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Topic: South Arabian alphabet

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It is generally held that the Latins adopted the western variant of the Greek alphabet in the 7th century BC from Cumae, a Greek colony in southern Italy.
The Latin alphabet spread from Italy, along with the Latin language, to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire.
The Finnish alphabet and collating rules are the same as in Swedish, except for the addition of the letters Š and Ž, which are considered variants of S and Z. In French and English, characters with diaeresis (ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ÿ) are usually treated just like their un-accented versions.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/l/la/latin_alphabet.html   (3406 words)

 South Arabian alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca.
It was used for writing the Old South Arabic dialects of the Sabaean, Qatabanian, Hadrami, Minaean, Himyarite, and other ancient Yemeni kingdoms on the southern Arabian Peninsula.
In the 8th century BCE the alphabet spread to Ethiopia, where it evolved later into the Ge'ez alphabet, the basis of the modern Amharic, Tigrinya and Tigre alphabet.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/South_Arabian_alphabet   (171 words)

 Aramaic alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The earliest inscriptions in the Aramaic language use the Phoenician alphabet.
The use of Aramaic as a lingua franca throughout the Middle East from the 8th century BCE led to the gradual adoption of the Aramaic alphabet for writing Hebrew.
Controversially, it is claimed that the Aramaic alphabet may be the forebear of the Indic alphabets.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Aramaic_alphabet   (256 words)

 South Arabian   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The South Arabian alphabet was used primarily in the Sabaean and Minaean kingoms in the Southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula.
It is thought to have diverged from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as early as 1300 BC, and a developing form appeared in Babylonia and near Elath of the Gulf of Aqaba around the 8th/7th centuries BC.
The South Arabian proper appears around 500 BC, and continued to be used until around 600 AD (at which time, of course, the entire Arabian Peninsula was converted to Islam and Arabic became the most important language).
www.crystalinks.com /arabian.html   (135 words)

 Alphabet - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The precursors of the alphabet were the iconographic and ideographic writing of ancient man, such as wall paintings, cuneiform, and the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians.
An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters — basic written symbols — each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past.
The first alphabet in the wider sense was the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, an abjad, which through its successor Phoenician became the ancestor of all later alphabets.
alphabet.quickseek.com   (2510 words)

 Runic alphabet - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia, and the British Isles.
The Northern Italic alphabet is usually quoted as a candidate for the origin of the runes.
The letters of the Gothic alphabet, however, as given by the Alcuin manuscript (9th century), are obviously related to the names of the Futhark.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Rune   (3158 words)

 Towns and temples – the emergence of south Arabian civiliza...
South Arabian culture cannot have depended entirely on the monopoly of its precious wares and the exchange with the civilisations of the near east.
The second condition that South Arabian societies had to fulfill in order to make full use of the opportunities offered by the trade with foreign countries was the acquisition of foreign techniques and their dissemination throughout the state.
South Arabian civilization appears to have started in Marib shortly before the middle of the first millennium B.C. Most of the earlier buildings were constructed unburned bricks, the later ones of stone.
www.yemenweb.com /info/_disc/0000002d.htm   (4603 words)

 Cyrillic alphabet - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The plan of the alphabet is derived from the early Cyrillic alphabet, itself a derivative of the Glagolitic alphabet, a ninth century uncial cursive usually credited to two brothers from Thessaloniki, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius.
The theory is supported by the fact that the Cyrillic alphabet almost completely replaced the Glagolitic in northeastern Bulgaria as early as the end of the tenth century, whereas the Ohrid Literary School—where Saint Clement worked—continued to use the Glagolitic until the twelfth century.
The alphabet was disseminated along with the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language, and the alphabet used for modern Church Slavonic language in Eastern Orthodox rites still resembles early Cyrillic.
cyrillicalphabet.quickseek.com   (2933 words)

 Semitic Languages (and the Phoenician language)
Lebanon and Syria, and the Southwest (South) to the Arabian peninsula and Ethiopia.
The monumental forms of the South Arabian alphabet were derived from Canaanite consonant script, brought to the area around 1300 BC.
It diverged from the South Arabian languages around the beginning of the Christian era, reaching its greatest extension in the 4th century AD, when it was spoken especially in the kingdom of Aksum on either side of the present-day border of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
www.phoenicia.org /semlang.html   (2828 words)

