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Topic: Softwood


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Fir
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In the News (Sun 16 Jun 19)

  
  Softwood - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In addition "softwood" is an adjective applied to the trees that produce such wood: softwood trees include pine, spruce, cedar, fir, larch, douglas-fir, hemlock, cypress, redwood and yew.
As the name suggests, the wood of softwoods is softer, on average, than that of hardwoods, but only on average - the wood of yews, for example, is much harder than many hardwoods, as is the wood of Longleaf pine, while Balsa wood (technically a hardwood) is extremely soft.
Softwood is also harvested for use in the production of paper, and for various types of board such as MDF.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Softwood   (233 words)

  
 United States-Canada softwood lumber dispute - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The United States-Canada softwood lumber dispute is one of the most significant and enduring trade disputes in modern history.
The first iteration of the softwood lumber dispute, commonly referred to as Lumber I, began in 1982 when the U.S. lumber industry petitioned the Department of Commerce (DoC) to impose a countervailing duty.
On April 15, 2005, the Canadian Minister of Trade announced the federal government would provide Canadian softwood lumber associations $20 million in compensation for their legal expenses stemming from the dispute with the United States.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/US_-_Canada_softwood_lumber_dispute   (1793 words)

  
 CBC News Indepth: Softwood lumber dispute
Canada's protracted dispute with the United States over softwood lumber is estimated to have cost lumber producers billions of dollars and thousands of jobs.
The duties were applied separately following the expiration of the softwood lumber agreement between Canada and the U.S., which governed exports from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 2001.
A panel ruled that, while the Canadian lumber industry is subsidized, the 18 per cent tariff imposed on softwood lumber by the United States is too high.
www.cbc.ca /news/background/softwood_lumber   (1273 words)

  
 [No title]
Softwood lumber producers that brought or supported the petition are eligible to receive cash payments under the Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000 (Byrd Amendment) for supporting the petition.
The United States Calculated the Subsidy Rate in a Manner Consistent with the SCM and GATT 1994 In industries, such as softwood lumber, with an extremely large number of producers, it is not feasible, in an investigation, to examine the subsidies received by each individual producer.
The panel in the US — Softwood LumberĀ IIIĀ  case came to the same conclusion, finding that the obligation to establish the existence of a subsidy is not excused by conducting an investigation on an aggregate basis.
www.wto.org /english/tratop_e/dispu_e/257r_a_e.doc   (18374 words)

  
 A Guide to Softwood Plywood
Softwood plywood is manufactured through a process of laminating thin sheets of softwood veneer together.
Softwood plywood is manufactured to one of two industry standards.
The APA panel grademarks are examples of both performance rated and sanded grades of softwood plywood found in the marketplace and define the information found on the panel grademark stamp.
www.lowes.com /lowes/lkn?action=howTo&p=Build/GdPlWd.html   (1252 words)

  
 Redwood Empire: Softwood Lumber Products   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Softwoods are used in construction such as framing, fencing, decking, flooring, siding, and other building applications.
Straight grained and modestly heavy, Douglas Fir is one of the strongest of the softwoods.
Softwood species are under a classification named conifers, which means they have their seeds exposed -- usually in the form of cones.
www.redwoodemp.com /products_softwood.htm   (458 words)

  
 Softwood Lumber for Wednesday-Night
SOFTWOOD DUTIES TO BE SLASHED The U.S. government is going to halve its punitive duties on Canadian softwood lumber exports, effective next year.
U.S. Canadian softwood lumber imports pose a threat of injury to U.S. lumber producers, the U.S. International Trade Commission reaffirmed Friday in renewed defiance of a NAFTA panel ruling.
Chumminess is not a substitute for substance Canada`s victory in the softwood lumber dispute at the World Trade Organization this week is likely to be followed soon by a similar finding from a NAFTA dispute-settlement panel.
www.wednesday-night.com /Softwood-Lumber.asp   (12386 words)

  
 Softwood shavings Toxicity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Softwood shavings (pine and cedar) have been used as bedding for animals because they are inexpensive, have natural insecticidal and barteriocidal properties, and often effectively control odor.
Because humans are not forced to live directly in softwood shavings the risk is reduced, however, the subject deserves study.
Softwood beddings are generally less expensive than safer alternatives, and, ironically, the aromatic hydrocarbons making them dangerous also make them attractive in terms of deodorization.
airlite.us /science/softwood_shavings.htm   (3054 words)

  
 Softwood Decking   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The fact that a timber is called a softwood, does not actually mean that the wood is soft but the hardwoods are in general more resilient.
Our softwood timbers are mainly from Northern Europe, Canada, and the USA, where the forests are plentiful and properly managed.
Our high quality softwood systems are pressure impregnated and this process protects against rot or decay for at least 25 + years.
www.decking.ie /softwood.htm   (132 words)

