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Topic: Solar cosmic ray

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  Solar cosmic ray - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Solar cosmic rays are cosmic rays that originate from the Sun.
Later, it was found that the solar cosmic rays vary widely in their intensity and spectrum, increasing in strength after some solar events such as solar flares.
These decreases are due to the solar wind with its entrained magnetic field sweeping some of the galactic cosmic rays outwards, away from the Sun and Earth.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Solar_cosmic_ray   (375 words)

 Cosmic ray - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cosmic rays originate from energetic processes on the Sun all the way to the farthest reaches of the visible universe.
Cosmic rays have been implicated in the triggering of electrical breakdown in lightning.
Cosmic rays have been used as a catchall, mostly in comics (notably the Marvel Comics group the Fantastic Four), as a source for mutation and therefore the powers gained by being bombarded with them.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cosmic_ray   (607 words)

 NGDC/WDC STP, Boulder-Cosmic Rays
Cosmic rays also have an extreme energy range of incident particles, which have allowed physicists to study aspects of their field that can not be studied in any other way.
The portion of the cosmic ray spectrum that reaches the Earth's atmosphere is controlled by the geomagnetic cutoff which varies from a minimum (theoretically zero) at the magnetic poles to a vertical cosmic ray cutoff of about 15 GV (ranging from 13 to 17) in the equatorial regions.
The cosmic rays show an inverse relationship to the sunspot cycle because Sun's magnetic field is stronger during sunspot maximum and shields the Earth from cosmic rays.
www.ngdc.noaa.gov /stp/SOLAR/COSMIC_RAYS/cosmic.html   (1037 words)

 cosmic ray   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth.
Cosmic rays were initially considered to come from some source other than the Sun.
This was because the Sun was thought to emit little but visible light, and, of course, cosmic rays are isotropic and would arrive at Earth from all directions.
www.yourencyclopedia.net /Cosmic_ray.html   (231 words)

 Cosmic ray   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particle s originating outside of the Earth.
Cosmic Ray Division of YerPhI - Contains data collected during experiments on high altitude stations as well as news, images, information on projects, publications and conferences.
Voyager Cosmic Ray Subsystem - An instrument to measure the flow patterns of energetic solar and galactic particles.
www.nebulasearch.com /encyclopedia/article/Cosmic_ray.html   (685 words)

 Cosmic Rays - Richard Mewaldt
Most cosmic rays are the nuclei of atoms, ranging from the lightest to the heaviest elements in the periodic table.
To measure cosmic rays directly, before they have been slowed down and broken up by the atmosphere, research is carried out by instruments carried on spacecraft and high altitude balloons, using particle detectors similar to those used in nuclear and high energy physics experiments.
Cosmic rays are also a hazard to electronic instrumentation in space; impacts of heavily-ionizing cosmic ray nuclei can cause computer memory bits to "flip" or small microcircuits to fail.
www.srl.caltech.edu /personnel/dick/cos_encyc.html   (1485 words)

 Active Skim View of: John Alexander Simpson
It was recognized, from the variation of the cosmic ray intensity with geomagnetic latitude and from the east-west asymmetry of their arrival at the surface of Earth, that cosmic rays are mostly charged particles, as distinct from energetic photons, with the majority of the particles positively charged.
Today we know that the cosmic rays are created throughout the galaxy by such energetic phenomena as supernovae and that the cosmic rays in the large represent a tenuous relativistically hot gas, with dynamical pressure comparable to the magnetic fields and other gases in interstellar space and in the galactic halo.
It suggested that the cosmic ray variations are a consequence of variations of the magnetic field and plasma, and it was the beginning of the concept that ultimately led to recognition of coronal expansion and the supersonic solar wind and heliosphere.
www.nap.edu /nap-cgi/skimit.cgi?isbn=0309084768&chap=318-339   (837 words)

