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Topic: Soil salination


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  Soil conservation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Soil conservation is a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the earth’s mantle or becoming chemically altered by overuse, salinization, acidification, or other chemical soil contamination.
Soil pH can be raised by amendment by agricultural lime; The pH of an alkaline soil is lowered by adding sulfur, iron sulfate or aluminum sulfate, although these tend to provide costly short term benefits.
Typically the expense of soil contamination remediation cannot be justified in an agricultural economic analysis, since cleanup costs are generally quite high; oftentimes remediation is mandated by state and county environmental health agencies based upon human health risk issues.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Soil_conservation   (1883 words)

  
 Soil : search word
The organic part of soils is derived chiefly from the remains of vegetables and animals which have lived and died in and upon the soil, which have been spread over it by rivers and rains, or which have been added by the industry of man for the purposes of increased fertility.
Such soils ought to be regularly summer-fallowed once in six, or at least once in eight years, even when they are comparatively in a clean state, as they contract a sourness and adhesion from wet ploughing, only to be removed by exposure to the sun and wind during the dry months of summer.
All clayey soils require great industry and care, as well as a considerable portion of knowledge in dressing or management to keep them in good condition; yet when their natural toughness is got the better of, they always yield the heaviest and most abundant crops.
www.searchword.org /so/soil.html   (2082 words)

  
 PREFACE
Soil salination is identified as one of the major causes of soil degradation.
The salinity affected area is growing at a rate of about 2 million hectares per year which is of the same order of magnitude as the annual expansion of world’s total irrigated area.
Once the soil or water is affected by salination, it requires years to treat and large amount of energy and costly efforts.
www.actahort.org /books/573/573_0.htm   (785 words)

  
 Soil salination -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Image:Aralship2.jpg Soil salination is the accumulation of free salts to such an extent that it leads to degradation of soils and vegetation.
The ions responsible for salination are: Na, Ca, Mg and Cl In some areas (for example in Australia), salinity is an inherent situation (enormous amounts of salts are stored in the soils).
A type of plant that is of particular interest for those in areas affected by soil salinity is the saltbush, which is able to tolerate saline conditions and draws salt up into its leaves.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Soil_salination   (682 words)

  
 Soil salination - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
However, human practices have increased soil salinity by changing the natural balance of the water cycle, by allowing excess recharging of groundwater and accumulation through salinity by changing the natural balance of the water cycle, by allowing excess recharging of groundwater and accumulation through concentration.
One of the best examples of excess salination was s the accumulation of free salts to such an extent that it allow salts to become mobile (movement of water table)
However, human practices have increased soil salinity by changing the natural balance of the water cycle, by allowing excess recharging of groundwater and accumulation through salinity by changing the natural balance of the water cycle, by allowing excess recharging of groundwater and accumulation through concentration of salinity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Soil_salination   (332 words)

  
 Chapter 3 -- SOIL EROSION BASICS
Sand tends to be the coarsest-grained soil component; silt is finer-grained, and clay is the finest-grained.
The soils of boreal, temperate, alpine and tropical forests and the soils of grasslands and tundra all have mycorrhizae.
These soils have generally developed from alluvial sediments or volcanic ash rich in Ca, Mg, and K. High base-status soils are synonymous with high native soil fertility and relatively low cost of supplying additional nutrients (mainly nitrogen) ((86B1), referencing a study by Sanches and Buol of 1975).
home.alltel.net /bsundquist1/se3.html   (8096 words)

  
 Country Reports   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
www.classbrain.com /cb_cr/fields/environment_current_issues.html   (4076 words)

  
 · Drought Stress - Mitigation
Avoidance of mono cropping and the diversification of farming.
Increasing storage of soil moisture by the fallow system with or without conservation tillage is standard agricultural practice in dryland farming.
As soil moisture deficit develop throughout the profile, the proportion of dry to wet soil increase so that the proportion of dead to live roots increase.
www.plantstress.com /Articles/drought_m/drought_m.htm   (5714 words)

