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Topic: Somatosensory system

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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  Sensory system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the memory-prediction framework, Jeff Hawkins mentions a correspondence between the six layers of the cerebral cortex and the six layers of the optic tract of the visual system.
Somatosensory Area 1, or S1, is for touch and proprioception in the somatosensory system.
The somatosensory system feeds the Brodmann Areas 3, 1 and 2 of the primary somatosensory cortex.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sensory_system   (619 words)

 Somatosensory system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The somatosensory system is the sensory system of somatic sensation.
The primary somatosensory area in the human cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus (Parietal Lobe).
Areas of this part of the human brain map to certain areas of the body, dependant on the amount or importance of somatosensory input from that area.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Somatosensory_system   (302 words)

 Stage 5: Telesensory
And it is clearly possible, because somatosensory animals already have already evolved the mechanism of embryological development to serve as their biological behavior guidance system, and they have already evolved neurons for transmitting and regulating the signals from sensory input that caused behavioral output.
These systems of neurons had to be organized as parts of centralized nervous system in order to use telesensory input to guide locomotion (and to select the appropriate kind of behavior as an animal behavior guidance system).
Since telesensory nervous systems must already be able to generate more or less complex instinctive behavioral routines in relation to objects in space in order to generate the various kinds of behavior needed to control relevant conditions, only relatively modest modifications of their neurological mechanisms are needed to represent the locations of unperceived objects.
www.twow.net /ObjText/OtkCbGeRRS05.htm   (8032 words)

 [No title]
Receptors in the somatosensory system are composed of two elements 1) The axon of a ganglion cell, whose cell body is in a dorsal root ganglion.
In al other systems, the receptor is a separate neuron that innervates the ganglion cell either directly (as in the auditory system) or indirectly (as in the visual system).
Ganglion cells of the somatosensory system are, by their termination as parts of different receptor types, sensitive to just one of several types of somatosensory stimulus applied to a very small part of the body.
mind-brain.com /tins/media/IIntro_to_Sensory_Systems.doc   (2308 words)

Because of the functional and morphological correlation between the vibrissae and the barrels, the vibrissae-barrel neuraxis is an attractive model for studying structure, function, development and plasticity within the somatosensory system.
Another similarity between the visual system and the vibrissal system, which accounts for the previously discussed neuronal properties, is that receptive field formation in both systems is dependent on inhibitory processes.
The second, is that the mechanisms of directional selectivity in the visual system have been determined to be geniculocortical, while those in the vibrissal system are so far considered to be intracortical.
www.arches.uga.edu /~anackley/thesis2.htm   (12989 words)

 Cortically induced thalamic plasticity in the primate somatosensory system - Nature Neuroscience
The influence of cortical feedback on receptive field organization in the thalamus was assessed in the primate somatosensory system.
Although the connectivity of the system suggests a substantial influence from cortex over the processing of somatosensory information at the level of the thalamus, there has been no definitive demonstration of a major cortical influence on receptive field size, response properties or somatotopic organization in VP.
This study demonstrates that some RF characteristics within somatosensory pathways result from a series of interconnected dynamic loops, with changes at any given level capable of triggering extensive changes in the RFs of neurons at both earlier and later stations in the processing chain.
www.nature.com /neuro/journal/v1/n3/full/nn0798_226.html   (2838 words)

However, the portions of the central nervous system, particularly the neocortex, that participate in the generation of tactile perception, recognition, proprioception, and goal directed reaching have yet to be elucidated.
In addition, the somatosensory system must provide the motor cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and subcortical structures with relevant information regarding the position of the limbs in space and the location of contact at different points across the hand.
The somatosensory system must also provide the motor cortex with feedback regarding changes in the position of the digits of the hand and stimulation patterns across the hand.
psychology.ucdavis.edu /labs/Krubitzer/Studies_of_the_primate_somatosensory_system.html   (375 words)

 [No title]
In contrast to the visual system, the end of the receptors is connected directly to the nervous system — spinal cord; receptors and ganglion cell are the same.
Somatosensory Cortex (see map) there are multiple copies of the body surface in somatosensory cortex.
This discontinuity is not seen in the visual system; different fingers can be stimulated in isolation, whereas neighboring receptive fields in the retina are usually co-activated in a correlated manner.
cogsci.ucsd.edu /~ffilimon/COGS107B/107BSection7.doc   (617 words)

 Basic Somatosensory Pathway
The somatosensory system includes multiple types of sensation from the body - light touch, pain, pressure, temperature, and joint and muscle position sense (also called proprioception).
The system that is carried in the spinal cord includes the entire body from the neck down; face information is carried by cranial nerves, and we will come back to it later.
Primary somatosensory cortex is located in the post-central gyrus, which is the fold of cortex just posterior to the central sulcus.
thalamus.wustl.edu /course/bassens.html   (981 words)

