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Topic: Solar Islamic calendar

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In the News (Sat 16 Dec 17)

 Calendar - MSN Encarta
Calendar divisions are based on the movements of the earth and the regular appearances of the sun and the moon.
The variations among the many calendars in use from ancient to modern times have been caused by the inaccuracy of the earliest determinations of the duration of the year, together with the fact that a year cannot be divided evenly by any of the other time units: days, weeks, or months.
The Roman calendar became hopelessly confused when officials to whom the addition of days and months was entrusted abused their authority to prolong their terms of office or to hasten or delay elections.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761560321/Calendar.html   (1204 words)

 ENQUIRERWORLD.COM: Calendars - Solar
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun...
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
The mean calendar year of such a calendar approximates some form of the tropical year (typically either the mean tropical year or the vernal equinox year).
www.enquirerworld.com /calendars/solar.html   (346 words)

 calendar - HighBeam Encyclopedia
The calendar is based on noting ordinary and easily observable natural events, the cycle of the sun through the seasons with equinox and solstice, and the recurrent phases of the moon.
What was worse, the pontifex maximus was given the power soon after 200 BC to regulate the calendar, and the practice grew of using the intercalations for the promotion of political ends to lengthen or to shorten an official's term.
This calendar was carefully calibrated, but the year was never readjusted to the error in its length; instead, the feasts and dates were adjusted to the calendar.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-calendar.html   (2297 words)

 Iranian calendar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
However, before work on the new calendar was completed, Muslim Arabs overthrew the dynasty in the 7th century and with their victory, a new lunar calendar based on Islamic principles replaced the old solar calendar of the Sassanid period.
The Islamic calendar was outlined in the prophet Muhammad's revelation, the Qu'ran, and in his last sermon during his farewell pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Islamic lunar calendar was widely used till the end of the 19th century.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Persian_calendar   (2387 words)

 The Islamic Calendar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The Islamic calendar is purely lunar and consists of twelve alternating months of 30 and 29 days, with the final 29 day month extended to 30 days during leap years.
Since the calendar is fixed to the Moon, not the solar year, the months shift with respect to the seasons, with each month beginning about 11 days earlier in each successive solar year.
The calendar presented here is the most commonly used civil calendar in the Islamic world; for religious purposes months are defined to start with the first observation of the crescent of the new Moon.
www.calendarhome.com /converter/islamic.html   (281 words)

 Global Exchange : Chapter I
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, al-'amr bilma'ruf wa al-nahy 'an al-munkar is a universal and reciprocal duty that must be fulfilled by the people with respect to one another, by the government with respect to the people, and by the people with respect to the government.
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the freedom, independence, unity, and territorial integrity of the country are inseparable from one another, and their preservation is the duty of the government and all individual citizens.
Since the family is the fundamental unit of Islamic society, all laws, regulations, and pertinent programs must tend to facilitate the formation of a family,,and to safeguard its sanctity and the stability of family relations on the basis of the law and the ethics of Islam.
www.globalexchange.org /countries/mideast/iran/chapteri.html   (1110 words)

 ENQUIRERWORLD.COM: Calendars - Lunisolar
If the solar year is defined as a tropical year then a lunisolar calendar will give an indication of the season; if it is taken as a sidereal year then the calendar will predict the constellation near which the full moon may occur.
The Hebrew, Hindu lunar, Buddhist, Tibetan calendars, and Chinese calendar used alone until 1912 and then used along with the Gregorian Calendar are all lunisolar, as was the Japanese calendar until 1873, the pre-Islamic calendar, the first century Gaulish Coligny calendar and the second millennium BCE Babylonian calendar.
The Julian and Gregorian Calendars are solar, not lunisolar, because their dates do not indicate the moon phase — however, without realising it, most Christians do use a lunisolar calendar in the determination of Easter.
www.enquirerworld.com /calendars/lunisolar.html   (864 words)

 Islamic calendar - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called "Hijri calendar", Arabic التقويم الهجري) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days.
Islamic years are also called Hijra years because the first year was the year during which the Hijra occurred—Muhammad's emigration from Mecca to Medina.
The predecessor to the Islamic calendar was a lunisolar calendar in that it used lunar months but was also kept synchronized with the seasons by the insertion of an additional, intercalary, month when required.
www.tvwiki.tv /wiki/Islamic_calendar   (2041 words)

 Iranian Calendar Converter
The Iranian calendar (also known as Persian calendar or the Jalaali Calendar) is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan.
A modification of the Julian calendar, it was first proposed by the Neapolitan doctor Aloysius Lilius, and was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII, for whom it was named, on 24 February 1582.
The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called "Hijri calendar") is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days.
www.iranchamber.com /calendar/iranian_calendar_converter.php   (167 words)