  
 Robert Goodland - Ecological Limits
Pimentel et al.2 found that soil erosion is serious in most of the world's agricultural areas and that this problem is worsening as more marginal land is brought into production.
Soil loss rates, generally ranging from 10 to 100 tons per hectare per year, exceed soil formation rates by at least tenfold.
Today's agricultural practices are leading to erosion, salination, or waterlogging of possibly 6 million hectares per year.
www.context.org /ICLIB/IC36/Goodland.htm   (755 words)

  
 The Academy of Natural Sciences - Education - Know Your Environment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Yet, as serious as salination of soil alone may be, it is only one part of the larger picture of desertification.
Loss of perennial vegetation leaves topsoil unable to resist forces of water and--more often--wind; eventually fertile soil may become eroded at a rate 10 to 40 times greater than is considered acceptable by agriculture experts.
With the amount of arable land decreasing, there is greater effort to cultivate marginal land (the areas that are in fact the most vulnerable to becoming degraded) and greater efforts to clear forested land for farming, leading to further erosion.
www.acnatsci.org /education/kye/nr/kye32002.html   (3863 words)

  
 Soil Chemical Changes under Irrigated Mango Production in the Central Sao Francisco River Valley, Brazil -- Heck et al. ...
of soil chemical composition and the mobility of salts is fundamental
Average composition of 1:1 soil extracts according to subarea and distance to mango trees.
Richards, L.A. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils.
jeq.scijournals.org /cgi/content/full/32/4/1414   (3984 words)

  
 Chapter 5 -- Degradation of Irrigated Land
A Soviet soil scientist estimates that 60-80% of the world's irrigated lands are becoming saline and hence infertile (76E1).
The share of irrigated land that is moderately to heavily salinated is 35% in Tajikistan and 80% in Turkmenistan (all in the Aral Sea Basin) and 60% for the entire basin (Ref. 25, Ch.
Salinity ravages key waterways and agricultural zones in Australia, according to the new Australian State of the Environment report by over 100 scientists, government agencies and private sector groups.
home.alltel.net /bsundquist1/ir5.html   (4613 words)

  
 food issues-food supply security
Salination affects mainly dry lands used for grazing, or dry lands that have been irrigated to realize their productive potential for crops such as vegetables or cotton.
In the earlier part of the century, so much soil was damaged and thrown to the wind that in parts of the USA day sometimes became a 'dust night'.
This has meant that high class soils are increasingly being protected from urban encroachment, and that innovative solutions are being found for people wanting to indulge in rural living on the edges of cities.
www.naturalhub.com /food_issues_food_supply_security.htm   (5852 words)

  
 CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Environment - current issues   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
soil erosion; deforestation due to demand for wood used as fuel; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
www.cia.gov /cia/publications/factbook/fields/2032.html   (4146 words)

  
 Salt, Soil & Seeds
The increasing amount of salt in the soil (salination) is one of Australia's biggest environmental problems.
In 1990, 50 000 square kilometres of land were affected by salinity.
Salts occur naturally in the soil and are carried by water.
www.questacon.edu.au /html/salt__soil_and_seeds.html   (232 words)

  
 Government plans to stop water supply to Jordan Valley vegetable farms
The water's salinity currently reaches 2,200 to 2,400 milligrammes per litre and is expected to further increase throughout the summer as more water evaporates.
The use of fertilisers has also contributed to the salination of soil, Fardos told the Jordan Times during an earlier interview, which in normal years is leeched (flushed out) by floodwaters.
High salinity in the soil and future lack of floods in that area might make the planting of crops sensitive to salt impossible.
www.jordanembassyus.org /053199007.htm   (700 words)

  
 AEGiS-AFP News: Food-summit-issues: Key issues at World Food Summit - June 7, 2002
ROME, June 7 (AFP) - AIDS, soil salination and the challenges of feeding an increasingly urban world are among a range of issues before next week's World Food Summit as it plans to cut world hunger by half before 2015.
Agricultural issues like the threat posed by salination will also come up for discussion by world leaders, who will hear that around 10 percent of the world's irrigated land has been damaged by salt.
FAO says salination, a build-up of salts in the soil which lowers yields and damages land, is reducing the world's irrigated areas at the rate of one to two percent annually.
www.aegis.com /news/afp/2002/AF020626.html   (774 words)

