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Topic: Soviet Empire


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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  
  Soviet-Empire.com - Stalin, Joseph Vissarionovich
The Soviet leaders evidently were convinced that the USSR, which had only a large land army, a devastated economy, a decimated country, and unreliable populations in the newly acquired territories, was extremely vulnerable, especially given the towering industrial and military superiority of the United States.
By 1950, however, the Soviet Union had recovered, and Stalin, in the last few years of his life, seems to have mediated between those in the leadership who urged significant domestic reform and greater flexibility in foreign affairs and those who feared a departure from the rigid traditional domestic and foreign policies.
But the Soviet leadership continued to cling tenaciously to the authoritarian system of party supremacy that shapes every aspect of life in the Soviet Union and to Soviet dominance over the Communist countries on its western borders.
www.soviet-empire.com /ussr/ussr_leaders/stalin.php   (3242 words)

  
  Soviet Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Soviet Empire was a term used to critically describe the actions and nature of the Soviet Union.
Though it was not ruled by an Emperor and never formally considered itself to be an Empire, the Soviet Union had many imperialistic tendencies that had been common in historic empires.
For these reasons and others, the Soviet Union is sometimes considered by historians to be one of the main empires of history, equal to such notables as a the British Empire or the Ottoman Empire.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/so/Soviet_Empire.html   (144 words)

  
 The End Of The Soviet Empire
That empire served a purpose when energy was cheap and the Russians could force their satellites to pay more for it than the rest of the world.
The Soviet Union did not invade Poland in 1956 because Khrushchev was told he would have to fight the Polish army.
So far the Soviet leadership has been right, but a surprise initiative would be that much more effective and conducive to desirable results–either by luring Eastern Europe westward or forcing the Soviets to pay more heavily to maintain their obsolete empire.
www.aliciapatterson.org /APF0605/Lipsius/Lipsius.html   (2498 words)

  
 Soviet Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Soviet Empire was a controversial, politically charged and pejorative term used to critically describe the actions and nature of the Soviet Union.
to be one of the main empires of history, equal to such notables as the British Empire and the Roman Empire, and borrowing some of the foreign policy of the Tsarist Russian Empire that it replaced.
Supporters of the Soviet Union (mostly intellectuals or Communist parties aligned with it, such as Cuba), meanwhile, reject such claims and argue that the relationship between the Soviet Union and countries within its "empire" was in fact one of voluntary cooperation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Soviet_Empire   (814 words)

  
 Sovereignty after Empire: Peaceworks: Publications: U.S. Institute of Peace   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Apparently for economic and administrative reasons, the Soviet leadership decided to transfer the Crimea's jurisdiction from Russia to Ukraine, a move legally finalized by the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet in 1954, a date that coincided with the 300th anniversary of Ukraine's acceptance of Russian authority.
In January 1988, all the district soviets (councils) of the Nagorno-Karabakh region, except for the Azeri-populated Shusha district, adopted resolutions calling for the transfer of the region from Azerbaijan to Armenia.
Soviet officials developed such conspiracy theories to explain the motives of leaders in the Baltic, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Chechen independence movements, the latter two of which were denounced as "mafia operations" aimed at deflecting public attention away from their members' "underhanded" activities.
www.usip.org /pubs/peaceworks/pwks19/chap3_19.html   (13751 words)

  
 Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Soviet Union became the primary model for future Communist states during the Cold War; the government and the political organization of the country were defined by the only permitted political party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union was established in December 1922 as the union of the Russian (colloquially known as Bolshevist Russia), Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik parties.
The Soviet Union occupied the eastern portion of the European continent and the northern portion of the Asian continent.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Soviet_Union   (7243 words)

  
 Eastern Europe in the Soviet Empire, 1945-90
The felt need to express criticism of the policies of these communist governments and the influence of the Soviet Union in their internal affairs, therefore, became the rallying point for informal groups that sought means of reforming these regimes or at least liberalizing their policies.
Soviet intervention in their affairs deepened the sense of despair about ever improving the quality of life there.
But Soviet reluctance to intervene (as Gorbachev eventually expressed in his "Sinatra" doctrine, was construed in these states as a want of resolve, and it proved fatal to the communist system.
www.uvm.edu /~hst19/Online_Reading/Lecture_09.htm   (2020 words)

  
 The lost vestiges of the Soviet Empire
Kind of emblem used in front of the Soviet military residences.
Dorota, teacher, hold a model of a kalachnikov used in soviet times in her school during the class of military instruction.
Soviet school material put side at the attic of the school.The emblem of the Olympic Games of Moscow of 1980.
www.soviet21.com /ussr/index.html   (334 words)

  
 WashingtonPost.com: Autopsy on an Empire
We also learned that Soviet cultural figures eligible lo visit to the United States would be allowed to meet us before and after the visit and prominent Americans who came to Moscow as part of an exchange would be allowed to meet their Soviet counterparts.
Therefore, some - including many elected members of the Soviet parliament - would say that the choice in December 1991 was not between the Soviet empire and a group of independent republics but between a voluntary, democratic union and a congeries of independent states, many of them authoritarian or worse.
Was it the Soviet empire that expired on December 25, 1991, or an embryonic successor?
www.washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/autopsy.htm   (5845 words)

