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Topic: Solar radiation


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  Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors
The Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors is available on the RReDC in HTML and PDF format.
Individual PDF files are available for the main body of the manual and for each of the 50 states, the Pacific Islands (Guam) and Puerto Rico.
Tables include the "Averages of solar radiation for each of the 360 months during the period of 1961-1990" and "30-year (1961-1990) average of monthly solar radiation".
rredc.nrel.gov /solar/pubs/redbook   (261 words)

  
  BIOMEDICAL RESULTS OF APOLLO - RADIATION PROTECTION AND INSTRUMENTATION (Sec.2,Ch.3)
Protection against manmade sources of radiation is a ground support function concerned mainly with the protection of the ground personnel, the general public, and the environment against detrimental effects of radiation.
Radiation doses measured during Apollo were significantly lower than the yearly average of 5 rem[*] set by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission for workers who use radioactive materials in factories and institutions across the United States.
Radiation protection for the Apollo Program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft.
lsda.jsc.nasa.gov /books/apollo/S2ch3.htm   (2300 words)

  
  Solar Radiation as a Factor in Arctic Weather and Climate
Solar radiation reaches the earth's surface either by being transmitted directly through the atmosphere ("direct solar radiation"), or by being scattered or reflected to the surface ("diffuse sky radiation").
The intensity of solar radiation striking a horizontal surface is measured by a pyranometer.
Incoming solar radiation that strikes the earth's surface is partially reflected and partially absorbed, in proportion to surface reflectivity (albedo).
nsidc.org /arcticmet/factors/radiation.html   (1056 words)

  
  Solar Radiation
Solar radiation is becoming increasingly appreciated because of its influence on living matter and the feasibility of its application for useful purposes.
Solar radiation is partially depleted and attenuated as it traverses the atmospheric layers, preventing a substantial portion of it from reaching the earth's surface.
Solar radiation is unevenly distributed throughout the world because of such variables as solar altitude, which is associated with latitude and season, and atmospheric conditions, which are determined by cloud coverage and degree of pollution.
almashriq.hiof.no /lebanon/600/610/614/solar-water/idrc/01-09.html   (2737 words)

  
 solar radiation
A general term for the visible and near visible (ultraviolet and near-infrared) electromagnetic radiation that is emitted by the Sun.
The solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface without being diffused is called direct solar radiation or direct insolation.
Measurements of solar energy are typically expressed as total radiation on a horizontal surface, or as total radiation on a surface tracking the sun.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/S/AE_solar_radiation.html   (766 words)

  
 Solar Energy: Fundamental Considerations
Solar radiation moves freely in outer space because of the vacuum, unless its path is obstructed by planets, satellites, meteorites, or other space objects.
Radiation may be partially or completely absorbed by an object, the components thus absorbed being dependent on the wavelength of the specific radiation and the characteristics of the object.
Radiation may be reflected by being returned from the surface of an object in an unchanged form except for the deviation whereby the angle of reflection would be equal and opposite to the angle of incidence.
almashriq.hiof.no /lebanon/600/610/614/solar-water/unesco/19-20.html   (582 words)

  
 Renewable Energy - Solar Energy, radiant/light energy, heat/thermal energy
Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth.
Solar thermal power generation is essentially the same as conventional technologies except that in conventional technologies the energy source is from the stored energy in fossil fuels released by combustion.
A solar dish/engine system utilizes concentrating solar collectors that track the sun on two axes, concentrating the energy at the focal point of the dish because it is always pointed at the sun.
www.eia.doe.gov /kids/energyfacts/sources/renewable/solar.html   (1834 words)

  
 Passive Solar Heating and Cooling
All solar radiation travels through space in waves, and it is the length of these waves (the shortest is less than a millionth of an inch, the longest more than a thousand yards) by which all solar radiation is classified.
A measurement of this phenomena is known as the Solar Constant, defined as the amount of heat energy delivered by solar radiation to a square foot of material set perpendicular to the sun’s rays for one hour at the outer edge of the earth’s atmosphere.
Solar energy passes through the windows is absorbed by interior materials, and reradiated into the interior space in the form of thermal energy (heat) which is unable to pass back through the glass to the outside.
www.azsolarcenter.com /technology/pas-1.html   (1831 words)

  
 Solar radiation - Encyclopedia of Earth
Solar energy is created at the core of the sun when hydrogen atoms are fused into helium by nuclear fusion (Figure 2).
Solar energy is produced at the core of the sun by nuclear fusion.
Infrared solar radiation with wavelengths greater than 700 nm is partially absorbed by carbon dioxide, ozone, and water present in the atmosphere in liquid and vapour forms.
www.eoearth.org /article/Solar_radiation   (1178 words)

