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Topic: Sodium thiopental

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  Sodium thiopental - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sodium thiopental also called Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental, thiopentone sodium, or trapanal is a rapid-onset, short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic.
Thiopental is an ultra-short acting barbiturate and is most commonly used in the induction phase of general anaesthesia.
Thiopental is not used for the maintenance of anesthesia in surgical procedures because it has a long context-sensitive half-time, leading to a prolonged period before consciousness is regained.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sodium_thiopental   (1010 words)

 Ruthless Treatment For a Humane
The use of sodium thiopental is crucial in lethal injection, just as it is in major surgeries, in that it induces an insensibility to pain.
Sodium thiopental has been used for decades in anesthesia and since it used at a much higher dosage than clinically recommended in lethal injection, the inmate should not awaken.
One major drawback of the blend of sodium thiopental with pancuronium bromide is that sodium thiopental is not recommended to be used with muscle relaxants.
www.svsu.edu /~aascheel/ArgumentPaper.htm   (1767 words)

 Data Sheet
Thiopental sodium is a thiobartiturate, the sulphur analog of pentobarbital.
Thiopental sodium for injection is contraindicated in patients with severe respiratory embarrassment, hypersensitivity to barbiturates status asthmaticus, variegate or acute intermittent porphyria, and inflammatory conditions of the mouth, jaw, and neck and in the absence of suitable veins for intravenous administration.
Thiopental sodium for injection should be administered with caution to patients with preexisting hypotension or in conditions where the hypnotic effect may be prolonged or intensified, such as in the presence of liver disease and renal disease.
www.medsafe.govt.nz /profs/Datasheet/p/Pentothalinj.htm   (2557 words)

 Sodium thiopental
Sodium thiopental (also called sodium pentothal (TM of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental (or thiopentone) sodium) is a short-acting barbiturate drug that induces brief general anesthesia (10-30 minutes) without analgesia by depression of CNS within 60 seconds of injection.
Since analgesia is slight, thiopental is only used alone for brief procedures.
It is more commonly used to induce hypnosis and anesthesia prior to the use of other anesthetic agents.
www.teachersparadise.com /ency/en/wikipedia/s/so/sodium_thiopental.html   (189 words)

 Amnesty USA Urgent Action Appeal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Thiopental is distributed in powder form to increase its shelf life; it must be mixed into a liquid solution by trained personnel before it can be injected.
Sodium Thiopental is not used to maintain a patient in a surgical plane of anesthesia for purposes of performing surgical procedures.
If sodium thiopental mixes with pancuronium bromide in the intravenous tubing, it will precipitate out of solution and be inactivated; this amplifies the risk that the inmate will receive an inadequate dose of sodium thiopental and enhances the risk that the inmate will be conscious during the execution.
www.castine.net /HeathAffidavit.htm   (4532 words)

 Thiopental Sodium
Chemistry - A thiobarbiturate, thiopental occurs as a bitter-tasting, white to off-white, crystalline powder or a yellow-white hygroscopic powder.
Thiopental readily crosses the placental barrier and should be used with caution during pregnancy.
Thiopental Sodium Powder for Injection: 2% (20 mg/ml) in 1, 2.5 and 5 g kits, 400 mg syringes; 2.5% (25 mg/ml) in 250 and 500 mg vials and 500 mg, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 g kits, 250 and 500 mg syringes; Pentothal®
www.elephantcare.org /Drugs/thiopent.htm   (1449 words)

 PENTOTHAL  Sterile Powder   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Sodium thiopental is an effective and quick acting short-term general anesthetic for equines.
Sodium thiopental is particularly recommended for general anesthesia of short duration such as may be required for castration, point firing, dentistry, and minor surgery.
For large animals sodium thiopental is best administered through a small gauge needle into the ear vein while the animal is restrained with a regular swine holder or with a rope in the mouth.
www.vet.ksu.edu /cdroms/merial/Labels/pentothal.sterile.powder.htm   (2269 words)

 Stability of thiopental sodium and propofol in polypropylene syringes at 23 and 4 degrees C -- Chernin et al. 53 (13): ...
Stability of thiopental sodium and propofol in polypropylene syringes at 23 and 4 degrees C -- Chernin et al.
Stability of thiopental sodium and propofol in polypropylene syringes at 23 and 4 degrees C
Thiopental sodium and propofol retained > 90% of their initial concentrations for up to 312 hours at 4 degrees C. At 23 degrees C, > 90% of the initial concentration was retained by propofol for up to 120 hours and by thiopental sodium for up to 240 hours.
www.ajhp.org /cgi/content/abstract/53/13/1576   (353 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Before administration of Thiopental Sodium along with anhydrous sodium carbonate as buffer filled in vials or bottles, it is dissolved with sterile water and the contents are shaken vigorously to ensure that all the Thiopental Sodium goes into the solution and then the required amount is taken from the vial for administering intravenously to patients.
If Thiopental Sodium is injected accidentally in the arteries of such patients, it may lead to severe arterial spasm with intense burning pain, the occurrence of anaesthesia, paresis, paralysis and gangrene.
The solubility of Thiopental in the solvent 3,6-dianhydro-D-glucitol is 125
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=00/72848.001207&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (2559 words)

