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Topic: Solar nebula


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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

  
  The Origin of the Solar System
A cloud of interstellar gas and/or dust (the "solar nebula") is disturbed and collapses under its own gravity.
In the solar system, the theories say that this is large asteroid to lunar size in the inner solar system, and one to fifteen times the Earth's size in the outer solar system.
At about this time, about 1 million years after the nebula cooled, the star would generate a very strong solar wind, which would sweep away all of the gas left in the protoplanetary nebula.
www.seds.org /nineplanets/nineplanets/origin.html   (672 words)

  
 Solar system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the outer regions of this solar nebula, ice and volatile gases were able to survive, and as a result, the inner planets are rocky and the outer planets were massive enough to capture large amounts of lighter gases, such as hydrogen and helium.
The point at which the solar system ends and interstellar space begins is not precisely defined, since its outer boundaries are delineated by two separate forces: the solar wind and the Sun's gravity.
The solar system is located in the Local Fluff of the Milky Way galaxy, a spiral galaxy with a diameter of about 100,000 light years containing approximately 200 billion stars, of which our Sun is rather large and bright.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Solar_system   (5172 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Solar nebula   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
In the outer regions of this solar nebula, ice and volatile gases were able to survive, and as a result, the inner planets are rocky and the outer planets were massive enough to attract large amounts of lighter gases, such as hydrogen and helium.
The solar nebula is believed to have had an initial diameter of 100 AU and a mass believed to be 2-3 times the Sun's current mass.
In the outer part of the solar nebula, ice and volatile gases were able to survive.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Solar-nebula   (229 words)

  
 Solar System Forensics :: Astrobiology Magazine :: Search for Life in the Universe
They conclude in their paper that the slight excess of one isotope of sulfur, ³³S, in the meteorites indicated the presence of "photochemical reactions in the early solar nebula," meaning that the protosun was shining strongly enough to drive chemical reactions.
Astronomers believe the solar nebula began to form about 5 billion years ago when a cloud of interstellar gas and dust was disturbed, possibly by the shock wave of a large exploding star, and collapsed under its own gravity.
As the nebula's spinning pancake-like disk grew thinner and thinner, whirlpools of clumps began to form and grow larger, eventually forming the planets, moons and asteroids.
www.astrobio.net /news/article1682.html   (695 words)

  
 Formation of the solar nebula (from solar system) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The favoured paradigm for the origin of the solar system begins with the gravitational collapse of part of an interstellar cloud of gas and dust having an initial mass only 10–20 percent greater than the present mass of the Sun.
The solar served as a kind of parlour to which the owner of the manor house or castle could retire with his family from the chaotic communal living of the hall below.
The Sun is an extremely powerful energy source, and solar radiation is by far the largest source of energy received by the Earth, but its intensity at the Earth's surface is actually quite low.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-242062   (853 words)

  
 JPL.NASA.GOV: Mysteries of the Solar Nebula
One of the main ways that scientists approach the question of how the solar system formed is by comparing the elements and isotopes that made up the original cloud of dust and gas to the compositions of the planets, moons, asteroids and comets in the solar system today.
This material, consisting mostly of electrically charged atoms called ions, flows outward past the planets in a constant stream called the "solar wind." This wind is a snapshot of the materials in the surface layers of the Sun, which in turn reflects the makeup of the original solar nebula.
The basic data gained from the Genesis mission are needed to advance theories about the solar nebula and evolution of the planets.
www.jpl.nasa.gov /news/features-print.cfm?feature=520   (784 words)

  
 The Origin of the Solar System
A cloud of interstellar gas and/or dust (the "solar nebula") is disturbed and collapses under its own gravity.
In the solar system, the theories say that this is large asteroid to lunar size in the inner solar system, and one to fifteen times the Earth's size in the outer solar system.
At about this time, about 1 million years after the nebula cooled, the star would generate a very strong solar wind, which would sweep away all of the gas left in the protoplanetary nebula.
www.nineplanets.org /origin.html   (672 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Solar nebula Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
In cosmogony, the solar nebula is a gaseous cloud, from which, solar systems are formed.
This nebula had an initial diameter of 100AU and a mass of ~200-300% that of Sol's current mass.
In the modified version, the mass of the original protoplanet was assumed to be larger; and, the angular momentum discrepancy was attributed to magnetic forces.
www.ipedia.com /solar_nebula.html   (562 words)

  
 ScienceDaily: Shock Waves Through The Solar Nebula Could Explain Water-Rich Rocks
Science Daily — Shock waves through icy parts of the solar nebula could well be the mechanism that enriched meteorites with water -- water that some believe provided an otherwise dry Earth with oceans, according to a new study published in the current issue of Science (Jan. 24).
Why Earth has water is a mystery, for "especially early on in the solar nebula, the area where the Earth formed was too hot for water to incorporate into a solid body," Ciesla said.
If water reacted with the fine dust in the solar nebula as the new research suggests, temperatures in the meteorites would have remained low enough for organic molecules to survive and be delivered, along with water, to Earth.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2003/01/030129081126.htm   (1005 words)

  
 solar nebula --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The term was formerly applied to any object outside the solar system that had a diffuse appearance rather than a pointlike image, as in the case of a star.
The nebula is a cloud of interstellar gas and dust approximately 10 parsecs (33 light-years) in diameter.
The nebula consists of a cloud of ionized gas lit from within by young, hot stars; a dark cloud containing interstellar dust lies immediately in front.
www.britannica.com /ebc/article-9379046   (1054 words)