  
 Solar Radiation and the Earth's Energy Balance
We examine the relationship between solar radiation and the Earth's temperature, and study the role of the atmosphere and its constituents in that interaction, to develop an understanding of the topics such as the "seasonal cycle" and the "greenhouse effect".
However, the energy of solar radiation is not divided evenly over all wavelengths but, as Figure 1 shows, is rather sharply centered on the wavelength band of 0.2-2 micrometers (μm=one millionth of a meter).
During Solstices, incoming radiation is perpendicular to the Earth surface on either the latitude of Cancer or the latitude of Capricorn, 23.5° north or south of the equator, depending on whether it is summer or winter in the Northern Hemisphere, respectively.
eesc.columbia.edu /courses/ees/climate/lectures/radiation   (3288 words)

  
 Solar Radiation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Solar radiation is measured atop the meteorological mast at the shore laboratory using an Eppley Model PSP (Precision Spectral Pyranometer).
Approximately 99% of solar, or short-wave, radiation at the earth's surface is contained in the region from 0.3 to 3.0 µm, which corresponds to wavelength between the ultraviolet and near infrared.
The PSP senses this radiation with a thermopile that produces a millivolt signal that is directly proportional to the downwelling solar irradiance.
www.whoi.edu /mvco/description/SolRad.html   (194 words)

  
 EO Library: Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE)
Solar energy also drives the Earth’s climate, and slight variations in solar radiance could offset (or increase) global warming.
There are also longer-term trends in solar weather activity that last anywhere from years to centuries to millennia and may have an impact on global warming.
They are unable to predict fluctuations in TSI due to 11-year and long-term solar cycles, and scientists do not yet have accurate enough measurements to determine the trend from one cycle to the next with sufficient precision.
eobglossary.gsfc.nasa.gov /Library/SORCE   (742 words)

  
 The Book of THoTH (Leaves of Wisdom) - Solar radiation
Solar radiation is commonly measured with a pyranometer or pyrheliometer.
The solar constant is the amount of incoming solar radiation per unit area, measured on the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere, in a plane perpendicular to the rays.
Hence, the average incoming solar radiation (known as "insolation") is one fourth the solar constant or ~342 W/m².
www.book-of-thoth.com /thebook/index.php/Solar_radiation   (747 words)

  
 UO SRML: Solar radiation basics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Local time is the same in the entire time zone whereas solar time relates to the position of the sun with respect to the observer, and that is different depending on the exact longitude where solar time is calculated.
The solar radiation is not much different from the radiation of any object that is heated to about 5800 Kelvin except that the 'surface' of the sun is heated by the fusion process.
Approximately 47% of the incident extraterrestrial solar radiation is in the visible wavelengths from 380 nm to 780 nm.
solardat.uoregon.edu /SolarRadiationBasics.html   (1723 words)

  
 solar heating theory, solar temperature and energy knowledge is important.
The solar constant is the average rate of solar energy arriving at the outer edge of the earth's atmosphere, before any losses.
Solar radiation, mostly in the form of visible light, is contained in a "channel" of short wavelengths.
In a solar heating collector, the absorber is that portion of the collector which receives the radiant energy from the sun and converts it to heat at longer wavelengths.
www.solarexpert.com /Heat-theory.html   (984 words)

  
 U.S. Global Change Research Information Office
Solar UV radiation, unlike that in the visible and infrared spectrum, seldom reaches the surface of the Earth since it is absorbed by the atmosphere.
One consequence of these solar perturbations is to complicate the detection of human-induced depletion of the protective ozone layer; another may be to perturb the temperature at the Earth's surface, through connections that link the upper and lower parts of the atmosphere.
Looking ahead, were solar changes limited to what has been measured in the last fifteen years, future changes in the Sun's total radiation would have only a negligible effect on the temperature increases of 1 to 3°C that are now projected in IPCC models for the end of the next century.
www.gcrio.org /CONSEQUENCES/winter96/sunclimate.html   (5971 words)

  
 Solar Radiation Sensors
The CM 6B Pyranometer is suitable for the routine measurement of incoming global solar radiation (0.3 to 2.8 µm spectral range), diffuse sky irradiance measurements, and surface reflected solar radiation measurement research.
The CM 21 Pyranometer is well suited for the measurement of incoming global solar radiation (305 to 2800 nm spectral range), diffuse sky irradiance measurements, and surface reflected solar radiation measurement research.
Solar radiation is measured by two pyranometers, one for measuring incoming radiation from the sky, and the other, which faces downward, for measuring the reflected Solar radiation.
www.omniinstruments.co.uk /airweath/kippzonen/kippsolar.html   (2413 words)