 Phoenician alphabet - Wikipedia Light!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BC.
It later split off into a number of related alphabets, including the modern Hebrew alphabet, the Syriac alphabet, and the Nabatean alphabet, a highly cursive form that was the origin of the Arabic alphabet.
The Latin and the Cyrillic alphabets are derived from the Greek alphabet.
godseye.com /wiki/index.php?title=Phoenician_alphabet   (760 words)

 alphabet Information Center - graffiti alphabet
An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters — basic written alphabet coloring sheets symbols — each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past.
In later Pahlavi alphabet activities papyri, up to half of the graffiti alphabet remaining graphic distinctions were lost, and the script could no longer be read as a sequence of letters chinese alphabet at all, but calligraphy alphabet had to be learned as word symbols – that is, as logograms like Egyptian Demotic.
The theory claims that a greater level of abstraction alphabet beads is required due to the greater economy of symbols in alphabetic systems; and this abstraction needed to interpret phonemic symbols in turn has contributed in some way to the development of the societies which use it.
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Linguistic_Topics_A_-_Co/alphabet.html   (2270 words)

 Phoenician Alphabet
The Phoenician alphabetic script of 22 letters was used at Byblos as early as the 15th century B.C. This method of writing, later adopted by the Greeks, is the ancestor of the modern Roman alphabet.
All the European alphabets are descendants of the Phoenician, and all the Asiatic alphabets are descendants of the Aramaic variants of the Phoenician.
Phoenician alphabet is the ancestor of the Greek alphabet and, hence, of all Western alphabets.
phoenicia.org /alphabet.html   (3261 words)

 Greek alphabet - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
It was the first true alphabet, that is, an alphabet with a symbol for each vowel and consonant, and is the oldest alphabetic script in use today.
The Greek alphabet originated as a modification of the Phoenician alphabet and in turn gave rise to the Gothic, Glagolitic, Cyrillic, Coptic, and possibly the Armenian alphabets, as well as the Latin alphabet, as documented in History of the alphabet.
The most notable change in the Greek alphabet, compared to its predecessor, the Phoenician alphabet, is the introduction of written vowels, without which Greek — unlike Phoenician — would be unintelligible.
greekalphabet.quickseek.com   (1707 words)

 AllRefer.com - Arabic languages : South Arabian (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
Old South Arabian, or Himyaritic, was the language of people living in the S Arabian Peninsula in ancient times.
Old South Arabian had its own alphabet, the origin of which is still not clear, although it is generally thought to have had the same source as the North Semitic writing.
Modern South Arabian, which has several dialects, is spoken by about 50,000 people in the S Arabian Peninsula.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/A/Arabicla-south-arabian.html   (257 words)

 Greatest Inventions-- The Alphabet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Sanskrit is written in an alphabet of 53 letters, including the visarga mark for final aspiration and special letters for kš and jñ, though one of the long els is theoretical and not actually used.
Latin alphabet to write all of its own words, but certain letters (such as K, X and W) are retained for the purpose of writing "foreign" words.
Santali alphabet, an indigenous true alphabet of India, appears to be based on traditional symbols such as "danger" and "meeting place", as well as pictographs invented by its creator.
www.edinformatics.com /inventions_inventors/alphabet.htm   (2709 words)

 Saudi Aramco World : Inside Arabia Felix   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The kingdoms of South Arabia were the principal producers and importers of both substances and so tightly controlled the routes their caravans used in bringing their valuable products to what is today called Jordan, that they managed to keep this monopoly.
The South Arabians may not have been masters of a golden empire, nor creators of great temples, but they were prolific writers.
Even the South Arabian alphabet which required many centuries to develop and which, between the pre-Christian era and the 6th century A.D., went through a series of very marked changes, gives no clue to dates because there is no reference point.
www.saudiaramcoworld.com /issue/196501/inside.arabia.felix.htm   (1908 words)

 Ancient Scripts: Alphabet
This alphabet, though, eventually disappeared from the mainstream, and survived as the Samaritan script.
In Israel, it became the "Jewish" alphabet, the direct descendant of which is the modern Hebrew alphabet.
Traditionally the Greeks held that their alphabet was derived from the Phoenician alphabet, and many scholars agree with this as well.
www.ancientscripts.com /alphabet.html   (1403 words)

 British-Yemeni Society: Archaeological research in Yemen, by C Phillips
Therefore, despite all of the achievements made by Niebuhr and his colleagues, the recording of South Arabian inscriptions and the first hand description of South Arabian antiquities was something which eluded them and it is not until the early nineteenth century that subsequent visitors to the Yemen were able to fulfil this task.
The implication therefore, was that the South Arabian alphabet might have been in use from the early first millennium BC.
The origin of South Arabian civilisation was, and undoubtedly still is to some extent, rather problematic.
www.al-bab.com /bys/articles/phillips96.htm   (2379 words)