 Somatosensory pathways - Body
The spinothalamic system enters the VPL, synapses, and is finally carried to cortex by the thalamocortical neurons.
In the dorsal horn, they are located on the terminals of the primary afferents, as well as on the cell bodies of the secondary afferents.
The proprioceptive system arises from primarily the A
thalamus.wustl.edu /course/body.html   (1697 words)

 Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The somatosensory system, the sensation of the body and its movements, is not one sense but many.
The somatic nervous system refers to nerves that convey messages from the sense organs to the central nervous system and from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
The somatosensory cortex is that portion of the cerebral cortex that responds to touch and other body information.
kc.vanderbilt.edu /kennedy/research/topics/somatosensory.html   (419 words)

 Neural regulation of kidney function by the somatosensory system in normotensive and hypertensive rats -- Zhang et al. ...
Neural regulation of kidney function by the somatosensory system in normotensive and hypertensive rats -- Zhang et al.
There is now a consensus that activity within the sympathetic nervous system is elevated in hypertensive states (21).
Somatosensory influences on renal sympathetic nerve activity in anesthetized Wistar and hypertensive rats.
ajpregu.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/273/5/R1749   (5723 words)

 Sensory & Motor Neuroscience: Somatosensory System II   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
This plot is generated by moving a letter K across the receptive field of a neuron in the somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) repeatedly while shifting its vertical position by small steps.
When attention is directed to the tactile stimulus, the response of the neurons in the somatosensory cortex is enhanced, compared to when attention is directed to visual stimuli.
As in the visual system, spikes of neurons in various cortical and subcortical structures in the somatosensory systems are often synchronized.
www.bcs.rochester.edu /~dlee/bcs245/somato2.htm   (158 words)

 The Story Behind The Data   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
If the experiments performed through the model and upon the system under study have been conducted without artifactual results and the two outputs do not agree, then it is the model that is in error not the data collected from the system.
Response of somatosensory cerebral neurons to stimulation of dorsal and dorsolateral spinal funiculi.
Towe, A. Neuronal population behavior in the somatosensory systems.
oto.wustl.edu /bbears/arnie/cctxstry.htm   (6815 words)

The somatosensory system represents a particularly well-suited example, as top-down signals are involved at all levels of processing, and as the distal sensors are actively moved.
Thus, physiological data, recorded in some part of the somatosensory system can be incorporated into the model, and similarly, the simulated neural network can exchange data with the artificial system and, thus, interact with the real world.
Any investigation of the somatosensory system starts with important decisions on the range of stimuli to be used.
www.ini.unizh.ch /~peterk/ProjectList.html   (2561 words)

 Conference Materials
Using a whole-head MEG system (BTi), neuromagnetic recordings were obtained for 7 sighted and 7 congenitally blind right-handed adults while attending to tactile "taps" delivered to the right index finger.
As previously observed in the auditory system, experimental and perceptual results indicate a critical intrapair interval of approximately 12 msec.
As in the auditory system, these results obtained from the somatosensory system indicate that gamma-band oscillatory activity is a neurophysiological correlate of early temporal processing, suggesting that the CNS employs a central gamma-band timing mechanism for cognitive binding.
cognet.mit.edu /library/conferences/paper?paper_id=4363   (237 words)

 Behavioral Properties of the Trigeminal Somatosensory System in Rats Performing Whisker-Dependent Tactile ...
The mystacial vibrissae/trigeminal somatosensory system of the rat is a widely used model for studying the properties of somatosensation
Dörfl J (1985) The innervation of the mystacial region of the white mouse.
Nicolelis MA, Chapin JK (1994) Spatiotemporal structure of somatosensory responses of many-neuron ensembles in the rat ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/21/15/5752   (9682 words)

 Sensory Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory, Visual, and Auditory Evoked Potentials, 211   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Updated 1/2000 to include coverage for visual evoked potentials for infants, unresponsive, and non-verbal patients; somatosensory evoked potentials for multiple sclerosis, to evaluate patients with suspected brain death, unexplained myelopathy, and for localizing the cause of a neurologic deficit seen on exam, not explained by lesions seen on CT or MRI.
AEP is the only reliable way to assess the auditory system in neonates and young infants at high risk for hearing loss.
In the absence of cranial vault lesion or intracranial hemorrhage suggesting damage to the somatosensory system, assessment can be more reliably made during a neurologic exam once the patient is awake.
www.bluecrossma.com /common/en_US/medical_policies/211.htm   (2570 words)

 USATODAY.com - Study: Walking on cobblestones is healthy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The body relies on two complex methods to maintain balance — the vestibular system in the inner ear and the somatosensory system that connects skin and muscles, Horak said.
Normally, people depend on the somatosensory system for about 70% of their balance control, and 30% on the inner ear.
But when the surface is uneven or unstable, the body switches reliance to the vestibular system and relies on it for about 70% of balance control, Horak said.
www.usatoday.com /news/health/2005-07-12-cobblestones_x.htm   (736 words)