 Cosmic Rays
The chemical composition of the solar system has been determined from a combination of spectroscopy on the Sun, studies of the solar wind, and by chemical analysis of meteorites, which are presumed to have a purer sample of the early solar system than terrestrial rocks.
The composition of cosmic rays is important because cosmic rays are a direct sample of matter from outside the solar system and contain elements that are much too rare to be seen in spectroscopic lines from other stars.
Cosmic rays spend a large fraction of their time in the low density galactic halo, bouncing back and forth through the galactic disk many times.
imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/science/know_l2/cosmic_rays.html   (778 words)

 Cosmic Ray Actinides   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The shaded box labelled "rp" represents a model in which the cosmic ray source for Z > 60 is highly enriched in r-process material.
The "lg" box indicates a cosmic ray source with a composition consisting of local galactic material, primarily dust grains in the interstellar medium.
Finally, the present Solar System abundances ("ss") do not appear in the boundary of this graph and are indicated with an arrow.
ultraman.berkeley.edu /actinides.html   (221 words)

 Cosmic Rays
Cosmic ray ions, on the other hand, may be trapped by weak magnetic fields in the galaxy--trapped not forever, because sooner or later they hit an atom of the rarefied gas which fills the void between stars, but for a period of the order of 10 million years.
If cosmic ray ions stay around (on the average) 1000 times longer than starlight, their source only needs 1/1000 of the energy output of the stars to match the intensity of starlight.
Cosmic ray ions at the top of the energy range produce in the atmosphere showers of many millions of fragments, covering many acres, and their more energetic fragments register even in deep mines, a mile underground.
www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov /Education/wcosray.html   (1989 words)

 Cosmic Rays   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
COSMIC RAYS are high-energy particles that travel throughout the Milky Way Galaxy.
Before the 1950s, cosmic rays were the only source of high-energy particles.
With the advent of powerful particle accelerators in the 1950s, investigations of cosmic rays were continued, though on a more limited scale, because they contain particles with energies far beyond those attainable under laboratory conditions (>10
fizjlk.fic.uni.lodz.pl /rut/Stamps/HyperNuc/Cosmic/Hess.htm   (148 words)

Cosmic rays are ionized particles from extraterrestrial sources traveling very close to the speed of light.
The IPST Cosmic Physics Group is working mainly on space-based experiments to resolve the shapes of the cosmic-ray H, He, and heavier nuclei energy spectra at energies approaching 10^15 eV.
The data from these projects are used to search for signatures of exotic matter (dark matter and cosmological antimatter), to investigate cosmic ray transport processes, and to quantify the charge-sign dependence of solar modulation.
cosmicray.umd.edu /homepage   (281 words)

 Correlation between Barometric Pressure and Cosmic Ray Detection
Primary cosmic rays incident on our atmosphere are charged particles ranging from protons to iron nuclei with traces of heavier elements [2] with protons making up 90% of the total.
Since the sun is one of the primary sources for cosmic rays the daily rotation of the Earth and solar activity have significant impact on the number of cosmic rays which reach the surface of the Earth.
Because of the increased interactions of the cosmic rays, they have a greater chance of being changed into a particle that does not reach the earth or is not detectable by the CASA detectors.
marian.creighton.edu /~besser/physics/barometer.html   (1071 words)

 Active Skim View of: 16. Highlights
The resulting abundances show distinct quantitative differences from those found in the condensed bodies of the solar system, demonstrating conclusively that galactic cosmic rays are a sample of matter with a nucleosynthetic history that is different from that of the Sun.
For example if it is a consequence of the diffusion and convection processes by which cosmic rays are transported out of the galactic confinement volume, then Al is predicted to continue to decrease as energy increases at a rate that reflects the spectrum of magnetic inhomogeneities in interstellar space.
Diffuse gamma rays are generated by interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar gas; the nonthermal radio emission comes from cosmic-ray electron synchrotron emission in the galactic magnetic fields.
www.nap.edu /nap-cgi/skimit.cgi?isbn=0309035791&chap=121-142   (1203 words)