  
 PSR Discoveries:Hot Idea: Supernova Debris
This would mean that the solar nebula lasted at least several half lives of aluminum-26, or several million years, an interpretation that conflicts with other observations and theories depicting how long the solar nebula lasted.
The idea that aluminum-26 was not uniformly distributed in the solar nebula was extended to other short-lived, extinct isotopes as well, but it has never been proved--or disproved.
The answer is important to understanding the formation of the elements, timing of events in the solar nebula, and the overall structure and chemistry of the nebula.
www.psrd.hawaii.edu /Mar00/supernovaDebris.html   (1573 words)

  
 Magnetic field amplification in the solar nebula through interaction with the T-Tauri wind   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
As carbonaceous chondrites are the least thermally-evolved and hence the most primitive of the meteorites, their residual magnetization can, in principle, be used to estimate the intensity of the magnetic field in the primordial solar nebular, which varies between 0.2 and 1 G (refs 1−4), and could be as high as 2−3 G (ref. 4).
They claim only two of these are possible: (1) a large solar magnetic field spread into the solar nebula; (2) a hydromagnetic dynamo field generated in the solar nebula itself.
This mechanism, which involves the interaction of the T-Tauri wind with the solar nebular, is straightforward and is supported by results from recent space research.
www.nature.com /nature/journal/v312/n5995/abs/312625a0.html   (368 words)

  
 Formation of the Solar System
Have a good mental “movie” of the collapse of the solar nebula, and an understanding of what physical processes were important during the collapse.
Asteroids are concentrated in the asteroid belt, and comets populate the regions known as the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud.
The solar wind is composed of charged particles from the Sun’s hot (millions of degrees K) corona which carry the Sun’s magnetic field.
burro.astr.cwru.edu /denise/Spring03/Mar27/Mar27.htm   (1289 words)

  
 Solar Nebular Hypothesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The solar nebula hypothesis is in one form or another the most widely accepted theory of how our solar system formed.
As the cloud collapsed, gravitational energy (def) was released, heating the central portion of the nebula where a protosun (def) formed.
The evolving star at the center of the solar nebula passed through a T-Tauri star at which point it released bursts of energy (Figure 5).
www.cat.cc.md.us /courses/eas101/unit1/solneb.html   (586 words)

  
 NAI: News Stories   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Members of the NAI UCLA team led by Ed Young are using high-precision analysis of tiny grains in meteorites to probe the earliest history of the solar nebula.
The age of the solar system is set at 4.567 billion years, and the new work traces some of the history of these small grains during about 300,000 years, before the formation of comets, asteroids, or planets.
One possibility is that the orbits of these millimeter-sized grains within the solar nebula brought them very close to proto-sun perhaps as many as 15 times, where temperatures up to 1600 K persisting for 10-20 years would have caused partial melting of the grains.
nai.arc.nasa.gov /news_stories/news_detail.cfm?ID=320   (595 words)

  
 The First Sun Sample Return Mission
It and other solar wind collector tiles on the spacecraft will gather the first-ever samples of the solar wind as the spacecraft floats in the oncoming solar stream outside Earth's magnetosphere.
Because the outer layers of the Sun are composed of nearly the same material as the original solar nebula, samples returned by Genesis will shed new light on the chemical evolution of meteorites, comets, lunar samples, and planetary atmospheres.
To bathe in the solar wind, the spacecraft only needs to fly about 1.5 million kilometers (1 million miles) toward the Sun (about 1 percent of the Sun-Earth distance).
science.nasa.gov /headlines/y2000/ast12oct_1.htm   (935 words)

  
 PSRD: First Rock in the Solar System
We know that the solar system formed from a large cloud of gas and dust known as the solar nebula.
The sun contains 99.9% of the mass of the solar system and we know the composition of the sun from spectroscopic analysis of the light it emits; therefore we basically know the composition of the solar nebula.
ccording to calculations, pressures that would be reasonable for the solar nebula are between one-thousandth and one-millionth of the atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface.
www.psrd.hawaii.edu /Oct02/firstRock.html   (1362 words)

  
 Surf’s up in the solar nebula
They are found in meteorites but not in terrestrial rocks, and they are among the first solids that formed in the cloud of gas and dust called the solar nebula that swirled around the young sun and eventually gave rise to the solar system.
An animation of a crashing wave of gas in the solar nebula is available at http://westworld.astro.indiana.edu/movies.html ("Shock waves").
The work of Boss and Durisen demonstrates that our early solar nebula experienced the right types of shocks, at the right times, and at the right places in the nebula to melt chondrules.
newsinfo.iu.edu /news/page/normal/1961.html   (865 words)