 Cayman Turtle Farm - Scientific Papers - Anesthesia in the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas
Nine turtles weighing 17 to 168 kg were given an initial dosage of 18.8 to 21.2 mg of sodium thiopental/kg and then subsequent injections within 5 to 70 minutes after the initial dosage, to bring the total dosage administered to 23.8 to 31.4 mg/kg.
For 3 turtles in which 200 mg of thiopental/ml was used to reduce the volume of anesthetic to be injected, 1 failed to achieve deep anesthesia, and deep anesthesia did not appear to last as long as for turtles anesthetized with the lower concentration.
Sodium pentobarbital has the disadvantages that the turtle may need to be kept out of water for 24 hours until recovery is complete, and induction time may be extended up to 2 hours.
www.turtle.ky /scientific/anesthesia.htm   (1408 words)

 Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate injection should be stored at temperatures less than 40°C and preferably at room temperature; avoid freezing.
Contraindications/Precautions/Reproductive Safety - Parenterally administered sodium bicarbonate is considered generally contraindicated in patients with metabolic or respira­tory alkalosis, excessive chloride loss secondary to vomiting or GI suction, at risk for de­velopment of diuretic-induced hypochloremic alkolosis, or with hypocalcemia where alka­losis may induce tetany.
Sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be necessary if hypokalemia is present.
www.elephantcare.org /Drugs/sodiumbi.htm   (894 words)

Thiopental -propofol mixture is stable for up to six hours at room temperature.
High doses of thiopental that induce burst suppression to the isoelectric point may provide protection during profound controlled hypotension and reduce infarct size in patients with cerebral emboli and temporary focal ischemia.
Thiopental narcosis does not affect outcome in patients with severe head injuries or after cardiac arrest.
www.medicinehouse.com /cgi-bin/drug1.php?drug=thiopental_sodium   (892 words)

 Valley News Web Story Layout   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The focus of concern is pancuronium bromide, which, along with sodium thiopental and potassium chloride, is used in the vast majority of states that execute people through lethal injection.
Sodium thiopental is a short-acting barbiturate that acts as an anesthesia.
If not enough sodium thiopental is used, the person being executed might experience the excruciating pain caused when potassium chloride stops his heart.
www.vnews.com /10212003/1374270.htm   (547 words)

 Pentothal Online, Description, Chemistry, Ingredients - Thiopental Sodium - RxList Monographs
The drug is prepared as a sterile powder and after reconstitution with an appropriate diluent is administered by the intravenous route.
The drug is a yellowish, hygroscopic powder, stabilized with anhydrous sodium carbonate as a buffer (60 mg/g of thiopental sodium).
Sodium chloride is chemically designated NaCl, a white crystalline compound freely soluble in water.
www.rxlist.com /cgi/generic3/thiopental.htm   (316 words)

 Erowid Psychoactive Vaults
I believe it is a barbiturate (Thiopental Sodium), making the neural membrane more permeable to chloride ions, resulting in general inhibition, starting with the cortex and working down to the lower brain regions with increasing biological effect.
The beeb noted that sodium pentathol was a potent tranquilizer and not a so-called "truth-serum", but added that perhaps it would render them both comatose and then they'd just shut up, which is appealing.
Sodium pentothal is the most commonly used induction agent for general anesthesia.
www.erowid.org /chemicals/other/sodium_pentothol_info1.shtml   (1832 words)

 What is Truth Serum?
Sodium Pentothal is a yellow crystal, which can be dissolved in water or alcohol.
Sodium Pentothal is commonly used as an anesthetic during surgery.
Sodium Pentothal is a radioprotective agent, which minimizes the effect of radiation.
www.psicologia.freeservers.com /diversos/soro_verdade.html   (642 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Sodium thiopental, the first drug used in the lethal injection process, is injected into the bloodstream at a dosage ranging from 1 to 5 grams.
Sodium thiopental is an ultra short-acting anesthetic drug developed by Abbott Laboratories in the mid 1930s and is produced and sold under the brand name of Pentothal.
Sodium thiopental has been used as an important anesthetic agent for more than 50 years and was considered a tremendous breakthrough at the time of its conception.
www.ncadp.org /html/report.htm   (4829 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The PVC-COOH based sodium ISEs did not exhibit the drift in potential displayed by the HMW-PVC based sodium ISE after analyzing a sample contaminated with thiopental, which illustrates the efficacy of PVC-COOH in preventing interference with sodium measurements caused by lipophilic anionic contaminants.
Figure 19 is a graphical representation comparing sodium concentration values in whole blood samples determined by a known sodium ISE with a polymeric membrane containing HMW-PVC against those determined by an electrode card including five sodium ISEs with polymeric membranes containing PVC-COOH according to the invention.
Sodium concentration values for ninety-nine different whole blood samples representing a wide range of sodium levels were first determined with a HMW-PVC based sodium ISE, then with a PVC- COOH based sodium ISE.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=04/72606.040826&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (5573 words)