 Islamic calendar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری Gāhshomāri-ye Hejri; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days.
The predecessor to the Islamic calendar was a lunisolar calendar which used lunar months, but was also synchronized with the seasons by the insertion of an additional, intercalary month, when required.
On the other hand, prophet Muhammad forbade the intercalary month (released the calendar from the seasons) near the end of his life (as recorded in Sura 9, verse 36), which implies a pre-Islamic year beginning near the vernal equinox because that is when the modern lunar year began during his last year.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Islamic_calendar   (2116 words)

 Islamic Calendar - History and Motivation
The Islamic Calendar, which is based purely on lunar cycles, was first introduced in 638 CE by the companions of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, and the second Khalifah, Umar ibnul Khattab (592-644 CE).
It was finally agreed that the most appropriate reference point for the Islamic calendar was the Hijrah the incident of the immigration of the Muslims from Makkah to Madinah.
The Islamic (Hijri) calendar (with dates that fall within the Muslim Era) came to be abbreviated by some as AH in Western languages from the latinized Anno Hegirae, "in the year of the Hegira".
www.alinaam.org.za /library/calendar3.htm   (975 words)

 Calendar Converter
The Gregorian calendar was proclaimed by Pope Gregory XIII and took effect in most Catholic states in 1582, in which October 4, 1582 of the Julian calendar was followed by October 15 in the new calendar, correcting for the accumulated discrepancy between the Julian calendar and the equinox as of that date.
The Julian calendar was proclaimed by Julius Cæsar in 46 B.C. and underwent several modifications before reaching its final form in 8 C.E. The Julian calendar differs from the Gregorian only in the determination of leap years, lacking the correction for years divisible by 100 and 400 in the Gregorian calendar.
The Bahá'í calendar is a solar calendar organised as a hierarchy of cycles, each of length 19, commemorating the 19 year period between the 1844 proclamation of the Báb in Shiraz and the revelation by Bahá'u'lláh in 1863.
www.fourmilab.ch /documents/calendar   (5200 words)

 The Islamic Calendars and Others- Understadning, calculating Ramadan, Hajj and other Islamic ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The rudiments of a calendar system may have been constructed as long ago as 2000 BC, when stone alignments were used, it is believed, to determine the length of the solar year by marking the progress of the Sun along the horizon.
The Roman calendar was in error by several months during the reign of Julius Caesar, who recognized the need for a stable, predictable calendar and formed one with the help of an astronomer, Sosigenes.
Sighting of the moon, to determine the new Islamic month, is an invention by the scholars that they took after the Jewish Rabbis who insist on sighting of the moon for their Jewish Lunar months.
www.submission.org /calendar.html   (2369 words)

 Crescent Moon Visibility and the Islamic Calendar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The Islamic calendar is based on lunar months, which begin when the thin crescent Moon is actually sighted in the western sky after sunset within a day or so after New Moon.
A tabular Islamic calendar has been established for some non-religious purposes in which the lengths of the months alternate between 29 and 30 days; in leap years an extra day is added to the last month, Dhu al-Hijjah.
The Astronomical Calendar by Guy Ottewell (published annually by Furman University, Greenville, SC) includes good diagrams of the positions of young and old Moons during the year (drawn for the eastern U.S.) and an explanation of the factors affecting their visibility.
aa.usno.navy.mil /faq/docs/islamic.html   (1471 words)

 NATURALIST'S ALMANAC | JULY 16 | HEGIRA (The Islamic Calendar)
They wanted to start a new calendar to mark the beginning of their new religion, and they wanted to make it purely and continuously lunar to differentiate it from the solar and lunisolar calendars that already existed.
They chose to start their new calendar on July 16, 622 A.D. — or, technically, since Islamic days begin at sunset, at sunset on the date the Gregorian calendar calls July 15 — because that was the first day of the lunar year in which the key Islamic event called the Hegira took place.
With these regular additions, their calendar has become as precise with respect to the moon as the Gregorian calendar is with respect to the sun.
www.naturalistsalmanac.com /0716islam.html   (430 words)

 ipedia.com: Islamic calendar Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The Islamic lunar calendar is not inaccurate, because it is a pure lunar calendar.
The predecessor to the Islamic calendar was a lunisolar calendar in that it used lunar months but was also kept synchronized with the tropical year (that is, based on the motion of the sun), by the insertion of an additional, "intercalary" month when required.
Of all the months in the Islamic calendar, Ramadan is the most sacred, and all Muslims are required to fast during the daytime.
www.ipedia.com /islamic_calendar.html   (1447 words)

 Solar and Lunar Calendars: 360-days in a year
God has merged the three major calendar systems into one complex clock, with the 360-prophetic year as the average year of the lunar and the solar.
Nevertheless, the solar has the driving lead, since all other calendars in one way or another find their bearing and orientation by it.
Thus, the three adjusted calendars work together to mark exact days within a particular year, with their unadjusted counterparts also at work, but as it were, in the background behind the scenes.
www.netrover.com /~numbers/solar_lunar_calendars-leson2b1.htm   (1115 words)

