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Topic: Southern Ocean

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  Southern Ocean - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Southern Ocean, also known as the South Polar Ocean (and formerly the Antarctic Ocean), is the body of water encircling the continent of Antarctica.
Half of the votes were cast for ending the ocean at the imaginary 60 degrees south line of latitude (with no land interruptions at this latitude), with the other 14 votes cast for other definitions as far north as 35 degrees south.
Since the Antarctic Treaty covers the portion of the globe south of sixty degrees south, claims to Antarctica and all islands in the Southern Ocean are suspended.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Southern_Ocean   (1116 words)

 Indian Ocean - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is bounded on the north by Southern Asia; on the west by the Arabian Peninsula and Africa; on the east by the Malay Peninsula, the Sunda Islands, and Australia; and on the south by the Southern Ocean.
The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is approximately 30° north latitude in the Persian Gulf.
On December 26, 2004, the countries surrounding the Indian Ocean were hit by a tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Indian_Ocean   (1652 words)

 Southern Ocean Marine
Southern Ocean Marine Limited is a New Zealand company based in Tauranga, on the east coast of New Zealand’s North Island and within seconds of the sheltered Tauranga harbour and world class slipways.
Southern Ocean Marine is a growing company and employs a team of 45 talented and enthusiastic boat builders, laminators, painters and apprentices.
Southern Ocean Marine is confident in building the ultimate in custom-made, composite and timber sailing and power boats from 40 ft to 100 ft. This confidence comes from committed boat builders some with over 30 years experience in the New Zealand marine industry.
www.southernoceanmarine.com /about.asp   (585 words)

 Southern Ocean   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south latitude, which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit and which approximates the extent of the Antarctic Convergence.
As such, the Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean).
It should be noted that inclusion of the Southern Ocean does not imply recognition of this feature as one of the world's primary oceans by the US Government.
www.indexmundi.com /southern_ocean/index.html   (527 words)

 The Southern Ocean and global climate-Key text
The Southern Ocean is a source of cold, dense water that is an essential driving force in the circulation of the world's oceans.
The cooling of the ocean and the formation of sea-ice during winter increases the density of the water, which sinks from the sea surface into the deep sea.
The Southern Ocean is one of the few areas of the world's oceans where surface waters are dense enough to sink into the deep sea.
www.science.org.au /nova/018/018key.htm   (908 words)

 RailRiders - Adventure Readings   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Southern Ocean is also the nautical setting for two round-the-world races for singlehanded sailors: The Around Alone and the non-stop Vendee Globe.
For a snapshot of the perils faced by these Southern Ocean solo racers, here are some facts of a region that early European carto-graphers simply labeled on their maps - hic sunt dracones - "here are dragons" to describe the unknown demons of this uncharted deep.
The Southern Ocean refers to the southernmost portion of the Pacific, Indian and South Atlantic Oceans.
www.railriders.com /store/article/36?Args=&archive_link=yes   (708 words)

 CIA -- The World Factbook -- Southern Ocean
A decision by the International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 delimited a fifth world ocean - the Southern Ocean - from the southern portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean.
The Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit.
The Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean).
www.bondtalk.com /factbook2001/geos/oo.html   (403 words)

 Southern Ocean Work Begins   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Southern Ocean activities planned as part of the U.S. Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) and the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) programs are proposed to begin in the late 1990s.
The Southern Ocean modeling request for proposals resulted in submission of twenty-two proposals, which were split between GLOBEC and JGOFS studies.
The distribution and dynamics of such aggregations are critical to determining the transformation of organic matter (e.g., carbon flux) and the fate of populations in the sea.
www.ccpo.odu.edu /Research/globec/no9.html   (1612 words)

 Southern Ocean Sunfish, Mola ramsayi
The Southern Ocean Sunfish is a deep bodied species with high dorsal and anal fins placed posteriorly on the body.
The Southern Ocean Sunfish grows to 3.3 m in length.
Four species of sunfish are found in Australian waters, the Southern Ocean Sunfish, Ocean Sunfish, Mola mola, Slender Sunfish Ranzania laevis,and the Point-tailed Sunfish, Masturus lanceolatus.
www.amonline.net.au /fishes/fishfacts/fish/mramsayi.htm   (397 words)