 Nabataea: The Multi-Alphabet Theory
It was used in Syria as early as the 11th century BC and is probably the forerunner of all subsequent alphabetic scripts, with the possible exception of those scripts classified as South Semitic.
These scripts, most of which were used only in the Southern Arabian Peninsula, are of note because of their great age and because of the lack of any clear link between them and the North Semitic alphabet.
The South Arabian alphabet was used primarily in the Sabaean and Minaean kingdoms in the Southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula.
nabataea.net /write2.html   (1737 words)

 Queen of Sheba ruins, Ethiopia  -  Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin
Aksum's culture comprised Ge'ez, written in a modified South Arabian alphabet, sculpture and architecture based on South Arabian prototypes, and an amalgam of local and Middle Eastern dieties.
Thus, evidence exists of a close cultural exchange between Aksum and the Arabian peninsula, but there are no scholarly grounds for the common belief that South Arabian immigrants actually peopled and created Aksum, even if many of them visited or even came to live there.
Even the South Arabian kingdom of the Himyarites, across the Red Sea in what is now Yemen, came under the suzerainty of Aksum.
www.galenfrysinger.com /queen_of_sheba_ethiopia.htm   (579 words)

 Ancient South Arabian
To the West and South, these highlands are flanked by low-lying coastal areas bordering the Red Sea (the Tihama) and the Indian Ocean.
To the East lies a vast desert area (Ramlat al-Sabatayn) and to the North the mountain range of the Arabian Desert.
The periods for which there are textual sources are now divided in: Archaic South- Arabian (1200 - 700 BC), Ancient South-Arabian (700-110 BC), Middle South- Arabian (110 BC - 300 CE), Himyarite period (300 - 525 CE), Axumite rule (525 - 570) and Persian rule (570 - 632) (after Robin 1982, 6 and 1997).
www.barnard.nl /yemen/map.html   (811 words)

 Alphabet Origins, Ancient Alphabets, Iconic Acrophonic Letters, Egyptian Hieroglyphics
The difference between Ethiopian and South Arabian is that Ethiopian writes vowels by adding ligatures to simple consonants, while South Arabian left out the vowels.
There is a remarkably difference between the South Arabian tradition and the West Semitic: the letter ordering.
If the goals it to develop a pictographic alphabet that uses familar words as the bridge between shape and sound, one is limited in terms of what can be borrowed from another culture.
victorian.fortunecity.com /vangogh/555/Spell/alfabet2.html   (2229 words)

 YourArt.com >> Encyclopedia >> Sheba   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Linguistic evidence also points to a close historical relationship between the two sides of the Red Sea, as South Semitic languages are found only in two places: southern Arabia (modern Yemen and Oman), and the Horn of Africa (Eritrea and Ethiopia).
The modern Ge'ez alphabet is also descended from the old South Arabian alphabet.
Modern scholars tend to think a link to the Sabaeans of southern Arabia, who inhabited the same region, is the most probable.
www.yourart.com /research/encyclopedia.cgi?subject=/Sheba   (500 words)

 Top 20 Encyclopedia
With the spread of Western Christianity the Latin alphabet spread to the peoples of northern Europe who spoke Germanic languages, displacing their earlier Runic alphabets, as well as to the speakers of Baltic languages, such as Lithuanian and Latvian, and several (non-Indo-European) Finno-Ugric languages, most notably Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian language.
In the Danish and Norwegian alphabets, the same extra vowels as in Swedish (see below) are also present but in a different order and with different glyphs (..., X, Y, Z, Also, "Aa" collates as an equivalent to "Å".
Furthermore, the Faroese alphabet uses the Icelandic eth, which follows the D.
encyc.connectonline.com /index.php/Latin_alphabet   (2983 words)

 Ancient Scripts: South Arabian
It is thought to have diverged from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet as early as 1300 BCE, and a developing form appeared in Babylonia and near Elath of the Gulf of Aqaba around the 8th/7th centuries BCE.
The South Arabian proper appears around 500 BCE, and continued to be used until around 600 CE (at which time, of course, the entire Arabian Peninsula was converted to Islam and Arabic became the most important language).
Written in Stone: Inscriptions from the National Museum of Saudi Arabia has good pictures of various South Arabian scripts, although it makes dubious statements that Aramaic came from the northern variant of South Arabian, and that Thamudic dates back to 1500 BCE.
www.ancientscripts.com /s_arabian.html   (195 words)

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