  
 AFRMA - Softwood Bedding
Phenols are caustic, poisonous, acidic compounds present in softwoods, which are routinely diluted for use in disinfectants (for instance, Pine-Sol and Lysol both use phenols and can cause liver and kidney damage in rodents, rabbits, cats, dogs, and humans).
One of the early medical studies of softwood beddings and hepatotoxicity found a connection between the use of red cedar, white pine, and ponderosa pine and changes in both barbituate sleep time and the activity of liver enzymes (Vesell 1057).
This study determined that softwood beddings alter the liver’s activity in response to drugs significantly enough to suggest that such beddings not be used for animals in pharmacological experiments for fear of skewing the results.
www.afrma.org /rminfo2a.htm   (1692 words)

  
 Lumber, Plywood, & Flooring Buyers & Sellers
He explained that softwood has been an issue since 1981-82 and that it was too difficult an issue to deal with in the free trade agreement.
This is due to increased imports of softwood logs and a reduction in the supply of hardwood logs.
The percentage of softwood log imports to total log imports began to gradually increase in the mid-1980's and then accelerated in the 1990's.
www.sticktrade.com   (1656 words)

  
 Canada-U.S. Lumber Trade Disputes
Following the expiration of the Softwood Lumber Agreement, on April 2, 2001, the U.S. Coalition for Fair Lumber Imports filed a countervailing duty petition and its first anti-dumping petition against Canadian softwood lumber.
On August 9, 2001, Commerce made its preliminary determination that Canadian softwood lumber exports to the United States were subsidized at a rate of 19.31 percent.
Softwood lumber producers that do not benefit from the programs under investigation may be eligible for exclusion from the investigation.
www.for.gov.bc.ca /HET/Softwood/disputes.htm   (2825 words)

  
 Canada to take action against U.S. in softwood dispute - Boston.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The minister said he was "very disturbed" by the American response to a recent NAFTA panel ruling on the softwood lumber dispute that he called "absolutely clear cut and without equivocation in Canada's favor."
Earlier this month, the NAFTA panel dismissed Washington's claims that Canadian softwood exports are subsidized and damage the U.S. lumber industry.
Canadian softwood producers sell about $10 billion worth of spruce, pine and fir lumber a year to the U.S. home-construction and renovation sectors.
www.boston.com /news/local/maine/articles/2005/08/15/canada_to_take_action_against_us_in_softwood_dispute   (393 words)

  
 Technorati Tag: softwood lumber   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Global Gold Softwood Lumber Our lumber meets all International Standards and combined with our quality control we can guarantee that our lumber exceeds the quality of other larger distributors.
The US media is reporting that an interim decision from the WTO in the softwood lumber dispute has found in favour of the US.
WTO Ruling on Softwood Lumber A Win for the...
technorati.com /tag/softwood+lumber   (494 words)

  
 A Study of the Effects of the Canada-US Softwood Lumber Agreement
Since 1996, exports from the four major softwood lumber producing provinces in Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec) into the US have been regulated by the Voluntary Export Restraint (VER) as defined within the "Softwood Lumber Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America" (SLA).
While softwood lumber exports from the four major provinces have been relatively stable, the SLA-exempt provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) took advantage of their position to increase their softwood lumber exports into the US from 1.4 bbf during the first year of the SLA to 2.9 bbf during the fourth year.
US imports of softwood logs from Canada have increased substantially since the SLA was implemented, increasing from 63 mmbf in 1995 to almost 467 mmbf in 1999.
www.cintrafor.org /RESEARCH_TAB/links/Fs/FS42.htm   (1291 words)

  
 Softwood lumber dispute between Canada and the USA
Softwood lumber makes up 52% of British Columbia's exports to the United States and is the backbone of many rural communities.
Softwood lumber makes up a large chunk of Canada's heavy industry, but 10% of American exports to Canada are machinery for heavy industry.
The softwood lumber dispute is only a small example of the protectionism being put in place around the globe.
www.marxist.com /canada/softwood_dispute.html   (1672 words)

  
 Strong World: Martin playing with fire on softwood lumber   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Softwood lumber impasse: U.S. stance could affect all NAFTA dealings, Paul Martin says in long-awaited phone call.
On the merits of the softwood dispute, Canada is in the wrong.
Even if the dispute were greatly harming the Canadian forestry industry, which it isn't, softwood lumber is only a tiny fraction of our overall trade.
strongworld.blogspot.com /2005/10/martin-playing-with-fire-on-softwood.html   (1161 words)

  
 ASIL Insights: Canadian Softwood Lumber
[3] The U.S. Department of Commerce determined that the softwood lumber case was an instance of such a financial contribution since the provision of stumpage rights by provincial governments constitutes the provision of a good or of services.
On July 26, 2002, the WTO panel in charge of the Canadian softwood lumber case issued a confidential preliminary ruling.
For further analysis of the softwood lumber dispute, see Marc Benitah, Softwood Lumber: Exact Significance of the Recent Canadian Victory before the WTO and Prospects in the Context of the Pending Second Lumber Case, online at http://128.233.58.173/estey/.
www.asil.org /insights/insigh85.htm   (1088 words)