  
 Eric Margolis | Foreign Correspondent : DEATH OF THE SOVIET EMPIRE
Soviet generals and senior communist aparatchiks, paralyzed by backstabbing, hypocrisy and distrust, and scrambling to protect themselves, could not agree on action to halt the spreading anti-communist insurrection.
But the moment their handcuffs were removed, the captive peoples of the Soviet Empire rose in rebellion from the Baltic to the Caucasus, across Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
Sixty years ago, a decade before Hitler’s crimes, the Soviet Red Army and NKVD herded millions of civilians in Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, and Muslim regions of the Caucasus to concentration camps in Siberia where average life expectancy was six months.
www.ericmargolis.com /archives/1999/11/death_of_the_so.php   (828 words)

  
 Soviet-Empire.com - View topic - 1918 Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the R.S.F.S.R.
The soviets of regions with a distinct mode of living and national composition can unite in autonomous regional unions at the head of which, as at the head of all regional unions that can be eventually formed, stand regional congresses of Soviets and their executive agencies.
The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, recognizing the equality of rights of all citizens, irrespective of their race or nationality, declares the establishment or toleration on this basis of any privileges or advantages, or any oppression of national minorities or restriction of their equality, to be contraventions of the fundamental laws of the Republic.
Sessions of the soviet of deputies are convened by the executive committee at its discretion, or on the demand of not less than half of the deputies to the Soviet: but at least once a week in cities and twice a week in rural areas.
www.soviet-empire.com /ussr/viewtopic.php?t=28549   (3724 words)

  
 The Collapse of the Soviet Empire: reflections of an insider - LSE Public Lectures and Events - LSE
The Collapse of the Soviet Empire: reflections of an insider - LSE Public Lectures and Events - LSE
The Collapse of the Soviet Empire: reflections of an insider
From this privileged position, he is able to provide genuine insight into the unexpected collapse of the Soviet Empire in 1991.
www.lse.ac.uk /collections/LSEPublicLecturesAndEvents/events/2006/20060905t1226z001.htm   (271 words)

  
 Foldvary: The American Empire
Meanwhile, the Soviet empire expanded beyond the USSR, which itself was an empire, into satellite states in Eastern Europe, Cuba, and Afghanistan.
The Soviet Empire depended on propaganda as well as force for its existence, and as the tyranny of Soviet rule became more exposed, totalitarian socialism lost its intellectual foundation.
The Soviet empire collapsed, and the republics of the USSR became independent states.
www.progress.org /2004/fold360.htm   (944 words)

  
 Modern History Sourcebook: Ronald Reagan: The Evil Empire
It is that the Soviet Union would remain a one-party nation even if an opposition party were permitted because everyone would join the opposition party....
It is the Soviet Union that runs against the tide of history by denying human freedom and human dignity to its citizens.
Were it not for the private sector, the tiny private sector tolerated in Soviet agriculture, the country might be on the brink of famine.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1982reagan1.html   (1993 words)

  
 The Soviet Empire
The Soviets served as an administrative apparatus to govern the country, while the Marxist ideology set noble-sounding goals of economic justice which served as an inspiration to believers.
The Soviet Empire was built upon the core of a Russian nation-state, but it included large numbers (about half the population) of non-Russians.
The Soviet Empire was held together by the administrative system of the Soviets, and the police-state terror of a one party dictatorship put in place by Lenin and Stalin.
www2.sunysuffolk.edu /westn/soviet.html   (1333 words)

  
 The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire
It traces the history of the Soviet empire from Lenin's seizure of power in 1917 through to 1999, when the implications of the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were still being worked out.
The Soviets began to prepare insurrection in China as early as the 1920s, and similar preparations commenced in regard to Vietnam, France, Spain, Germany, Italy and elsewhere.
"The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire" is one of those rare works that ought to be possessed by all persons with an interest in politics or current affairs or history, or who wish to be well-informed on matters of general importance.
www.nationalobserver.net /2000_winter_br1.htm   (719 words)

  
 Ex-Soviet Empire in 1997
I use the term ex Soviet Empire rather than the Soviet Union because there was little free consent in the union of the constituent countries.
Contrarily to the other Empires whose end came from the rivalry between competing imperialisms or from the colonies' struggle for liberation, the Soviet empire collapsed by itself under the weight of its own flaws, corruption and excessive bureaucracy.
I could also use the term Chinese Empire rather than China, because it is obvious that the Uighur people of Xinjiang and Tibetan people have not asked to be dominated by the Han people.
berclo.net /page97/97en-ex-empire.html   (325 words)

  
 OpinionJournal - John Fund on the Trail
Thatcher and declared, "It is the Soviet Union that runs against the tide of history by denying human freedom and human dignity to its citizens.
That strategy rested on six pillars: support internal disruption in Soviet satellites, especially Poland; dry up sources of hard currency; overload the Soviet economy with a technology-based arms race; slow the flow of Western technology to Moscow; raise the cost of the wars it was fighting; and demoralize the Soviets by generating pressure for change.
The ruse led to a June 1982 explosion in the Siberian wilderness that Mr.
www.opinionjournal.com /diary/?id=110005181   (988 words)