  
 Solar and Ultraviolet Radiation (IARC Summary & Evaluation, , )
Assessment of the carcinogenicity of solar radiation for the lip is complicated by the fact that carcinoma of the lip as actually diagnosed is a mixture of cancers of the external lip and cancers of the buccal membranes.
Solar radiation was tested for carcinogenicity in a series of exceptional studies in mice and rats.
UVC radiation induces DNA damage in and is mutagenic to prokaryotes, fungi and plants and induces DNA damage in insects and aneuploidy in yeast.
www.inchem.org /documents/iarc/vol55/solar-and-uv-radiation.html   (3593 words)

  
 Troposphere Temperature and Solar Radiation
I have noticed that the trend in the fluctuations of the solar activity and the trend in the variability of the tropospheric temperature on Earth are almost parallel one to another.
It is evident that the equivalences between the variability of the tropospheric Temperature and the variability of the solar irradiance are directly related with the intensity of the incoming Solar Radiation.
The latter includes all forms of radiation emitted by the Sun, for example, Infrared Radiation (Heat), light, UV radiation, X rays, gamma rays, etc. At present, we are experiencing a larger solar cycle (lasting about 100 years) that includes 10 cycles of 11 years each.
biocab.org /Temperature_and_Solar_Radiation.html   (890 words)

  
 glossary of solar heating terms used for solar thermal energy applications
A solar collection device in which sunlight is converted into heat on a plane surface without the aid of reflecting surfaces to concentrate the rays.
A solar heating or cooling system in which the solar heat is collected exterior to the building and transferred inside using ducts or piping and, usually fans or ducts.
A surface that absorbs radiation of one wavelength (for example, sunlight) but emits little radiation of another wavelength (for example, infrared); used as a coating for absorber plates.
solarexpert.com /Glossary.html   (1709 words)

  
 EO Library: Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE)
Solar energy also drives the Earth’s climate, and slight variations in solar radiance could offset (or increase) global warming.
They are unable to predict fluctuations in TSI due to 11-year and long-term solar cycles, and scientists do not yet have accurate enough measurements to determine the trend from one cycle to the next with sufficient precision.
SORCE will be equipped with four instruments that will measure variations in solar radiation much more accurately than anything now in use and observe some of the spectral properties of solar radiation for the first time.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov /Library/SORCE   (737 words)

  
 Solar radiation and Milankovich
The value of the solar constant (total amount of radiation incident on the earth in 1 year) is not just an estimate; it is determined for example from observations of the american Solar Maximum Mission in 1987.
These measurements showed that although the solar constant S is not perfectly constant, the variation is less than 1% of the average value.
Active calculation of the solar radiation on an arbitrary place on Earth and time of year is not so easy.
www.open.ou.nl /dja/Klimaat/System/solar_radiation_and_milank.htm   (964 words)

  
 SolarMission Technologies, Inc. :: The Solar Tower Project is designed to provide large scale renewable energy with ...
The solar radiation is responsible for causing a constant up-draught in the tower.
Solar Towers are particularly reliable and not liable to break down, in comparison with other solar generation plants.
Solar Towers can not convert the entire proportion of solar heat collected into electricity, but manages to compensate for this disadvantage by their cheap, robust construction and low maintenance costs.
www.solarmissiontechnologies.com /project-technology.htm   (741 words)

  
 SPACE.com -- Solar Radiation Storm Smacks Satellites and Space Station
This latest event has set off a radiation storm that is preventing some sun-watching satellites from doing their jobs.
NASA and the astronauts aboard the International Space Station keep watch for strong radiation storms and sometimes retreat to the most protective part of the orbiting outpost to avoid exposure.
The flares are loaded with X-rays and other radiation, all of which reaches Earth moments after the eruption and can be accompanied by a shower of protons.
www.space.com /scienceastronomy/061213_radiation_storm.html   (405 words)

  
 EERE Consumer's Guide: Solar Radiation Basics
Solar radiation is a general term for the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun.
The solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface without being diffused is called direct beam solar radiation.
Measurements of solar energy are typically expressed as total radiation on a horizontal surface, or as total radiation on a surface tracking the sun.
www.eere.energy.gov /consumer/renewable_energy/solar/index.cfm/mytopic=50012   (669 words)

  
 Solar Radiation
Joseph Scotto, M.S. Solar radiation exposure is the chief cause of nonmelanoma (i.e., basal cell and squamous cell) skin cancer.
By 1928, scientists were able to demonstrate the cancer-causing effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin of laboratory animals, using both sunlight and artificial light sources (Findlay, 1928).
A 1 percent increase in solar UV-B exposure may result in a 2 percent increase in the incidence rate of basal cell carcinoma, a 4 percent increase in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and a 1 percent increase in skin melanoma (Scotto, 1976, 1983; Fears, 1977; Rundel 1983; Green, 1978).
rex.nci.nih.gov /NCI_Pub_Interface/raterisk/risks103.html   (995 words)

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