 Southern Ocean Fluxes
Moreover, the air-sea flux distribution is at least diagnostically related to the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean (Fig.1).
Constraints on air-sea flux fields from estimates of heat divergence (between two ocean hydrographic sections, for example), by ocean data assimilation (the best "fit" of an ocean model and observations), and by atmospheric model heat divergences are also important approaches since they do offer some independent information.
Special problems exist when ice is present, and this is a crucial point for Southern Ocean fluxes and deep water formation since such a large area is covered by sea-ice during the winter months.
www.usclivar.org /SSC-9/SO_AirSeaFlux.html   (957 words)

 Why these waters teem with life - Update
In response, the International Whaling Commission in 1993 created the Southern Ocean Sanctuary to protect these species from commercial whaling and to support research on the effects of environmental change on these populations.
At the Southern Boundary, this mass reaches its shallowest depth, 200-500 meters, where wind-whipped waters bring high concentrations of nutrients -- phosphate, nitrate and silicate -- to the surface.
Cynthia Tynan of the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, in cooperation with the National Marine Mammal Laboratory, NOAA, in Seattle...
members.aol.com /adrcnet/marmamnews/98041902.html   (1089 words)

 OceanPortal : Top > SCIENTIFIC TOPICS > Geographic Areas > Antarctica/Southern Ocean
The Antarctica Project is the Secretariat of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC) which contains nearly 230 organizations in 49 countries and leads the national and international campaigns to protect the biological diversity and pristine wilderness of Antarctica, including its oceans and marine life.
The ACCLAIM programme in the South Atlantic and Southern Oceans consists of measurements from coastal tide gauges and bottom pressure stations, together with an ongoing research programme in satellite altimetry.
The ACE CRC is a partnership dedicated to sustainable management of Antarctic marine ecosystem resources and the study of atmospheric and oceanic processes of the Southern Ocean and their role in global and regional climate change.
www.iode.org /oceanportal/browse.php?cat=702   (707 words)

 Australian Antarctic Division - What is the Southern Ocean
The Southern Ocean refers to the ring of ocean that circles Antarctica.
While the Antarctic continent provides a clear southern boundary, the northern limit of the Southern Ocean is not so clearly defined.
The Southern Ocean is notorious for having some of the strongest winds and largest waves on the planet.
www.aad.gov.au /default.asp?casid=4303   (283 words)

 The Southern Ocean - Antarctic Seas and Wildlife
The Southern Ocean and Antarctica have been the focus of intense scientific study during the 20th century.
The driving force behind the large numbers of birds, whales and seals which live in the Southern Ocean is krill.
Because of the importance of 'plankton' to the whole ecosystem of the Southern Ocean much scientific work is devoted to this subject.
website.lineone.net /~dave_reay/science.htm   (463 words)

 Southern Ocean Exploration - Home Page
We are explorers, educators and sub-professional maritime archaeologists who locate and record what lies undiscovered in the coastal waters around Southern and South Eastern Australia.
Southern Ocean Exploration is dedicated to Exploration, Education and Preserving our underwater Maritime Heritage.
All materials are provided for information purposes only and are not to be used as a substitute for correct diver training by a suitably qualified professional.
www.southernoceanexploration.com /index.php   (178 words)

 Southern Ocean Process Study   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The logistics for the Southern Ocean was coordinated by Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), who operate one of the two ships utilized during the nearly two-year long field work, the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer and maintain its cruise schedule.
The Southern Ocean Imagery Project, serving CZCS images, as well as other GIF images of interest to Southern Ocean investigators.
Report from the January 1995 Workshop on Modeling the Southern Ocean Ecosystem.
www1.whoi.edu /southern.html   (296 words)

 The Southern Ocean - Antarctic Seas and Wildlife
Phytoplankton are key to the whole Southern Ocean food chain, with large reductions in their numbers having a cascade effect on the numbers of phytoplankton grazers, larger crustaceans (krill) and eventually top predators like seals and penguins.
The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in global climate and such changes are therefore worrying to say the least.
This Southern Ocean island still remains largely untouched by man and provides some great pictures, particularly the demise of whaling and the reclamation of the whaling stations by weather and wildlife.
website.lineone.net /~dave_reay   (3158 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | 'Last chance' for Southern Ocean
Scientists in Australia have warned that fish piracy is damaging the Southern Ocean to such an extent that time is running out to save it.
Illegal fishermen, primarily on the hunt for the prized Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), are wiping out both fish stocks and bird species that live in the ocean.
It is estimated 100,000 seabirds breeding on the sub-Antarctic islands are killed every year as a result of feeding on the long-line hooks used by illegal trawlers.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/sci/tech/3421313.stm   (670 words)