  
 Nat' Academies Press, Water for the Future: The West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel, and Jordan (1999)
The use of this water, enriched in salts, can lead to serious problems of soil salination, as has occurred in the J'esreel Valley in Israel after about 20 years of such practice.
Both percolation of saline irrigation water and the leaching of salt by natural recharge lead to increases in dissolved solids in underlying ground water.
One lesson from the area's history of soil and ground water salination is that total utilization of water, when coupled with significant internal recycling of water through reuse, is not sustainable because of progressive salt accumulation.
www.nap.edu /openbook/030906421X/html/45.html   (827 words)

  
 PUBLISHING HOUSE SB RAS
The features of soil salination are investigated depending on the relief, depth at which underground water occurs, lithologic structure, and composition of rocks.
The resources of calcium carbonate in the illuvial carbonate horizon of the southern fl soil are higher than its initial lithogenic content in the soil-forming rock by 20-25 kg/m
The zones of accumulation of carbonates and gypsum in the profile are strictly localized, they are always adjacent to each other, never overlap and never get disconnected.
www-sbras.nsc.ru /PSB/show_text.phtml?eng+4222+9   (160 words)

  
 MRC, Mekong River Commission - Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin
The challenge for planners will be to maintain or even improve the quality of farmland soil and the forest watersheds that hold the key to a sustainable agricultural industry.
Today, thousands of farmers throughout the basin are producing a second and some a third rice crop using water from 12 500 irrigation schemes.
Economics are moving farmers away from rice production to other crops but the benefits of increased agricultural production and higher family incomes that come from irrigation must be balanced with the impact of large irrigation schemes on dry season flow, fish migration patterns and soil salination.
www.mrcmekong.org /about_mekong/water_work.htm   (679 words)

  
 Study Abroad Opportunities | College of Natural Resources, University of Minnesota   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Learn how the distribution of vegetation and wildlife are related to soil, water, landforms, climate, and human intervention.
Explore natural resource issues including soil salination, conversion of native forests to farmland and tree plantations, and introduction of non-native plants and animals.
Humans have altered the natural vegetation and wildlife to better serve their economic and life-support needs, but these changes have long-term environmental consequences such as salination, invasive exotic species, and loss of biodiversity.
www.cnr.umn.edu /ug/advising/australia/index.php   (344 words)

  
 Freeindiamedia.com, Express your impartial, radical, grassroot views on current issues.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
No 1 is usually caused by the clearing of the land of natural vegetation and there is little there to use water in the soil and as a consequence is it soaks downhill, there is an overloading of the soil until the water table is saturated and that is when salt appears on the surface.
No 2 Salination is the combinatrion of the above plus the application of large quantities of water to the soil especially6 in the summer and inadequate drainage is there to keep the water moving and as a result up comes the salt to the surface
Put in pipes a small distance in the soil and leave the joins unsealed, and drain the salty water into ponds, and thereby lowering the water table.
www.freeindiamedia.com /discussion1/reply.php?mid=   (8987 words)

  
 Reuse of Saline-Sodic Drainage Water for Irrigation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Several strategies have been proposed, tested and found successful over a number of years.
Particular emphasis is placed on the need to control soil salination, avoid adverse effects on soil physical properties, and to select potential crops that are suitable for reuse systems.
Trace elements such as boron, selenium and molybdenum may also influence the feasibility of using saline-sodic drainage water for irrigation.
www.pubs.asce.org /WWWdisplay.cgi?0002072   (109 words)

  
 CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- Field Listing - Environment - current issues   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Galapagos Islands
water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; water-borne disease; deforestation; soil erosion and degradation
www.faqs.org /docs/factbook/fields/2032.html   (4113 words)

  
 SOIL, CLAY, COMPOST AND TOPSOIL, DEFINITION AND LINKS - TOP SOIL FOR SALE - CHARLES WARREN, SUSSEX ENGLAND
SOIL, CLAY, COMPOST AND TOPSOIL, DEFINITION AND LINKS - TOP SOIL FOR SALE - CHARLES WARREN, SUSSEX ENGLAND
Click here for our TOPSOIL REPORT quality soil for sale in 25Kg bags or bulk supply.
The logo and name Twissells Mill are trademarks.
www.twissellsmill.com /soil.htm   (1911 words)

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