  
 Arthur Ross Hall of Meteorites | American Museum of Natural History
Instead, a large disk of gas and dust known as the solar nebula swirled around a developing Sun.
Inside certain meteorites, for example, tiny spheres can be found that likely formed when clumps of dust grains drifting in the solar nebula melted and then solidified rapidly, forming small crystals.
Evidence from meteorites demonstrates that in our solar nebula, small bodies such as chondrules collided with other objects and stuck together to form larger bodies, eventually giving rise to planets.
www.amnh.org /exhibitions/permanent/meteorites/origins/chondrules.php   (745 words)

  
 Los Alamos instruments to capture the sun
Fortunately, nature provides a record of the solar nebula; its pristine composition is preserved for the most part in the outer layers of the sun.
Oxygen isotope amounts vary among the different planets in the solar system and this puzzles scientists because all solar system bodies were supposedly formed from the same raw materials.
About 96 percent of the solar wind is composed of protons, 4 percent alpha particles and less than 1 percent minor ions, one being oxygen.
www.lanl.gov /worldview/news/releases/archive/01-077.shtml   (1212 words)

  
 NASA's Solar System Exploration: Science & Technology: Migration of Phyllosilicates Through the Solar Nebula Could ...
Chondrites, among the oldest and most primitive solar system materials, are believed to have formed within the solar nebula.
Gas in the nebula slows as it passes through a shock front, increasing in temperature and density.
If water reacted with fine dust in the solar nebula, temperatures in the meteorites would have remained low enough for organic molecules to survive and be delivered, along with water to Earth.
solarsystem.nasa.gov /scitech/display.cfm?ST_ID=748   (534 words)

  
 Universe Today - Solar Nebula Lasted 2 Million Years
One group, called calcium aluminum-rich inclusions are known to have formed early in the solar nebula, and others, called chondrules, formed right at the end - 2 million years later.
The oxygen and magnesium content of some of the oldest objects in the universe are giving clues to the lifetime of the solar nebula, the mass of dust and gas that eventually led to the formation of our solar system.
In the past, the estimated lifetime of the solar nebula ranged from less than a million years to ten million years.
www.universetoday.com /am/publish/solar_nebula_2_million.html?2142005   (567 words)

  
 Building Planets at PSI: The Origin of the Solar System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
In the original solar system, the sun was surrounded by a disk-shaped cloud of dust and gas after it formed, 4.55 billion years ago.
In this cloud, or "solar nebula," innumerable particles of dust condensed out of the gas and orbited the sun in nearly circular orbits.
The nebula is so dusty that the sun is highly reddened like the sun seen through dusty haze at sunset.
www.psi.edu /projects/planets/planets.html   (891 words)

  
 SPACE.com -- Scientists Recreate Young Solar System Conditions in a Lab
The research sheds light on how dust was melted in the solar nebula to produce a "fiery rain" of droplets or beads called chondrules, which now are
Cohen said dust formed as the early solar nebula of gas cooled somewhat.
While the sun did not spit chondrules out, "the entire solar system is droplets of the same kind of material as the sun," Sears said.
www.space.com /scienceastronomy/solarsystem/fiery_rain_000809.html   (800 words)

  
 Star Formation, Life, and Death
The Eagle, Lagoon and Orion Nebulas all show the presence of heavy element, an abundance of dust and physical structures that appear to be fragmenting into newly formed protostars.
Scientists believe that the Sun and our solar system formed at nearly the same time out of the solar nebula - an enriched interstellar gas and dust cloud that existed where our solar system now lives.
Over the next several thousand years, the nebula will gradually disperse into space, and then the star will cool and fade away for billions of years as a white dwarf.
www.solarviews.com /eng/starformation.htm   (1193 words)

  
 GLG 130 Lecture 4   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The initial nebula presumably looked like the molecular cloud cores in M 16, where we find stars forming today.
The nebula contracts, but the tendency to conserve angular momentum causes the gas to spin faster and to flatten, forming a disk.
As for the solar system, this picture predicts that the inner satellites will be more dense than the outer satellites, because they formed in a hotter environment, and therefore consist of more refractory, and hence denser, material.
www.cita.utoronto.ca /~murray/GLG130/Lectures/Lecture_four.html   (552 words)

  
 Public Affairs Office: Livermore Lab Physicist Dates Lifetime of Solar Nebula at Two Million Years
Researchers analyzed the calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI), the larger circular object in the center of the photo, and the chondrule, the smaller circular object on the left, in a hand specimen of the Allende meteorite.
This artist's conception of the solar nebula shows the region of the Earth less than a million years after the sun formed.
In the past, the estimated lifetime of the solar nebula ranged from less than a million years to ten million years.
www.llnl.gov /PAO/news/news_releases/2005/NR-05-04-02.html   (550 words)

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