium chloride intake is blunted in the setting of a diet high in potassium or a low fat, mineral rich diet; nonetheless, a dose-response relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure still persists.
www.mindfully.org /Water/2004/Dietary-Reference-Water11feb04.htm   (6178 words)

 Sodium Chloride USP for Injection
Sodium is also associated with chloride and bicarbonate in the regulation of the acid-base equilibrium of body fluid.
Chloride, the major extracellular anion, closely follows the metabolism of sodium, and changes in the acid-base balance of the body are reflected by changes in the chloride concentration.
Sodium Chloride Injections USP are also indicated as pharmaceutic aids and diluents for the infusion of compatible drug additives.
www.chaseunion.com /documents/PDS/nacl.htm   (1531 words)

C, and electrolysis of molten sodium chloride yields sodium metal at the cathode and chlorine gas at the anode.
Sodium chloride solution 0.10M, 25 mL beaker, watch glass, cathode and anode assemblies as described above, stand with two clamps, low voltage DC source, leads, solid bromothymol blue indicator.
Chloride ions are oxidised more easily than hydroxide ions in concentrated solution, so they will react to form chlorine gas, some of which will dissolve in the anode solution.
chem.lapeer.org /Chem2Docs/chlorine.html   (1682 words)

 ionic structures
Sodium chloride is taken as a typical ionic compound.
The sodium ion in the centre is being touched by 6 chloride ions.
Molten sodium chloride conducts electricity because of the movement of the ions in the melt, and the discharge of the ions at the electrodes.
www.chemguide.co.uk /atoms/structures/ionicstruct.html   (1268 words)

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