The Islamic Calendar, which is based purely on lunar cycles, was first introduced in 638 C.E. by the close companion of the Prophet (PBUH) and the second Caliph, `Umar ibn Al-KHaTTab (592-644 C.E.) RAA.
Since the Islamic calendar is purely lunar, as opposed to solar or luni-solar, the Muslim (Hijri) year is shorter than the Gregorian year by about 11 days, and months in the Islamic (Hijri) year are not related to seasons, which are fundamentally determined by the solar cycle.
The slight differences in printed Islamic calendars, worldwide, can therefore be traced to two primary factors: (1) the absence of a global criterion for first visibility; and (2) the use of different visibility criterion (or method of calculation).
fisher.osu.edu /~muhanna_1/hijri-intro.html   (1148 words)

 IslamiCity.com - The Islamic Calendar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The Islamic calendar (or Hijri calendar) is a lunar calendar.
The Islamic calendar is the official calendar in countries around the Gulf, especially Saudi Arabia.
The Islamic calendar is based on visibility of the crescent Moon.
www.islamicity.com /Science/islamic_calendar.shtml   (781 words)

 .:. Indian Calendar .:. ASTRAL TRAVELER .:.
It is a solar calendar with either 365 or 366 days in a year, leap year rules identical to those in the Gregorian calendar, but with years starting near the vernal equinox (March 22 in regular years, March 21 in leap years) and traditional Indian names for the months.
A solar month is defined as the interval required for the Sun's apparent longitude to increase by 30o, corresponding to the passage of the Sun through a zodiacal sign (rasi).
The history of calendars in India is a remarkably complex subject owing to the continuity of Indian civilization and to the diversity of cultural influences.
www.astraltraveler.com /calendars/indian.html   (1415 words)

 [No title]
The calendar was put into practice by Imam al-Hakim (985-1021) and is therefore sometimes referred to as the Fatimid or misr (Egyptian) calendar.
Islamic calendar for Singapore by Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (MUIS), the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore.
The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia, Islamic-Western Calendar Converter (Based on the Arithmetical or Tabular Calendar) and De Islamitische tijdrekening (in Dutch) by Robert H. van Gent.
www.math.nus.edu.sg /aslaksen/calendar/islamic.shtml   (1654 words)

 Iranian Constitution
There are to be two hundred seventy members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly which, keeping in view the human, political, geographic and other similar factors, may increase by not more than twenty for each ten-year period from the date of the national referendum of the year 1368 of the solar Islamic calendar.
Whenever at least one-fourth of the total members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly pose a question to the President, or any one member of the Assembly poses a question to a minister on a subject relating to their duties, the President or the minister is obliged to attend the Assembly and answer the question.
The determination of compatibility of the legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly with the laws of Islam rests with the majority vote of the fuqaha' on the Guardian Council; and the determination of its compatibility with the Constitution rests with the majority of all the members of the Guardian Council.
www.iranchamber.com /government/laws/constitution_ch06.php   (2054 words)

 Babylonian, Jewish, Muslim, Luni-Solar, Indian, Iranian Calendars
For a lunar calendar adjusting to the solar year, the best approximations (by continued fractions) to the difference between twelve synodic months and the tropical year would be to add one month every three years, three every eight, four every eleven, seven every nineteen, or 123 every 334.
While the religious Islâmic calendar is of course used in Irân, the ancient solar calendar also continues to be used as a civil calendar.
As discussed elsewhere, this solar Hegira era is equivalent to the year of the Era of Nabonassar (747 BC) minus 1368.
www.friesian.com /calendar.htm   (8375 words)

 Islamic calendar
The Islamic calendar is the official calendar in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and some other Middle Eastern countries, and is used privately by Moslems everywhere.
Because the year in the Islamic calendar is shorter than a solar year, the months drift with respect to the seasons, in a cycle 32½ years long.
An interesting aspect of the Islamic calendar is that it is a rare example of a people changing from a lunisolar to a lunar calendar.
www.sizes.com /time/cal_islam.htm   (883 words)

 Computus Calendar Program
The Christian calendar as in the first menu item is based on Julian dates until the Gregorian calendar reform and later on the reformed dates.
The Turkish financial calendar (also known as the Mali- or Rumi-calendar) was in use in the Ottoman empire during its later period, mostly along with the lunar Hijra- calendar.
The Jewish calendar (era: creation of the world) has only been in use since the Middle Ages; nevertheless any earlier date input is accepted (I could simply not resist giving Christian BC-equivalents to dates going back to the creation of the world according to Jewish belief!).
www.lib.umich.edu /area/Near.East/computus.html   (970 words)

 Islamic Calendar - RELST101 - Fears
Since the different calendars start their years on different dates, the lists are in slightly different order.
Islam has its own distinctive calendar, made up of twelve lunar months (whereas the Gregorian and Julian calendars are solar oriented) -- of between 29 and 30 days or a total of 354 days each year.
Muslims date their calendars from the Hijrah [migration from Mecca to Medina], so the date of the Prophet's death is not known as 632 CE but 10 AH.
www.bsu.edu /classes/fears/relst101/islamiccalendar.html   (724 words)

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