 Manipulation under Anesthesia: Neurological Effects of Different Modes of Anesthesia | Brad McKechnie, DC, DACAN
Sodium Pentothal produces induction of anesthesia within 60 seconds of administration, reflecting its rapidity of central nervous system penetration.
Sodium Pentothal's liver clearance rate is from 15-20 percent per hour.
Versed has effects similar to those of sodium Pentothal with the exception that the memory loss for events occurring during the procedure is greater than with sodium Pentothal.
www.chiroweb.com /archives/10/08/02.html   (675 words)

 BCMD Issue 24, 1998   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
In the present work it was observed that sodium thiopental affected the membrane rheological properties by improving erythrocyte deformability; this effect resulted from a reduction of both the elastic modulus and surface viscosity.
In erythrocytes devoid of sialic acid after treatment with neuraminidase, sodium thiopental membrane concentration was significantly higher than in normal cells, suggesting that drug access to the lipid bilayer be facilitated by the absence of the steric and electrostatic barrier of the glycocalyx negative charges.
The changes in the rheological parameters, triggered by sodium thiopental, could be attributed to the bilayer contribution to the membrane mechanical properties, either directly or through interaction between the bilayer and the cytoskeleton.
www.scripps.edu /bcmd/is199824.html   (277 words)

 The Shape of Days: The ugly and complicated business of death   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Sodium thiopental, also known as Pentothal, is a barbiturate that is most commonly used to induce unconsciousness in patients about to undergo surgery.
A small amount of saline solution is then injected through the catheter to ensure that no residue of the sodium thiopental remains, a procedure known as flushing.
The first drug given to the convict during the execution, sodium thiopental, is a fast-acting, short-lived anesthetic, not an analgesic.
theshapeofdays.com /2006/02/the_ugly_and_complicated_business_of_dea.html   (1242 words)

 Sodium thiopental - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
As with nearly all anaesthetic drugs, thiopental causes cardiovascular and respiratory depression resulting in hypotension, apnea and airway obstruction.
Sodium thiopental was discovered in the early 1930s by Ernest H. Volwiler and Donalee L. Tabern, working for Abbott Laboratories.
This page was last modified 12:20, 20 March 2006.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Thiopental   (1010 words)

 Anesthetics, Barbiturate Drug Information, Professional
However, it is related to thiopental's anesthetic action and results in increased cerebral vascular resistance with a decrease in cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume, and decreased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen.
Because of the acidity of 5% dextrose injection, thiopental sodium diluted with 5% dextrose injection is not as stable as when thiopental sodium is prepared with sterile water for injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection.
Thiopental requirements may be increased in children reanesthetized at least one year after recovery from extensive thermal injury.
www.drugs.com /MMX/Anesthetics__Barbiturate.html   (7139 words)

 Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
Sodium thiopental was very toxic to the snails resulting in high rates of mortality in all the treatment schedules tested.
Sodium pentobarbital at 0.4 mg/ml in water for 8 h was the best treatment schedule to anesthetize Biomphalaria snails.
Planorbidae molluscs are routinely relaxed by sodium pentobarbital in taxonomical and systematical studies at the Department of Malacology of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Dr W Lobato Paraense, pers.
www.bioline.org.br /request?oc01059   (871 words)

 Sodium thiopental - Psychology Central   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Thereafter, the drug distributes to the rest of the body and in about 5 minutes the concentration is low enough in the brain such that consciouness returns.
Because of its pharmacokinetics, thiopental is never used for the maintenance of anesthesia in surgical procedures.
Russo H, Bres J, Duboin MP, Roquefeuil B. "Pharmacokinetics of thiopental after single and multiple intravenous doses in critical care patients." Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Thiopentone   (935 words)

 The chemical stability and sterility of sodium thiopental after preparation -- Haws et al. 86 (1): 208 -- Anesthesia & ...
The chemical stability and sterility of sodium thiopental after preparation -- Haws et al.
The chemical stability and sterility of sodium thiopental after preparation
thiopental were mixed and drawn into syringes under sterile conditions by
www.anesthesia-analgesia.org /cgi/content/abstract/86/1/208   (270 words)

 Fight the Death Penalty in USA - Articles
It decided the combination of a sodium thiopental-like barbiturate and pancuronium bromide "is not acceptable" to euthanize pets because it can mask pain and suffering.
Even at its 3-gram dosage, sodium thiopental would likely be fatal for all but the largest of people.
The first drug administered is sodium thiopental, used to induce anesthesia for a short period.
www.fdp.dk /act/031212_chemicals.php   (2713 words)

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