 ASOC Southern Ocean Fisheries Campaign
The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is responsible for managing the fisheries of the Southern Ocean.
A new Treaty between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic on cooperation in the maritime areas adjacent to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories (TAAF), Heard Island and the McDonald Islands came into force on February 1, 2005.
For more information on the Southern Ocean Fisheries Campaign, email us: info@asoc.org or find your media contact by country, by language or by campaign.
www.asoc.org /what_sof.htm   (506 words)

 Australian Antarctic Division - Southern Ocean Ecosystems
The Southern Ocean is also likely to be subject to anthropogenic forcing.
Global warming and other environmental changes can be expected to have a major direct effect on the region’s physical systems and it is thus important to develop a capacity to understand the likely consequences of these changes on the marine ecosystems so that their effects can be taken into account when developing management strategies.
Interdisciplinary research into the effects of variability and change in the physical environment of the Southern Ocean and their effects on the region’s biological systems is an integral part of the focus of the Antarctic Marine Ecosystems theme of the ACE-CRC.
www.aad.gov.au /default.asp?casid=13957   (851 words)

 APA Referencing Macros - APA Software
As a mother and full-time college student, I am always looking for ways to save time without sacrificing good grades and Southern Ocean Software's APA Referencing Macros are a great way to write quality papers with minimum effort.
With step-by-step instructions, preformatted pages, and a full help menu, they are great for writing any paper from high school essays to college mid-terms.
Southern Ocean Software also has a great support team that is responsive, friendly, and helpful.
www.southernoceansoftware.com /apamacros   (1016 words)

 SOIREE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A strong, as yet circumstantial case can be made that iron limitation is important in the Southern Ocean today.
During the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment (SOIREE) from 31 January to 1 March 1999 on R.V. Tangaroa a patch of seawater has been enriched in iron to test the hypothesis that iron indeed limits the primary production of phytoplankton.
The response of the biota to iron fertilisation was slow in comparison to IRONEX I and II in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (Boyd et al., 1999).
lgmacweb.env.uea.ac.uk /soiree   (446 words)

 The Southern Ocean and global climate-Useful sites
Understanding the circulation of the Southern Ocean and its interaction with the atmosphere and sea-ice is critical to reliable predictions of climate change.
Describes the Southern ocean storage and transport of heat, moisture and carbon dioxide and its influence on the Earth's climate system.
Describes how the ocean acts as a conveyer belt and explains how deep water currents are formed.
www.science.org.au /nova/018/018sit.htm   (280 words)

 Oceans of the World
The planet is approximately 71% water and contains (5) five oceans, including the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Southern.
For many years only (4) four oceans were officially recognized, and then in the spring of 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization established the Southern Ocean, and determined its limits.
If you would like to submit an addition, change or correction, or suggest a new link, please forward it to our map department and we will give it our immediate attention.
worldatlas.com /aatlas/infopage/oceans.htm   (249 words)

 Southern Ocean - Compare Prices, Reviews and Buy at NexTag - Price - Review
Science and Exploration in the Pacific: European Voyages to the Southern Oceans in...
The Cenozoic Southern Ocean: Tectonics, Sedimentation, And Climate Change Between...
Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans
www.nextag.com /southern-ocean/search-html   (172 words)

 "The history and geography of Heard Island, Southern Indian Ocean"
Heard Island is situated in the extreme Southern Indian Ocean, on the Kerguelen Plateau, 4,100 km south-west of the Australian continent and 1,500 km north of Antarctica.
Heard Island, situated in the Sub-Antarctic region of the globe, is a very special place, highly valued by anyone who has taken the time to look further than identifying it on a map of the world.
To the east, a narrow sand and shingle spit extends approximately 10 km out into the southern ocean.
www.btinternet.com /~sa_sa/heard_island/heard.html   (1916 words)

 Southern Ocean GLOBEC Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The fundamental objectives of United States Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Program are dependent upon the cooperation of scientists from several disciplines.
Student Paper Award winners from the 2006 Ocean Sciences Meeting in Honolulu, HI
U.S. Southern Ocean GLOBEC Science Steering Committee (SSC) Meetings
www.ccpo.odu.edu /Research/globec_menu.html   (168 words)

The Southern Ocean Atlas project was funded by the National Science Foundation,
This site is an online Atlas of hydrographic data products for the region extending to the south of 30°S, nominally the Southern Ocean.
Static atlas products are available for browsing and downloading, but a suite of fully interactive tools are also provided where users can construct atlas illustrations using their own choices of parameters.
woceatlas.tamu.edu   (86 words)

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