 USATODAY.com - Sun's magnetic flip affects cosmic ray penetration   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Since 1954, solar scientists have known that the sun's magnetic field, or heliosphere, shields the solar system from the full effects of cosmic rays, energetic atomic particles from space.
Cosmic rays are thought to play a role in initiating changes in the upper atmosphere that affect Earth's weather, sparking increased interest in their occurrence among scientists.
It found similar alignments of cosmic rays and so-called coronal mass ejections from the sun, powerful eruptions of the material that makes stars that increase alongside sunspots during the solar cycle.
www.usatoday.com /news/science/astro/2001-04-10-cosmic-rays.htm   (527 words)

 CNN.com - Report: Cosmic rays influence climate change - July 31, 2002
The number of cosmic rays that strike Earth depends to some degree on the sun.
Solar winds, which can protect the Earth from the interstellar rays, vary in intensity as the sun waxes and wanes in intensity, according to Yu.
In any case, Yu proposes that cosmic rays help stoke the formation of dense clouds in the lower atmosphere while having a little or negative affect on cloud cover in the upper atmosphere.
archives.cnn.com /2002/TECH/space/07/31/earth.rays   (344 words)

 Correlative Study of Solar Activity and Cosmic Ray Intensity (ResearchIndex)
Analysis of the running cross-correlation between the two series shows that the behaviour of cosmic ray modulation is similar, in general, for particles with different energy.
2 the dimension of solar attractor (context) - Ostryakov - 1990
1 The angular extents of solar interplanetary disturbances and..
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /usoskin98correlative.html   (411 words)

 Cosmic Ray Astronomy Satellites & Missions
Cosmic ray research began in 1912 when Victor Hess, of the Vienna University, and 2 assistants flew in a balloon to an altitude of about 16,000 ft. They discovered evidence of a very penetrating radiation (cosmic rays) coming from outside our atmosphere.
U.S. scientific satellite equipment, including a radio transmitter and instruments for measuring temperature, pressure, cosmic rays, and meteoric dust encounters, was tested above Earth for the first time, as a rocket containing this equipment was fired by the Navy to a 126-mile altitude.
It measured galactic cosmic ray abundances of protons, anti-protons, hydrogen, and helium isotopes.
imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/sats_n_data/cosmic_missions.html   (932 words)

 The Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer
Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) consist of energetic electrons and nuclei which are a direct sample of material from far beyond the solar system.
Many of the isotopes that will be collected by CRIS provide other information about the mechanisms of cosmic ray propagation (the study of the processes cosmic rays undergo between the time they are produced and the time of their arrival in the heliosphere).
In CRIS, energy information about the cosmic ray particles is collected by the 4 stacks of thick silicon detectors (shown as A-D), while the trajectory of the particles are determined by the Scintillating Optical Fiber Trajectory (SOFT) system.
www.srl.caltech.edu /ACE/CRIS_SIS/cris.html   (790 words)

 Master Thesis (1995-1998)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
High energetic particles, also called solar cosmic ray particles, are produced as a result of the energy releasing process on the Sun.
The propagation of the solar cosmic ray particles, as an important factor that affects these environments, naturally becomes more and more important for us to study.
In this study, a Two_Phase-Multi_Process Coronal Propagation model is proposed to explain the solar flare particles propagation in the solar corona.
nis-www.lanl.gov /~ywang/contributions/node15.html   (285 words)

 [No title]
In contrast, cosmic rays appear, albeit in decreasing numbers, at energies as high as astrophysicists can measure.
¡……ó Ÿª Ÿ¨wNevertheless, evidence of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays has been seen at intervals of several years as particles hitting the atmosphere create myriad secondary particles (which are easier to detect).
On October 15, 1991, for example, a cosmic-ray observatory in the Utah desert registered a shower of secondary particles from a 50-joule (3 x 1020 electron volts) cosmic ray.
crab.rutgers.edu /~gambs/astronomy/Cosmicra.ppt   (529 words)