  
 Products   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In fact, our softwood veneer is a core factor in our ability to produce the highest quality hardwood plywood panels avilable anywhere.
As hardwood veneer skins become increasingly thinner, the quality of the softwood innerplies under the veneer face and back becomes increasingly important to the quality of the panel.
Our softwood veneer has been machined to the tightest tolerances, making it the perfect platform for any species of hardwood veneer.
www.timberproducts.com /.docs/pg/10204   (208 words)

  
 The Dangers of Softwood Shavings
This odor, and the phenols that cause it, are not found to the same amount in hardwood shavings, thus hardwood shavings, aspen being one of the most common, are considered a much safer litter material and can be recommended for rabbits and other small animals.
The phenols in the softwood (pine and cedar) shavings causes changes in the liver's enzymes.
The second objection to softwood shavings exposure as a cancer risk is less concrete.
www.rabbit.org /care/shavings.html   (617 words)

  
 Propagating Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs, Trees and Vines with Stem Cuttings
Some deciduous plants only can be rooted from leafy softwood or semi-hardwood cuttings taken during the growing season.
Softwood cuttings are taken during the growing season from new growth that has not matured or hardened significantly.
If evergreen cuttings or leafy softwood or semi-hardwood cuttings of deciduous plants are to be rooted, make sure both container and rooting medium are free of decay organisms prior to use by heating in an oven.
cru.cahe.wsu.edu /CEPublications/pnw0152/pnw0152.html   (3137 words)

  
 Implementation of the Softwood Industry and Community Economic Adjustment Initiative
SICEAI is part of a $246.5 million measure announced by the federal government on October 8, 2002 to assist Canadians whose livelihood depend on softwood lumber.
The impact of the softwood lumber duties is expected to be relatively lower in the Atlantic region than in other parts of Canada due to the lower duty levels imposed on Atlantic Canada.
BC employment in sawmills and planning mills, both producing softwood lumber, is approximately 25,000 workers.
www.ic.gc.ca /cmb/welcomeic.nsf/261ce500dfcd7259852564820068dc6d/85256a220056c2a485256c94004dad36!OpenDocument   (1628 words)

  
 Softwood Lumber
Softwood lumber is one of Canada's largest exports to the United States, with nearly 21.5 billion board feet of lumber shipped in 2005 alone...
Verification of Softwood Lumber Shipments to the United States SER-141 - Extension to Deadline...
Verification of Softwood Lumber Shipments to the United States SER-141
www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /eicb/softwood/menu-en.asp   (118 words)

  
 CTPS Articles: The First Test for Bush's Trade Policy by Brink Lindsey and Mark Groombridge
Although most goods flow freely across the border between the two countries, many in the US softwood industry continue to lobby successfully for the imposition of trade barriers.
The most recent example is the 1996 Softwood Lumber Agreement, which imposes special fees on any softwood imports in excess of 14.7bn board feet.
Construction wood is one of the principal materials used in housebuilding, and about 75 per cent of softwood use in the US is for new home construction or repairs.
www.freetrade.org /pubs/articles/bl-4-11-01.html   (817 words)

  
 London Free Press - Business - Canada claims softwood victory
The WTO found fault with a previous approach to evaluating the impact of imports, but it didn't rule on Canada's request that the U.S. determination was invalid.
U.S. lumber producers also applauded the ruling, saying it upholds their position that Canada is dumping subsidized softwood on the American market.
Canada insists its softwood isn't subsidized, saying decisions favouring its position from a free trade panel trump rulings by the WTO.
lfpress.ca /newsstand/Business/2006/04/14/1533932-sun.html   (588 words)

  
 Italics Mine: Softwood Lumber Redux
Someone has written an article about the Canadian vs. American softwood lumber dispute and has included all the messy little details that the other press never seem to include in their trenchant analysis.
Herbert Gruel, professor emeritus of economics at Simon Fraser University, and a senior Fellow at the Fraser Institute, puts it bluntly: "[T]he existing system was created to help the development of the province's vast timber resources.
"Canadian conservative leader Stephen Harper knows it: he said the softwood standoff is due to the sour relationship between the Liberal party and Washington.
italicsminecom.blogspot.com /2005/11/softwood-lumber-redux.html   (931 words)

  
 Forestry Law Blog   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The WTO has found that the International Trade Commission finding of a threat of material injury to the U.S. softwood industry by Canadian softwood lumber imports is consistent with U.S. obligations under the GATT Agreement and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures.
The Softwood Lumber Dispute took another twist this morning, as the Canadian government and several Canadian softwood lumber producers filed a petition with the International Trade Commission seeking to have returned duties paid by Canadian lumber producers to the US Customs Service that were funnelled to US lumber producers under the Byrd Amendment.
It isn't clear how this lawsuit is any different from the earlier one Canada initiated over the same issue (see the earlier post on this issue here).
forestrylaw.blogs.com   (3022 words)

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