 Publications at the Graybiel Lab
Fotuhi, M., Dawson, T.M., Sharp, A.H., Martin, L.J., Graybiel, A.M. and Snyder, S.H. (1993) Phosphoinositide second messenger system is enriched in striosomes: Immunohistochemical demonstration of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and phospholipase C, beta and gamma in primate basal ganglia.
Graybiel, A.M., Hirsch, E.C. and Agid, Y.A. (1990) The nigrostriatal system in Parkinson's disease.
Graybiel, A.M. and Newman-Gage, H. (1987) Ontogeny of dopaminergic systems in the basal ganglia.
web.mit.edu /bcs/graybiel-lab/pub.html   (5941 words)

 OCTH 455; Thoughts: somatosensory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Thalamus to primary, then secondary somatosensory cortex (sensation is noticed, identified as an itch, and localized to the foot - all without involving another sensory system).
Output = Still without involving another sensory system (that is, you don't look), you make a motor plan, reaching down to scratch your foot using the fingers of your hand (corticospinal pathway; cortex to thalamus to spinal cord to fingers).
The maps are housed in the primary somatosensory cortex, but that information is used by the secondary somatosensory cortex to identify the source of the sensation).
www.kumc.edu /SAH/OTEd/OCTH455_PTRS850/LectureNotes/somatoThoughts.html   (787 words)

 SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Because it codes so many different kinds of stimuli, the somatosensory sense is really a combination of several different sensory qualities or kinds of sensory experiences, including, among others, light touch, vibration, pressure, hair movement, joint position, warmth, cooling, and at least two different types of pain.
Each kind of receptor is part of its own kind of sensory (afferent) neuron, which in turn connect to its own kinds of neurons in the somatosensory (~touch) system in the brain.
It shows four different kinds of stimuli activating four different sensory systems, each activated by its own adequate stimulus (there are several more kinds, which are not shown).
www.indiana.edu /~p1013447/dictionary/somato~1.htm   (342 words)

 Somatosensory systems
In addition to taste, smell, vision and hearing, the nervous system is able to detect a variety of physical stimuli through the somatosensory system.
Neurons arising in the ventral posterior nucleus synapse within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), which is located within the postcentral gyrus.
The somatotopic map of the body is repeated throughout the somatosensory cortical areas.
www.neurosci.pharm.utoledo.edu /MBC4420/sensory.htm   (1699 words)

 Stochastic Resonance within the Somatosensory System: Effects of Noise on Evoked Field Potentials Elicited by Tactile ...
Stochastic resonance (SR) is commonly understood to be the enhancement, by noise, of the response of a system to a weak input
Stochastic resonance (SR) is a counterintuitive phenomenon of nonlinear systems that refers to the increase of the signal-to-noise
Manjarrez E, Rojas-Piloni G, Martínez L, Vázquez D, Vélez D, Méndez I, Flores A (2002b) Amplitude of somatosensory cortical evoked potentials is correlated with spontaneous activity of spinal neurones in the cat.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/23/6/1997   (3559 words)

 Postural Stability in the Elderly during Sensory Perturbations and Dual Tasking: The Influence of Refractive Blur -- ...
system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling.
the input from the vestibular system and not vertebrobasilar
of the input from the somatosensory and vestibular systems (Fig.
www.iovs.org /cgi/content/full/44/7/2885   (4075 words)

 Hsiao Publications.
Hsiao SS, Lane JW, Fitzgerald PJ (2002) Representation of Orientation in the Somatosensory System.
DiCarlo JJ, Johnson KO, Hsiao SS (1998) Structure of receptive fields in area 3b of primary somatosensory cortex in the alert monkey.
In: Somesthesis and the Neurobiology of the Somatosensory Cortex (Franzén O, Johansson RS, Terenius L, eds), pp 229-247.
mind-brain.com /hsiao/pubs.asp   (1434 words)

 Lecture 20   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Somatosensory system provides information about more than one modality, several kinds of receptors providing information mediating varied skin sensations including touch, hot, cold, and pain
Somatosensory receptors are found all over body and within it, rather than confined to discrete sense organs or one part of body like nose or tongue
Magnetic sense might derive from visual system, specialized photoreceptors utilize electron spin resonance, response to light may thus be modulated by orientation with respect to Earth's magnetic field
soma.npa.uiuc.edu /courses/bio303/Ch14.html   (2248 words)

 quiz3.2001a   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Strength of external stimulus is coded as frequency of action potentials in the dorsal root ganglion cell of the somatosensory system.
The existence of a localized area of primary cortex devoted to somatosensory system but not to pain.
The way that the gamma system changes 'gain' as discussed in Purves is by maintaining Ia afferent activity.
socrates.berkeley.edu /~alanburr/neurobio/Neuroexams/quiz3.2001a.html   (363 words)

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