 Citebase - The photodisintegration of cosmic ray nuclei by solar photons: the Gerasimova-Zatsepin effect revisted
The photodisintegration of cosmic ray nuclei by solar photons: the Gerasimova-Zatsepin effect revisted
Authors: Tanco, Gustavo Medina; Watson, Alan A. The interesting possibility of measuring the masses of high energy cosmic ray particles by observing pairs of extensive air showers arriving at the earth nearly simultaneously was proposed some years ago by Gerasimova and Zatsepin (1960).
We conjecture that the highest energy cosmic rays beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off may provide a unique window into the very early epoch of the Universe, namely, that of reheating after inflation, provided these cosmic rays are due to decays of parent superheavy long-living X-particles.
citebase.eprints.org /cgi-bin/citations?archiveID=oai:arXiv.org:astro-ph/9808033   (1171 words)

 The solar X-Ray/cosmic gamma-ray burst experiment aboard Ulysses   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Triangulation baselines for cosmic gamma-ray bursts would be long, and the fact that two detectors in the network would be out of the ecliptic plane would provide a particularly favorable geometry for localization (non-coplanar detectors are required for arrival time analysis).
Solar flare X-rays observed by the GRB detector on November 11, 1990.
Solar flare X-rays observed by the GRB detector on November 16, 1990.
helio.estec.esa.nl /ulysses/ftp/cdroms/uls_06_a/Docs/Grb/grb.htm   (3370 words)

 Cosmic Ray Days
The research, performed by physicist Nir Shaviv of Hebrew University in Jerusalem and geologist Ján Veizer of the University of Ottowa and Ruhr University in Germany, indicates that Earth's climate is profoundly affected by cosmic rays, high-energy particles emitted by stars throughout the galaxy.
They conclude that cosmic ray changes account for at least 66 percent of the temperature variation during that period.
Moreover, using climate models that take cosmic ray flux into account, Shaviv and Veizer estimate carbon dioxide's impact on present-day global warming, putting the impact of a CO2 doubling at a maximum of 1.9 degrees Celsius, and the expected impact at about 0.5 degrees.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/946634/posts   (1056 words)

 NEEP 602 Lecture #13
The structure of the solar wind in the vicinity of the Earth and Moon is profoundly affected by the Earth's magnetic field.
Hydrogen and helium are the principal components of the solar wind.
Their regolith should be much more easily mined due to the absence of significant hard rock, may be more easily processed due to their glassy and fine-grained nature, and they may be a source of several metal and halogen by-products.
fti.neep.wisc.edu /neep602/lecture13.html   (1123 words)

 THE ANALYSIS OF XMM INSTRUMENT BACKGROUND INDUCED BY THE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT IN THE XMM ORBIT - Chapter 4: Predicted ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
At solar maximum the cosmic ray flux would be reduced by about a factor of two.
In this note we independently calculate the magnitude of this source and compare with the background from spallation reactions of cosmic rays and solar flare protons.
Determine the ratio of the flat continuum to that from cosmic rays and scale the cosmic ray flux by this number.
www.estec.esa.nl /wmwww/wma/Final_Presentations/fp_days_1995/XMM/XMM_Chap4.html   (1774 words)

 Robert C. (Bob) Reedy Publications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Reedy and J. Arnold (1972), "Interaction of Solar and Galactic Cosmic-Ray Particles with the Moon," J. Geophys.
Reedy, J. Arnold, and J. Trombka (1973), "Expected Gamma Ray Emission spectra from the Lunar Surface as a Function of Chemical Composition," J. Geophys.
The gamma rays best used for elemental mapping are made by neutron-inelastic-scattering or neutron-capture reactions and come from depths down to several tens of centimeters.
www.lpi.usra.edu /ILEWG/register/reedy_papers.html   (999 words)

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