  
 The Soviet Empire and Democracy
The quick collapse of the 1991 "coup attempt" in the old Soviet Union, that empire's subsequent collapse, and the freeing of Eastern European satellite countries gave credence to a popular American myth.
Unfortunately, all three components of the syllogism are dead wrong, and the reality of the residual countries freed by the collapse of the Soviet Empire is hardly characterized as basically democratic.
Now, let's take a look at the record of the Eastern European satellite countries and the newly independent republics from the old Soviet Union to bolster the contention that democracy is not breaking out all over in the remnants of the old Soviet Empire.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/steven_peterson_6/thesovie.htm   (502 words)

  
 The Fall of Communism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The course will explore the demise of the Soviet empire and the falling of the ‘iron curtain’.
It will examine the ideological doctrine that held the Soviet empire together and will analyse the impact of the modernising forces of ‘perestroika’ which were to lead to the symbolic destruction of barriers such as the Berlin Wall.
It will look at the ideological doctrine that held this empire together as well as the practical political machinations that ensured the survival of Soviet communism in its closing years.
www.cardiff.ac.uk /learn/archaeol/Fall_Soviet_empire.php   (751 words)

  
 TomDispatch - Tomdispatch Interview: Chalmers Johnson on Our Military Empire
Empires are defined so often as holders of colonies, but analytically, by empire we simply mean the projection of hegemony outward, over other people, using them to serve our interests, regardless of how their interests may be affected.
An empire of bases -- that's the concept that best explains the logic of the 700 or more military bases around the world acknowledged by the Department of Defense.
In most empires, the military is there, but militarism is so central to ours -- militarism not meaning national defense or even the projection of force for political purposes, but as a way of life, as a way of getting rich or getting comfortable.
www.tomdispatch.com /index.mhtml?pid=70243   (4144 words)

  
 RAND | Papers | Exploiting 'fault lines' in the Soviet empire: an overview
In it, the author examines the notion that cleavages within the Soviet empire can be exploited in NATO political and military strategy.
He identifies three kinds of cleavages: Intra-bloc, comprising splits between countries within the Soviet empire; intra-leadership, comprising splits within the leaderships of individual countries; and mass-leadership, comprising splits between the leaderships of the various countries and the population as a whole.
Among other things, he concludes that the real beneficiary of efforts to undermine the Soviet empire in Europe may not be Europe itself, but third areas, where the USSR may have to scale back its activism.
www.rand.org /pubs/papers/P7012   (343 words)

  
 EefyWiki - 25d: Fall of the Soviet Empire
Still, on December 1, 1991 all non-Russian republics of the Soviet Union seceded, ironically exercising a right that Vladimir Lenin (of all people) had insisted upon when the Soviet Union was formed.
But in the end, the Soviet Union was crushed by its own inability to provide a better life for its people, by its rampant bureaucracy and corruption, by the ridiculous amounts of money it wasted on the arms race and on trying to promote world Communism.
For the number of positive achievements the Soviets could point to - space travel, literacy, defeat of the Germans in the Second World War - ias a whole ts legacy is dismal indeed.
eefy.editme.com /L25d   (923 words)

  
 Book Review - Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire
As the Soviet Union began to disintegrate during the last days of the Gorbachev era, more and more secrets about the communist experience came to light.
He came to know all the players — Soviet officials, dissidents, ordinary people — and traveled from one end of the country to the other.
Gorbachev is shown to be a power-hungry, manipulative politician who knew all the tricks of rising to the top in the Soviet system — and one who desired to save the socialist system, not destroy it.
www.fff.org /freedom/1293f.asp   (1037 words)

  
 CBC News Indepth: POPE JOHN PAUL II
That event reverberated throughout other Soviet bloc countries such as Hungary, East Germany and Romania, sparking a chain reaction of revolutions and coups, most of them nonviolent.
Years later, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev reflected on the changes that occurred behind the Iron Curtain.
The pope's fierce opposition to communism stemmed from his belief that an individual's chief allegiance should be to God and one's own conscience, not the state.
www.cbc.ca /news/obit/pope/communism_homeland.html   (1021 words)

  
 ISCIP Books: The Soviet Empire and The Challenge of National and Democratic Movements
The Soviet Empire and The Challenge of National and Democratic Movements
This timely volume explores the revolution that is sweeping Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union and that has the potential to transform the global balance.
Bringing together renowned experts on the emergent national and democratic movements and on the countries affected, The Soviet Empire examines the causes and the consequences of recent dramatic events -- from the massacre in Tiananmen Square to the demolition of the Berlin Wall.
www.bu.edu /iscip/toc/soviet.TOC.html   (355 words)

  
 The Collapse of the Soviet Union   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The Causes and Consequences of the Collapse of the Soviet Union
Integration and Disintegration in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Regional and Global Security (Brown University: Watson Institute Occasional Paper #30, 1997) 155 KB PDF file
Russia and the Former Soviet Republics Maps (University of Texas at Austin)
newarkwww.rutgers.edu /guides/glo-sov.html   (216 words)

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